Liberty Reef CyprusSurvey & Technical Reef Enhancement Suggestion Report                          Prepared by I Dive Techn...
Work Breakdown Structure Purpose and Limitations The purpose of this worksheet is to: •   Identify the work to be done. • ...
Cyprus Scuba Diving IndustryWarm, crystal clear sea and gentle currents, combined with an abundance of naturaland man-made...
THE ZENOBIA & WRECK DIVING IN CYPRUSCyprus has a selection of fascinating wreck dives suitable for newly qualified toadvan...
LIMASSOL REGIONPharses IIThe twin-hatched cargo ship lies at a depth of 21m close to Limassol harbour. Sinceits accidental...
AGIA NAPA & PROTARASThe Liberty WreckThe 37m long Russian cargo vessel lies a kilometre off Cyprus’ eastern coast atProtar...
7
LIBERTY WRECK PROTARAS 11 MONTHS LATTER 18.04.20108
LIBERTY WRECK 18.4.2010    September 2010 Cleaning Works by I Dive Tec Rec Centres Plc.,9
Oil, Paint and Petroleum by Product Removal10
Garbage and Debris Removal11
Surface Area Cleaning & Paint Removal12
Surface Area Cleaning & Paint Removal13
Surface Area Cleaning & Paint Removal14
15
October 23, 201016
17
RESULTS LIBERTY WRECK 10.9.2011 ONE YEAR LATER18
Obvious Aquatic and Marine Life ImprovementLibert Wreck Turns into a Successful Artificial Reef June 2011Following success...
3. Mollusk – polychaete4. Ascidian – sponge5. Ectoproct6. Anemone – stony coral                     24 Month Results and O...
21
22
ENCHANSING THE LIBERTY REEF PRORECTED AREA23
24
ITEMS AVAILABLE FOR LIBERTY REEF ENHANCEMENT25
CLAY POTS-OCTABUS PROJECT PAPHOS CYPRUS         GREEN BAY: PROTARAS – FISH ROCK26
FunctionThis criterion is related to how well a specific material functions in attracting andholding aquatic organisms. It...
habitat for the establishment of marine communities, or do not support the goal forwhich an artificial reef is being devel...
29
30
31
32
Artificial Reef DesignThere are a many different strategies and options for building artificial reefsdepending upon the oc...
34
35
36
Benefits• Artificial reef projects using bridge rubble can be financed directly by theDepartment of Fisheries as a cost-ef...
Benefits• Vessels make interesting diving locations for both recreational divers and technicaldeep diving mixed-gas users....
Drawbacks• Providing accessibility to both diving and fishing groups while still maintainingadequate navigational clearanc...
Military Fighter, Training Aircraft, and HelicoptersThere are some records of aircraft placed in less than 100 feet of wat...
Two F-4 Phantom aircraft, sunk in April 1992, offshore of North Carolina at depths of53 feet and 65 feet respectively, are...
Thirty Navy A-6 Intruder fighter aircraft fuselage sections were deployed off St.Johns County in 104 feet of water in June...
Considerations• A decision to use aircraft as artificial reef material should be based on readyavailability from a militar...
LARNACA REGIONOctopus Diving                              Nemo Dive CenterShop 5, Potamitis Court, Larnaca-Dhekelia   8 Th...
Podvodnyi Mir Scuba Diving                                            Absolute Scuba(Undersea World Scuba Diving)         ...
P.W. Marine Divers                        Coral Bay DiversShop 4, Aristo Coral Bay Complex,         Aristo Complex 1, Shop...
