The Creation Of A Historic Monument Artificial Reef In Protaras
The Creation of a Historic Monument
& Artificial Reef in Protaras, Cyprus
Cyprus Airways Hawker Siddeley HS-121 Trident 2E 5B-DAB
"The right to
with it the
do so in a
manner so as
of the living
On 20 July 1974, two empty Cyprus Airways airliners (a Hawker-Siddeley HS121 Trident 1E (5B-DAE), and a
Trident 2E (5B-DAB)) were destroyed on the ground by the Turkish Air Force during the Turkish invasion of Cyprus.
PRIVATE & CONFIDENTIAL
Prepared by I Dive Tec Rec Centers Plc
Andy Varoshiotis PADI,SDI,DSAT,DAN Instructor
For the Cyprus Dive Centre Association
Proposal Addressed to:
United Nations Mrs.Lisa M. Bettelheim Special Representative in Cyprus
Cyprus Airways Public Company Ltd
Minister of Agriculture & Natural Resources
Department of Fisheries
Minister of Commerce & Industry
Minister of Finance
Cyprus Tourism Organization
Cyprus Chamber of Commerce
Cyprus Hotels Association-PASIXE-STEK
Ayia Napa Mayor
GPS Position 35.161937, 33.273457
Section 1- Executive Summary
The Artificial Reef Committee of the Cyprus Dive Centre Association1 is on a mission to
create and maintain man-made dive sites that will promote both the local economy through
dive tourism and the environmental benefits of using artificial dive sites to save damaging
important historic or ecologically-sensitive sites.
The word is out that the Protaras coast is one of the Island’s best scuba diving and holiday
destinations in the Mediterranean Sea. Dozens of ships (many dating back to the 354 Bc)
have gone down in the waters between Cape Greco and Famagusta Bay. Due to the "clear",
waters, and natural protection from high winds and surge from the Apostolos Andreas
Peninsula the Protaras area is offered as a year round location for local and foreign visitors.
It has been estimated that the Protaras attracts in excess of 8000 scuba diving tourists, due to
the number of hotels and resorts in the area. It is important to note that the Zenobia Wreck
located in the Larnaca Bay attracts around 50,000 divers every year. The most popular
reason to build a reef is to create new fishing sites, to enhance recreational diving or
snorkeling and to increase reef resources, often to enhance tourism. Everyone from small
artisanal fishing villages to five star resorts benefits when reefs are created or enhanced.
The Cyprus Airways Hawker Siddeley HS.121 Trident, or DH.121, was a British
short/medium-range three-engined airliner designed by de Havilland in the 1950s, and built by
Hawker Siddeley Aviation2 in the 1960s, after the former became part of that group in 1960.
Designed to a British European Airways (BEA) requirement, it sold in small numbers, with 117
produced. The Trident with a trijet is an aircraft powered by three jet engines. Early twin-jet
designs were limited by the FAA's "60-minute rule", whereby the flight path of twin-engine
jetliners was restricted to within 60 minutes' flying time from a suitable airport, in case of
engine failure. In 1964 this rule was lifted for trijet designs, as they had a greater safety
margin. This led to a flurry of trijet designs, which by 1980 had become the most popular
airliner configuration. Generally, passenger airline trijets are considered to be second
generation jet airliners, due to their innovative engine locations, in addition to the
advancement of turbofan technology. The Hawker Siddeley Trident was a British built three-
engine airliner which was designed to a British European Airways (BEA) specification.
The original Trident 1 delivered to BEA improved 1C and 1E versions were then developed.
The Trident Two was a longer range and stretched fuselage version. The Trident 3B another
stretched version which also had a RB162 booster engine in the tail.
Origin: United Kingdom First flight: 1962 Crew: 3 Passengers: 96 - 180
Power: 3 x Rolls Royce Spey (11000 - 14500 lbf) turbofan engines
The Rolls Royce RB162-86 boost engine, unique to the Trident 3B, is mounted in a pod in the
tail above the central engine.