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LIBERTY REEF V1

  1. 1. Liberty Reef CyprusSurvey & Technical Reef Enhancement Suggestion Report Prepared by I Dive Technical TeamProject Name: CYPRUS (4) NATIONAL ARTIFICIAL REEFS 2011-2012Department: In cooperation with CDCA Wrecks & Reefs CommitteeClassification: Internal & Official Use OnlyFocus Areas: Limassol (2), Paphos, Famagusta Geographic Areas.Objective/Process: Sinking ships to create habitat in severely depleted marine zonesis a positive green initiative and restores bio-diversity. CDCA does not create reefsfor harvesting purposes; we create them for conservation reasons and for eco-tourism. Document Owner(s) Project/Organization Role Andy Varoshiotis CDCA President Coordinator/Project Sponsor Nikos Nikolaou Artificial Reef President Coordinator/Project SponsorProject Closure Report Version Control Version Date Author Change Description 1.1 27/12/2011 AV Open Doc Format NN1
  2. 2. Work Breakdown Structure Purpose and Limitations The purpose of this worksheet is to: • Identify the work to be done. • Identify the types of resources required for the work. • Develop estimates for each work element. • Identify storage locations. This worksheet does not address: • Who will perform the work. • When the work will be completed.The creation of a successful human made reef project involves a great deal ofplanning and hard work. Extensive bottom and biological surveys and documentationof proposed sink sites must be completed, consultation with all stake holders, usergroups, municipalities and several government agencies must be conducted and theship must be meticulously cleaned to very rigorous standards as outlined by EUDirectives for the Marine Environment and for Artificial Reef Creation of the UNprograms, as well the Barcelona convention Results, UNEP /MED 270/10,Guidelines for placement at the sea of matter for purpose other than the meredisposal (Construction of Artificial Reefs).In addition to the environmental benefits of artificial reefs (ARs) there is also abenefit to tourism and education. Visiting divers from around the world have come toexplore these reefs and learn by first hand observation about the fantastic diversityof the marine life.Sunken vessels in no-take marine reserves could serve a strategic role inattracting marine life to those protected areas and increasing biomassproduction.The objective of the CDCA is to promote and market the safe and sustainable growthof the scuba diving industry while protecting and enhancing the underwaterenvironment. To this effect, the CDCA assists in the creation of programs that affectthe success of the scuba diving industry in Cyprus. REFORMING THE CYPRUS DIVING INDUSTRY2
  3. 3. Cyprus Scuba Diving IndustryWarm, crystal clear sea and gentle currents, combined with an abundance of naturaland man-made dive sites, makes Cyprus a perfect place to experience the thrill ofscuba diving.Dive schools are located in each of Cyprus’ coastal resorts where you’ll find a varietyof interesting dive sites suitable for all levels of experience and tastes, from seacaves and fish reserves, to wrecks and undersea islands, all within easy reach ofyour holiday base. The ideal time to dive in Cyprus is between May to October whenwater temperatures reach around 27° although diving in a dry suit can extend the C,season for those divers of a hardier disposition.Archaeologists are still locating the remains of ancient cargo vessels and battleshipslost at sea thousands of years ago, while many of the island’s modern-day wrecksoffer unique experiences for recreational divers. The greatest attraction forexperienced divers is the wreck of the Zenobia, a Swedish built, 10,000 tonne ferrywhich sank off the coast of Cyprus during its maiden voyage in June 1980. Sincethen, the Zenobia has become a captivating playground for wreck diving enthusiastsfrom all over the world. With so much to discover it’s not surprising that divers returntime and time again to re-explore this fascinating maritime relic.The diving industry relies on its ability to offer a healthy and sustainable aquaticenvironment to attract dive tourists. In recent years Cyprus has begun creating man-made reefs to add variety to existing dive sites, and to help preserve the 260recorded fish species found off the island’s coast.An artificial reef has already been created within a 110 hectare ‘Sea Park’(Amathounda) off the Limassol coast for the purposes of marine ecology research.Consisting of two structures composed of purpose-designed concrete blocks placedat depths of 10 - 33m, the reef provides food and shelter for small fish species whichin turn attract larger marine predators. Fishing is strictly prohibited in the vicinity ofthe reef, located close to the submerged remains of the ancient port of Amathus.Over time, scuba divers will be able to explore a thrilling underwater sea grassmeadow supporting a host of marine life, including pinna nobilis molluscs and raresea horses, Mediterranean parrot fish, rainbow wrasse and sea bream.The Sea Park is Cyprus’ second artificial reef project and follows the sinking of a de-commissioned cargo ship off the coast of Protaras in 2009. A school of tuna hasalready been spotted in the vicinity of the wreck, a sign that the reefs will be effectivein re-establishing the island’s marine species.These developments present a wealth of new experiences, at the same timeensuring that Cyprus’ precious undersea world will continue to cast its captivatingspell on divers in the future.3
  4. 4. THE ZENOBIA & WRECK DIVING IN CYPRUSCyprus has a selection of fascinating wreck dives suitable for newly qualified toadvanced divers. Please contact your local dive school for a full list of sites, toursand minimum proficiency required to dive each site.LARNACA REGIONThe ZenobiaCyprus’ best-known dive site is rated as one of the world’s top five wreck dives.The 172m long ferry sank with its entire cargo during its maiden voyage in June1980 and lies on the seabed at 42 metres at its deepest point and around 18 metresat its shallowest. The wreck’s famous features include the remains of articulatedtrucks which still hang from its main deck, and the remnants of cargo scatteredacross the seabed. Expert divers can penetrate the vessel to explore numerouscabins and storage rooms.For those less curious about the Zenobia’s structure, yet passionate about its role asa marine habitat, an abundance of aquatic life can be observed on and around thewreck. Sponge corals grow from the rusted vessel, whilst shoals of barracuda, seabream, amberjacks and wrasse glide by, often as curious about the interlopers intheir world as the divers are about them. Occasionally, a normally reclusive eelmakes an appearance at this incredible display of nature.More extraordinary, but highly amusing to divers, is the sight of tourists wavingenthusiastically through the viewing windows of Larnaca’s famous yellow submarinewhich cruises around the wreck during the summer season.Most dive schools offer half day diving excursions to the Zenobia, boarding theQueen Zenobia at Larnaca for a fifteen minute ride to the dive site. From Paphos orLimassol packages usually include a diving guide, equipment, hotel transfers, twodives and a delicious buffet lunch on board. A non-diving package is available forcompanions who prefer to snorkel or relax on board to enjoy the sunshine.HMS CricketThe Royal Navy gun boat was bombed off the coast of Africa in 1941, stripped inAlexandria and sunk by RAF pilots during target training in 1944. Lying in 30m ofwater, the wreck can be penetrated and explored by experienced divers.Helicopter WreckThis unusual 16m dive features the wreck of a British helicopter sunk in 1996.4
  5. 5. LIMASSOL REGIONPharses IIThe twin-hatched cargo ship lies at a depth of 21m close to Limassol harbour. Sinceits accidental sinking thirty years ago it has become home to an abundance ofmarine life.The Three StarsLying at a depth of 7m off Akrotiri Bay, the interior of this wreck can be explored byqualified open water divers.M/Y DianaResting upright on the seabed at 21m, this ill-fated yacht is popular for night divesand photography, and features its own resident moray eel.PAPHOS & THE WESTVera KLying in four sections and home to a giant grouper fish nicknamed ‘Big George,’ theLebanese freighter lies close to two natural archways at 11m depth, 25 minutes fromPaphos.White StarThe old fishing vessel sank three years ago on her way to Limassol scrap yard andis coming back to life as a living reef close to Paphos harbour.AchilleasAccording to local legend this Greek ship ‘mysteriously’ exploded before sinkingclose to the coast in 1975. Lying upside down in just 12m of water the wreck featuresa large bronze propeller, sea sponges, moray and grouper fish.5