Dimensions: Length: 131 ft. 2 in. (Trident 3B) Performance: Max. speed: 582 mph (Trident
Wing Span: 98 ft. 0 in. (Trident 3B) 3B)
Height: 28 ft. 2 in. (Trident 3B) (Trident Cruise speed: 550 mph (Trident
Max. Weight: 155,000 lbs. (Trident 3B) Ceiling: 36,000 ft. (Trident
Normal range: 1,600 nm (Trident
Max. range: 1,800 nm (Trident
Benefits – International Media Exposure
Benefits of Aircraft deployment as an artificial reef are uncommon enough to catch the
attention of the news media. Deployment of a passenger aircraft off Protaras for use as an
artificial reef will receive massive coverage by local and international news agencies will draw
national and international attention to the county's artificial reef program. The and result in
estimated advertising benefits will exceed two million Euros, and create over four million
personal "impressions" in the media during an 18 month period.
Like sunken ships, aircraft, especially if intact, have a recreational diver novelty appeal
greater than some other artificial structures. Little known aircraft wreck sites in northwest
Florida have been prized fishing locations for recreational anglers for decades.
Aluminium alloys, of the correct grade, may exhibit greater corrosion resistance than carbon
steel of similar thickness. The corrosion rate will depend on the type of alloy, contact with
dissimilar metals, paint coatings, water depth, temperature, exposure to water movement, and
Scuba diving, as a recreational sport and vacation activity, is growing in popularity. New
equipment advances and safety innovations are making the sport both more accessible and
desirable to a greater number of people, most notably the "Baby-Boomers" demographic
segment who have both the disposable income and inclination to participate in adventure
tourism. The need to extend the tourism period of the Famagusta Area is imperative.
It has been determined that there is a tremendous opportunity for economic growth and job
creation stemming from adventure tourism within the Famagusta Region. Surveys
administered at trade and consumer shows indicated that the market potential for dive tourism
stemming from, and particularly the United Kingdom and the Scandinavian Markets, is
As a response to the factors identified above, the Cyprus Diving Centre Association and many
individuals within the scuba diving industry is proposing that an artificial reef be located within
the Protaras area near the Liberty Wreck (Sunk May 22 2009) in the Kaparis area. The
proposal is that the Cyprus Airways Trident Star II which was hit by the Turkish Air force
during the Turkish invasion 3of the island in 1974 be delivered –handed over by the United
Nations from the Nicosia Airport to its legal owners and to be scuttled as an Historic Artificial
Reef. It will greatly enhance the region's appeal as a dive tourism destination and at the same
time promote the Cyprus Problem World Wide since such an event will attract media
coverage from all over the World.
This proposal is based on the reality that, throughout the world, other organizations having undertaken
similar projects have had nothing but excellent economic benefits as a result of increased
visitation by scuba divers to those destinations. These regions have also been extremely
successful in the relocation of scuba diving and charter boat traffic to the artificial reef,
thereby decreasing the burden on existing beaches and moving divers away from the dangers
of shipping lanes / channels.
The potential for the dive market will be outlined in greater depth within this document.
Testimonials and economic impact reports from other communities where warships have
been sunk as artificial reefs, such as Nanaimo, British Columbia; Geography Bay, Australia;
and San Diego, California indicate that the dive industries of those communities have
blossomed past all original expectations, generating new international visitation by dive
tourists and their families, new capital investments, new jobs and increased tax revenues for
all levels of Government.
Although it is exciting to merely be the first sinking of this kind in sea water, it is also
important to note that the sinking of Cyprus Airways Hawker Siddeley HS.121 Trident, the
would be closely monitored by the scientific community and that it will serve as a pilot project
for the Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources. The Protaras artificial reef project will
also be used to study the positive impact on fisheries in terms of creating new fish habitat.
From a publicity and marketing perspective, communities within the Famagusta Region could
boast about a world-class product. Few destinations that promote themselves as dive tourism
destinations have the wealth of heritage shipwrecks that can be found in the Eastern
Mediterranean Region. These heritage wrecks in association with a historic airplane as an
artificial reef, would truly allow Cyprus to be recognized as a world-class scuba diving
The 2010 Commercial and Financial Feasibility Study provides the following information.
The estimated number of "active" divers in potential markets is as follows:
Cyprus 12,000 Registered divers
British Tourist Divers 20,000
A survey conducted in on the diving industry indicated that the main criteria (in order of
importance) when choosing a dive destination are: safety; quality of sites; skilfulness of
guides; hospitality; support services; cost; accommodation; and location/distance from sites.