  6. 6. AGIA NAPA & PROTARASThe Liberty WreckThe 37m long Russian cargo vessel lies a kilometre off Cyprus’ eastern coast atProtaras and is the first of the island’s artificial reef projects. The Cyprus’ FisheriesDepartment is expected to give the go-ahead for diving on the wreck in the nearfuture. LIBERTY WRECK – PROTARAS 29.5.2009The LibertyThe 37m long Russian cargo vessel lies a kilometre off Cyprus’ eastern coast atProtaras and is the first of the island’s artificial reef projects with the use of vessels.6
  7. 7. 7
  8. 8. LIBERTY WRECK PROTARAS 11 MONTHS LATTER 18.04.20108
  9. 9. LIBERTY WRECK 18.4.2010 September 2010 Cleaning Works by I Dive Tec Rec Centres Plc.,9
  10. 10. Oil, Paint and Petroleum by Product Removal10
  11. 11. Garbage and Debris Removal11
  12. 12. Surface Area Cleaning & Paint Removal12
  13. 13. Surface Area Cleaning & Paint Removal13
  14. 14. Surface Area Cleaning & Paint Removal14
  15. 15. 15
  16. 16. October 23, 201016
  17. 17. 17
  18. 18. RESULTS LIBERTY WRECK 10.9.2011 ONE YEAR LATER18
  19. 19. Obvious Aquatic and Marine Life ImprovementLibert Wreck Turns into a Successful Artificial Reef June 2011Following successional stages on the reef structure over a 2-year period:1. Algae - bacteria2. Barnacle - hydroid19
  20. 20. 3. Mollusk – polychaete4. Ascidian – sponge5. Ectoproct6. Anemone – stony coral 24 Month Results and Outcome20
  21. 21. 21
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  23. 23. ENCHANSING THE LIBERTY REEF PRORECTED AREA23
  24. 24. 24
  25. 25. ITEMS AVAILABLE FOR LIBERTY REEF ENHANCEMENT25
  26. 26. CLAY POTS-OCTABUS PROJECT PAPHOS CYPRUS GREEN BAY: PROTARAS – FISH ROCK26
  27. 27. FunctionThis criterion is related to how well a specific material functions in attracting andholding aquatic organisms. It is important that a material provide habitat for smallorganisms, attaching avifauna, and larger species that are important to recreationaland commercial fisheries. If it is known that specific materials do not provide suitable27
  28. 28. habitat for the establishment of marine communities, or do not support the goal forwhich an artificial reef is being developed, the function of that material should beevaluated and alternatives considered.CompatibilityCompatibility of materials with the marine environment is essential to developing asuccessful artificial reef. If there are environmental risks associated with using aspecific material, that risk should be known and steps to minimize that risk should betaken if such a material is to be used. If the risks outweigh the other criteria, orminimizing the risks becomes too expensive, alternative materials should beconsidered.28
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  33. 33. Artificial Reef DesignThere are a many different strategies and options for building artificial reefsdepending upon the ocean bottom and purpose of the reef (see Artificial Reef SiteSelection), the type of reef material (see Artificial Reef Materials) and many otherfactors.The diagram below represents one popular way of developing artificial reefs thatserve as Essential Fish Habitat, or EFH, which is defined as "those waters andsubstrate necessary to fish for spawning, breeding, feeding, or growth to maturity." Infact, this design was used in the Reef System.33
  34. 34. 34
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  37. 37. Benefits• Artificial reef projects using bridge rubble can be financed directly by theDepartment of Fisheries as a cost-effective way to manage the material.• Concrete materials are extremely compatible with the marine environment.• Concrete is highly durable, stable, and readily available.• The flexibility to cast concrete into a great variety of forms makes the material idealfor developing prefabricated units.• Concrete provides excellent surfaces and habitat for the settlement and growth ofencrusting or fouling organisms, which in turn provide forage and refuge for otherinvertebrates and fish.Drawbacks.• A major drawback with the use of concrete material is its heavy weight, and theconsequent need for heavy equipment to handle it. This increases the costs both atthe landside transportation stage and loading and transport at sea.• Deployment of large concrete pieces or prefabricated units requires heavyequipment at sea, which is hazardous and expensive. Another drawback related tothe weight of concrete materials is the potential for subsidence into the bottom.LITERATURE CITEDCarlisle, J. Jr., C.H. Turner, and E.E. Ebert. 1964. Artificial Habitat in the MarineEnvironment. In California Department of Fish and Game, Fish Bulletin 124:40-42.Ecosystems Management Associates, Inc. 1999. Mission Beach and Pacific BeachArtificial Reef Surveys, 1998-1999. Southern California Edison Company.Federal Highway Administration. 1995. Fly ash facts for highway engineers. FHWA-SA-94-081. 70pp.Martinez, R. 1964. Rebuilding, or supplementing of artificial fishing reefs in the Gulfof Mexico.Developmental Activities in Region V, January 1, 1963 to December 31, 1963.Project Report MV-D-2. pp. 501-502.Stark, D., 1995, Long-Time Performance of Concrete in a Seawater exposure.Portland Cement Association Research and Development Report RP337. 55 p37
  38. 38. Benefits• Vessels make interesting diving locations for both recreational divers and technicaldeep diving mixed-gas users. Vessels are also regularly utilized as angling sites byrecreational fishermen and the charter fishing industry.• Vessels used as artificial reefs, can, alone, or in conjunction with other types ofartificial reefs, generate reef-related economic contributions to coastal counties.Economic contributions from artificial reef systems can be high.Steel-hulled vessels, when selected for sound hull integrity, are considered durableartificial reef material when placed at depths and orientations that insure stability inmajor storm events. Large vessels have life spans as artificial reefs that may exceed60 years, depending on vessel type, physical condition, location of deployment, andstorm severity.• Reuse of large steel-hulled vessels as artificial reefs may be more economical thanscrapping the vessels domestically.Vessels, due to high vertical profile, attract both pelagic and demersal fishes. Verticalsurfaces produce upwelling conditions, current shadows, and other current speedand direction alterations that are attractive to schooling forage fishes, which in turnattract species of commercial and recreational importance, resulting in increasedcatch rates for fishermen.• Vessels, like other artificial reef material, can augment benthic structure whichlocally increases shelter opportunities and reef fish carrying capacity in locationswhere natural structure is sparse, or create structure which is more preferable orattractive to certain fish species than locally less complex hard bottom (Barnette2001).Steel-hulled vessel reefs that are not well publicized, located far offshore, orotherwise difficult to access for fishing and diving because of depth and currentsmay, if properly sited, provide important refuge for reef fish species. Such vesselscan provide important aggregation, shelter, and residence sites for reef fish speciesthat have been traditionally over-fished such as warsaw, black, goliath grouper, redsnapper, amberjack, and others.Vessels may provide extensive surface area for epibenthic colonization. Thiscolonization re Vessels may reduce anchor damage and other physical damage bydirecting a proportion of the reef users away from nearby natural reefs.sults in theenhancement of lower trophic level biomass at the vessel site.•Sinking a vessel often creates a media event, providing reef managers withpromotional opportunities for their reef programs.• Sinking steel-hulled vessels as artificial reefs, properly cleaned and underappropriate conditions may assist other agencies and programs.38
  39. 39. Drawbacks• Providing accessibility to both diving and fishing groups while still maintainingadequate navigational clearance above vessels often limits placement of vessels(particularly large ships) within a relatively narrow depth range.Good water clarity is also preferred, primarily to enhance diver observations, and thismay further limit vessel placement.The cost to safely place a vessel in the ocean as an artificial reef increases as thesize of the vessel, number of compartments, void spaces, and overall complexityincreases.With the rapid increase in recreational sport diving activities in some areas, shipdeployment in certain areas may have greater value to the diving industry than to therecreational hook and- line fishery. Vessels deployed in shallow water (60 to 100feet) are especially attractive to recreational SCUBA divers.Consider using only those steel hulled vessels which are designed for operating inheavy sea conditions, such as ocean going tugs, oil rig re-supply vessels, trawlers,and small freighters, which are all structurally sound The focus should be onstructural and habitat complexity of vessels, rather than strictly vertical height orsheer overall length.Recommend a buffer zone of 1/4 nm (about 450 m) between any natural hardbottom community and vessels deployed as artificial reef material in depths less than50 m. This safety buffer is based upon documented movement