The survey also indicates that "great travelling distances often separate dive sites from their
markets. However, when a site enjoys a good reputation, its popularity takes precedence over
this drawback. As for shipwreck divers, it appears that the larger wrecks are the most
Another emerging trend is for scuba divers to bring their families along to a dive destination.
These family members are not necessarily divers, but will partake in local attractions and
other tourism offerings.
The scuba diving industry is traditionally male dominated, with 69% of all scuba divers being
male and 31% female, and 77% of scuba divers falling between 18 and 55 years of age.
According to PADI4 the number of certified divers worldwide is expanding year after year.
Section 2 - Impact of Artificial Reefs
Ecotourism has been the fastest growing tourism segment since the 1990s. Dive tourism, a
component of ecotourism, provides both recreational enjoyment, a touch of adventure and
opportunities for learning and environmental diversification.
The 21st century saw a profusion of artificial reef projects and our neighbouring Malta a has
been an innovator in the field with 29 new shipwreck in 2009 alone. On the other site of the
Atlantic, the Artificial Reef Society of British Columbia (ARSBC) has successfully scuttled
numerous ships and one Boeing 737 as artificial reefs. Four of these ships were destroyer
escorts (HMCS Chaudiere, Georgia Strait, 1992; HMCS Mackenzie, Georgia Strait, 1995;
HMCS Columbia, Campbell River, 1996; and HMCS Saskatchewan, Nanaimo, 1997).
Stu Austin of Ocean Explorers Diving in Nanaimo estimates that “the dive tourism business in
Nanaimo was up by about 50% in the year since the sinking of the former HMCS
Saskatchewan in June, 1997." The ARSBC also sank the 400’ WWII Victory ship, the Cape
Breton in 2001. http://www.artificialreef.bc.ca/
The Artificial Reef Society of Nova Scotia has also scuttled a naval destroyer escort, the
HMCS Saguenay in 1994, which rests in Lunenburg Marine Park, Nova Scotia. Dive tourism
in Nova Scotia was regarded as an economic development option when the fisheries industry
declined, leading to high unemployment.
The Geographe Bay Artificial Reef Society Inc. of Australia sank the HMCS SWAN, a
destroyer escort, off Point Piquet, Dunsborough Western Australia as a dive wreck, artificial
reef and tourist attraction. The Geographe Bay Australia group hoped to have 6,000 to 8,000
divers on the Swan in the first year. Figures at the end of the year "were just short of 10,000".
Following the sinking of the artificial reef, HMCS Yukon, near Mission Beach, San Diego,
California, 22,000 divers visited the ship within the first year. All of the above examples
demonstrate that artificial reefs are valuable economic generators. They create revenue and
jobs as well as environmental diversity.
Main problems of Fisheries Sector & the Benefits of Artificial Reefs
The main problems of the fisheries sector are:
1. Reduction of the fishing grounds of Cyprus, because of the Turkish occupation.
2. Overfishing of some demersal and pelagic species.
3. Reduction in the production of the fishing grounds of Cyprus, as well as of the
international waters of the Mediterranean and particularly the fishing grounds of the
4. Limited capacity of the fishing fleet, because of the age and the insufficient modern
equipment of a large part of it.
5. Low educative level of fishermen and their insufficient professional training with new
fishing and navigation methods.
6. Competition in the fishery by the amateur fishermen.
7. Absence of necessary installations/facilities for mooring and infrastructures essential for
the hygienic unloading of fish catches.
8. Preference of consumers in certain species of fish and the difficulty to accept new
The Famagusta Region currently has a well-developed tourism infrastructure, including a
large number of beds, many restaurants, shopping amenities, outdoor recreational activities,
museums and world class tourism attractions. The Famagusta Region also has Kilometres of
accessible waterfront as well as a small marina and other waterside attractions. The waters in
the Famagusta Region are clear and clean with no thermo-cline gradients and negligible
The establishment of an artificial reef in the Famagusta Region will therefore act as a
powerful attraction to these diving markets, in addition to the areas other assets.