of vessels, or partsthereof, in hurricane events. At depths below 50 m but less than 100 m, a distancebuffer of a least 100 m is recommended.Reassess all constraints that may be placed on sinking a ship (i.e. minimum depth,distance from shore, complexity of vessel that may require additional technicalassistance, stability requirements, vessel orientation, cost, time involved in project,etc.), and decide early on whether one or more of these constraints will result in afinal outcome that will not be successful in achieving the project’s objectives.LITERATURE CITEDArnold, J.B., Goloboy, J.L., Hall, A.W., and Shively, D., 1998. Texas Liberty Ships.From WWII working-class heroes to artificial reefs. Texas Parks and Wildlife CoastalFisheries, 4200Smith School Road, Austin, TX 78744. Bulletin 99-1. 136 pp.Auerbach, J. 1991. Dive Miami. Scuba Publications, Inc. North Miami Beach, FL33160. 71pp.Barnette, M.C. 2001. Artificial reefs: source or sink? Unpublished white paper. 4pp.Internet Address: www.mikey.net/ave/artreef.html.Baynes, T. W. And A. M. Szmant. 1989. Effects of current on the sessile benthiccommunity structure of an artificial reef. Bulletin of Marine Science. 44(2): 545-566.39
  40. 40. Military Fighter, Training Aircraft, and HelicoptersThere are some records of aircraft placed in less than 100 feet of water that havesurvived at least a decade. F-101 and F-102 jets, a navy T-33 trainer, and a Sikorskyhelicopter, all placed off Bay County, Florida in 60 to 70 feet of water, survived asfishing and diving sites at least 10 years (Danny Grizzard, personal communication).The current status (2002) of the T-33 trainer and the F-102 is uncertain. The F101fighter, mentioned above and deployed in 1982, was reportedly still Intact as of 1997(Frank Mancinelli, personal communication). As of 2001, the Sikorsky helicopterremnants had degraded to the point where they are no longer recognizable as ahelicopter (Mille and Horn 2001). Another privately placed helicopter performedeffectively as a fishing and diving reef off Escambia for several years in the early1990s, until it was destroyed by Hurricane Opal (1995) Edwin Roberts, personalcommunication).First-hand accounts are currently unavailable on the status of two F-4 Phantomfighter jet fuselages sunk in 80 feet of water off Miami-Dade County, Florida in 1981.Technically, the status of these planes is unknown. However, second-handinformation received by Miami-Dade County Environmental Resources staff, butunconfirmed by the County, suggests that the planes still exist, and may have shiftedlocation during a storm event. They reportedly are being utilized as private fishingand diving sites, but no longer can be located at the publicly advertised coordinates(Tim McIntosh, personal communication).40
  41. 41. Two F-4 Phantom aircraft, sunk in April 1992, offshore of North Carolina at depths of53 feet and 65 feet respectively, are still attracting fish. One F-4, still supported on itslanding gear, sheltered several gag grouper under its wings, when observed in June1995. An additional two A-4 fighters were deployed during the same time frame in 53feet of water. One A-4 North Carolina aircraft was substantially damaged when aload of concrete material was deployed on top of it (Kurtis Gregg, personalcommunication). As of summer 2001, both remaining undamaged aircraft types havemaintained their position and remain in good condition despite exposure to severalhurricanes during the decade of the 1990s (James Francesconi, personalcommunication).One A-7 fighter aircraft was deployed in June 1995 approximately 10 miles offshoreof South Carolina at a depth of 50 ft. The small fighter plane was filled with concreteand deployed with the wings attached. Subsequent observations found that theaircraft has remained in place. Minimal benthic fouling has occurred on the aircraftsurface.41