The Famagusta AR will attract an additional 10,000 recreational scuba diving parties in the
first year following its sinking. A conservative estimated daily expenditure of Euro 140.00 per
diving party (2 divers) for an average stay of two days translates into an additional Euro
2,800,000. Add in food, and incidentals and this number increases to Euro 8,000,000 in direct
tourism revenues in the first year. In addition, the artificial reef could be used as a controlled
facility for military, marine police and technical dive training.
It should be noted that these estimates are considered conservative by the group because
estimated numbers are based on data from other communities with existing reefs such as
Larnaca with the Zenobia wreck. With the advent of the Cyprus Airways Hawker Siddeley
HS.121 Trident as an artificial reef, the Famagusta Region would market its reputation as a
premiere dive tourism destination, which will promote the development of additional dive and
tourism operations. The influx of diving tourists will likely spur the development of diver-
specialized accommodations, campgrounds and other infrastructure requirements such as
dive shops and charter services which in turn will provide significant opportunities for
entrepreneurs, job creation initiatives and increased municipal tax assessment.
Other Project Benefits:
Exhibits and equipment commemorating the service of Cyprus Airways Hawker Siddeley
HS.121 Trident and her crew could be donated to local museums, thereby increasing their
appeal as tourist attractions and keeping the memory of the events of 1974 alive. These
museums could be packaged together with scuba diving on the artificial reef of Cyprus
Airways Hawker Siddeley HS.121 Trident.
It is also possible that a hyperbaric treatment chamber could be Operational at the Paralimni
General Hospital to treat patients suffering from decompression illness or acute life-
threatening and/or chronic conditions/diseases that are unresponsive to other forms of
treatment. For example, recent studies indicate that collateral tissue damage after cancerous
tumour radiation is minimized with pre/post hyperbaric oxygen treatments.
Hyperbaric chambers can also be used as research tools to investigate various compression
and decompression procedures, human behaviour in hyperbaric environments, equipment
performance in hyperbaric environments, selection of diving personnel, and training of
physicians and medical personnel in hyperbaric physiology.
The appeal and excitement surrounding the scuttling of the Cyprus Airways Hawker
Siddeley HS.121 Trident as an artificial reef will generate both national and international
interest from the media and the general leisure travel market. It is extremely realistic that the
National Geographic would follow and document the journey of the Cyprus Airways Hawker
Siddeley HS.121 Trident, from the Nicosia UN controlled Airport to her final resting place in
the Famagusta Bay which will therefore receive international recognition from the worldwide
marketplace. As a result, this positive publicity and increased awareness will provide other
political and economic spin-offs.
Site Selection - Site Specifications / Technical Suggestions:
The aircraft's heaviest single structural component is the engine. With the engine removed,
the remaining air frame is lighter than heavy gauge steel or concrete structures with similar
surface area. Aircraft may require additional ballasting (concrete poured into the fuselage).
Use of an external anchoring system would involve additional expense and necessitate
periodic checking and maintenance, although this has been shown to be ineffective because
of diver tampering.
Aircraft are designed to fly. Leaving the wings on in their entirety could cause the aircraft to
glide as they descend through the water column. Unless placed in a controlled manner by
being lowered to the bottom by crane, aircraft deployed in deep water may have a tendency
to be widely scattered on the bottom. This scenario may or may not meet the intended
objective of the reef.
Wings are often removed from aircraft for ease of transportation and for parts refitting and
reuse if the general aircraft type is still in service (the military refer to an aircraft with engine,
wings, and landing craft removed as a canoe or carcass) (Scott Mauro, personal
communication). However, the complete and permanent removal of wings in their entirety
from the aircraft may reduce habitat complexity, compromise structural integrity, reduce
stability once the aircraft has been deployed, as well as render the material of lesser interest
to divers. The dilemma is that wings, nose sections, and portions of the tail in some more
modern military aircraft types have high carbon fibber content and might need to be
considered for removal regardless. Only the central fuselage tube remains to function as an
Where wings remain on aircraft, multiple through holes should be drilled in the wings to allow
air to escape and water to enter. Degreaser should be used to flush out residual fuel and
hydraulic fluid. Luminous dials should be removed, as they contain toxic materials. Fuel
manifolds should be cleaned, and the aircraft should be completely steam-cleaned prior to
deployment. The deeper the depth the plane is placed, and the more protected the
environment from major storm events, the better the aircraft seems to fare over a period of
Additional concrete ballasting of the fuselage if no anchoring system is planned, is
Recommended to improve the surface area/mass ratio. Areas where fish or other marine
organisms can be trapped should be opened to water flow by cutting escape holes, removing
or completely opening Plexiglas, canopies, etc. The airplane is 131 ft. 2 inches Length
Wing Span: 98 ft. 0 inches and Height: 28 ft. 2 inches therefore the minimum reef depth
should be 16 meters and maximum depth 18 meters.