  42. 42. Thirty Navy A-6 Intruder fighter aircraft fuselage sections were deployed off St.Johns County in 104 feet of water in June 1995. A review of video footage taken onemonth post-deployment indicated that the majority of the aircraft components weresunk within a 250 foot diameter circle.The video confirmed that plexiglass canopies were left in place, and on at least oneaircraft, fish were getting inside the cockpit canopy and unable to escape. Fishspecies documented in the video included barracuda, amberjack, and round scad.Like sunken ships, aircraft, especially if intact, have a recreational diver noveltyappeal greater than some other artificial structures.• The cost to transport aircraft overland from a distant site combined with propercleaning, preparation, offshore deployment, and anchoring/ballasting costs mayrender aircraft less cost effective than other available, more stable materials whichcould provide the same degree of structure and habitat benefit.• Synthetic lightweight components such as carbon fiber materials in portions ofmore modern military aircraft fuselages, wings, and tail sections may outlast thealuminum or metal alloy structures and disassociate into the marine environmentdecades later. This lightweight but high strength material is bonded to become anintegral part of the airframe or wings in some aircraft types so it cannot be removedwithout partially dismantling the aircraft.• Aircraft topcoat or undercoat paints containing chromium compounds present anenvironmental concern whose level of risk should be evaluated by the EnvironmentalProtection Agency.• Jagged metal edges and instability of aircraft following damage or breakup in stormevents may present a diver hazard.42
  43. 43. Considerations• A decision to use aircraft as artificial reef material should be based on readyavailability from a military facility and low or no costs. The donor of the aircraft shouldbe required to clean them to environmental specifications, and their use must beallowed by the active permit specifications. Historically, the most successful aircraftprojects have involved fighter aircraft donations from military facilities who providedassistance and expertise in demilitarizing, cleaning, preparing, and transporting theaircraft in return for positivePublicity.Small, heavily built, combat fighter aircraft are likely to be more stable and durable inan exposed marine environment at depths greater than 150 feet than larger militarycargo, bomber, or commercial passenger aircraft. Military aircraft, such as thoseformerly operating off aircraft carriers, when placed in deep water can be expected tohave a longer life expectancy as artificial reef habitat, based upon reports of theexistence of 35 to 55 year old deeper water military plane wrecks still functioning asreefs.Natural Materials -WoodOverviewIn the United States the first documentation of the use of wood as artificial reefmaterial in the marine environment was the deployment of log hut structures in thecoastal waters of South Carolina to attract and provide habitat for sheepshead(Holbrook 1860). Wood, including bamboo, log cribs, and palm fronds, is used inmany parts of the world as reef material for fish attraction devices (FADs),particularly in local traditional fisheries (Grove et al 1991). On the Gulf Coast ofMississippi and Louisiana, willow and wax myrtle branches have been tied inbundles and set on lines to attract peeler crabs for harvest (Jaworski 1979).Other references to wood, other than wooden vessels, for artificial reef developmentin the United States are rare. In Mississippi, and probably most other coastal states,there is anecdotal information about placing Christmas trees or brush in nearshorewaters to serve as FADs.• One of the benefits of using trees, limbs, brush or other forms of wood isavailability.• Shinn and Wichlund (1989) found that the riddling effect of ship worms, aboring mollusk, in wood increases habitat complexity and provides space forother organisms which are consumed by fish.• It was observed that the large amounts of food and the complex structure providedby the breakdown of wood reefs attracted large concentrations of fish even though inone case the reef was located in deeper and colder waters than many of thesespecies of fish normally inhabit. It should be noted that Shinn and Wichlund (1989)were examining wooden vessels.43
  44. 44. LARNACA REGIONOctopus Diving Nemo Dive CenterShop 5, Potamitis Court, Larnaca-Dhekelia 8 Themidos Street, LarnacaRoad, Larnaca Telephone: (+357) 2466 6333Telephone: (+357) 2464 6571 Website: www.nemo-divecenter.comWebsite: www.octopus-diving.coAlpha Divers Viking DiversPyla Gardens 2, Larnaca / Dhekelia Road, Golden Bay Hotel, Dhekelia Road, LarnacaLarnaca Telephone: (+357) 2464 4676Telephone: (+357) 2464 7519 Website: www.viking-divers.comWebsite: www.alpha-divers.comZenobia Diving Centre Dive-InPO BOX 40843, Larnaca Marina, Larnaca Blu View Residence, 132, Piale Pascha,Telephone: (+357) 2465 6949 Larnaca Telephone: (+357) 2462 7469 Website: www.dive-in.com.cAGIA NAPA & PROTARASLucky Divers Fun DiversNissi Beach Hotel, Agia Napa Sunwing Resort, Sandy Bay, Agia NapaTelephone: (+357) 2372 4227 Telephone: (+357) 9988 4793Website: www.luckydiver.com.cy Website: www.fundivers-cy.comOlympian Divers Happy DiversThe Dive Centre, Pavlo Napa Beach Hotel, Themidos 8, AglantziaSandy Bay, Agia Napa Telephone: (+357) 9968 9268Telephone: (+357) 2372 2404 Website: www.happydivers.comWebsite: www.olympiandivers.comSunfish Divers Ltd Triton Dive26 Arch. Makarios Avenue, PO Box 30274, Shop 1, Cape Greco Road, Pernera.Agia Napa ParalimniTelephone: (+357) 2372 1300 Telephone: (+357) 9938 8116Website: www.sunfishdivers.com Website: www.tritondive.co.uk44
  45. 45. Podvodnyi Mir Scuba Diving Absolute Scuba(Undersea World Scuba Diving) 308 Protaras Avenue, Protaras37 Kriou Nerou, Bld. N2, Agia Napa Telephone: (+357) 2383 3121Telephone: (+357) 2372 2282 Website: www.absolutescuba.netWebsite: www.podvodnyimir.comI-Dive Tec Rec Centers Plc Divers UnlimitedTinou Street 8, Shop 2, Ayia Triada, PO Box 37028, Cape Greco Avenue,Protaras, Amochostos ProtarasTelephone: (+357) 2382 3636 Telephone: (+357) 2383 3660Website: www.i-dive.com.cy Website: www.divers-unlimited.com PoseidonTaba Diving Centre Limited Domniki Hotel, ProtarasBlue Bay Apts, Pernera Beach Hotel, Telephone: (+357) 9954 5650Paralimni, Protaras Website: www.poseidon.com.cyTelephone: (+357) 2383 2680Website: www.tabadivingcyprus.comHerbies Diving Paradise Ltd Easy DiversPernera St. 36, Protaras (Pernera) 315 Cavo Greco Avenue, ProtarasTelephone: (+357) 2381 4292 Telephone: (+357) 2383 3662Website: www.herbiesdiving.com Website: www.ezdivers.com Scandidive Training CentreD.M. Go Dive Cyprus Ltd Tsidlakis Vryssi Hotel Apts. Flat/Office 4/5,352 Protaras, Vraka Building, Cape Greco, Paralimni, ProtarasParalimni Telephone: (+357) 2383 2768Telephone: (+357) 2383 3960 Website: www.scandidivecyprus.comWebsite: www.godivecyprus.comLIMASSOL REGIONNinos Diving Centre Aloha Dive Centre Ltd181 Christodoulou Hadjipavlou Street, LimassolLimassol Telephone: (+357) 2531 3208Telephone: (+357) 2537 2667 Website: www.alohadivers.comWebsite: www.ninos-sports.comDive-In Buddy Divers LtdFour Seasons Hotel, Po Box 57222, Le Meridien Spa Resort, Old Limassol-Limassol Nicosia Road, LimassolTelephone: (+357) 2531 1923 Telephone: (+357) 2563 5522Website: www.dive-in.com.cy Website: www.buddydivers.comCrest Dive Centre Pissouri Bay DiversSt Raphael Marina, 4520 Parekklisia, Old Pissouri Bay, LimassolLimassol-Nicosia Road, Limassol Telephone: (+357) 9653 0761Telephone: (+357) 2563 4076 Website: www.pissouribaydivers.comWebsite: www.crestdive.comKembali Diving LtdKembali 57 Mesologiou Street, PissouriTelephone: (+357) 2522 2468Website: www.kembali-diving.comPAPHOS & THE WEST45
  46. 46. P.W. Marine Divers Coral Bay DiversShop 4, Aristo Coral Bay Complex, Aristo Complex 1, Shop 8, Laxion StreetCoral Bay, Paphos 20, Coral Bay, PaphosTelephone: (+357) 2662 3082 Telephone: (+357) 2662 2980Website: www.pwmarinedivers.com Website: www.coralbaydivers.comCydive - Coral Beach Polis Diving CentreCoral Beach Hotel, Coral Bay Avenue, Kyprianides Building, Shop 5, AgiosPaphos Nikolaos 1, Polis Chrysochous, PaphosTelephone: (+357) 2688 1000 Telephone: (+357) 2632 1071Website: www.cydive.com Website: www.polisdiving.com Latchi Watersports CentreCrystal Marine Natura Hotel Site, Polis ChrysochousShop 4, Ayios Therissos Complex, Telephone: (+357) 2632 2095Prodromi, Paphos Website: www.latchiwatersportscentre.comTelephone: (+357) 2632 2869Website: www.crystalmarinecyprus.com Kalliopi Dive CollegeLatchi Watersports Centre Shop 5, Basilica Court, 2 Leda Street,Latchi Harbour, Polis Chrysochous PaphosTelephone: (+357) 2632 2095 Telephone: (+357) 9960 3743Website: www.latchiwatersportscentre.com Website: www.kalliopitravel.com Cydive - ElysiumLatchi Watersports Centre Elysium Hotel, Queen Verenikis Street,Anassa Hotel Site, Polis PaphosTelephone: (+357) 2632 2095 Telephone: (+357) 2684 4444Website: www.latchiwatersportscentre.com Website: www.cydive.comSea Horse Dive Centre Dive PointSt. George Hotel, Paphos Parmenionos Street #4, Kato PaphosTelephone: (+357) 9961 1876 Telephone: (+357) 9957 8345Website: www.seahorsedivers.com Website: www.divepointcyprus.co.uk Abyss Dive CentreABC Dive Ltd Akamanthos Avenue, Shop 1 & 2, ArgakiShop 2, 21 Ikarou Str. Kato Paphos Village, Chloraka, PaphosTelephone: (+357) 2681 1818 Telephone: (+357) 2691 0500Website: www.abcdive.info Website: www.abyss-diving.comCydiveMyrra Court 32-35, 1 Poseidon Avenue,Kato PaphosTelephone: (+357) 2693 4271Website: www.cydive.com46

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