The ideal location would accommodate as much of the super structure as possible. As a
result she must be sunk in water depths of no more than 18 Meters of water, thereby making
the top of the reef accessible and appealing to all levels of scuba divers. The area must also
be located as far as possible from the commercial shipping channel. In addition, an
infrastructure must be taken into consideration to address parking and water / docking
access. The ideal location will be identified by working with the department of fisheries of the
The actual site selection will be done in conjunction with the ministry of agriculture and the
department of fisheries with final approval coming from all the above mentioned agencies.
The group has identified a possible location, one which would allow the use of an existing
extremely under utilized infrastructure, and build it as a National Historic and Marine
The plane site will be very close to the Liberty Wreck 5which has already proven results as an
artificial reef6 with lots of different marine life species and fish.
The park and entry docks in Golden Coast and Ayia Triada should be upgraded to provide
more that enough parking, washroom / change room facilities and canteen service.
The park also should provide a boat launching ramp, but there would be the need to install
docking that would not infringe upon the 2 beach locations. However, the park is large enough
and the docks could be located at the east side of the park near the boat launch ramp and
away from the beach areas. The use of this park as a staging area would also completely
address the concerns of private citizens and the encroachment upon their land and privacy. It
would also eliminate the need for funding to develop the required infrastructure.
This would allow the municipality to turn an existing under utilized park facility into a vibrant,
revenue generating park.
The location that the group has discussed is located approx. 2 to 21/2 nautical miles east
Golden Coast marina and 1 nautical mile from Ayia Triada fishing harbour. It is located just
west of a mooring zone and is approx. 3/4 to 1 nautical mile from the commercial shipping
lane. The location is located in an average of 25 meters of water per chart datum. The current
at this location is approx. 0.5 to 1 knot and varies throughout the season, much like the
present current situation is on the existing heritage wreck sites in the Cape Greco area.
This location would address the concerns of relocating the dive and charter boat traffic away
from the commercial shipping lane, still allow all levels of scuba diving and decrease the
scuba diving traffic on the existing heritage shipwrecks in the area, while providing the added
benefit of utilizing the existing infrastructure that is currently extremely under utilized at
Proposal for Access and Control after Sinking:
Placement of Mooring Blocks and Buoys to Facilitate Dive Boats
A minimum of 10 private mooring buoys (according to Department of Merchant Shipping
standards for aids to navigation) will be established over the vessel via 1 inch polypropylene
line. A number of these mooring lines will be attached to solid footings from the vessel and
the others will be moored to 5 ton concrete blocks set at appropriate distances from the
Existing dive services and charter boat operations capable of providing diving services
A charter fleet presently exists and has operated in the region for the past ten years. This
charter fleet, comprised of several different owners, transports an annual average of 6000
divers to the numerous Locations that lie in the nearby waters between Konos Bay and the
Famagusta border line. Fourteen scuba dive shops also presently exist which are capable of
serving the divers’ compressed air and equipment requirements. With the advent of the
artificial reef, it is expected that other diving operators will migrate to the region due to the
increased number of diving parties (estimated to be an increase of 10,000 per year) visiting
the artificial reef.
Section 4 - Cyprus Diving Consultants
Who is CDC
The preparation and placement of artificial reefs in a marine environment is a challenging and
complex undertaking. From the time of project inception, risk management of the process
including the various and often competing interests of-not-for profit local proponents,
consultants, clean up contractors and regulatory agencies have to be reconciled. It is for
these reasons that we have decided to use the expertise of a group of renowned experts.
Turn Key Vessel Provided by CDC:
The only viable option is to utilize CDC to provide the area with a "turn key" vessel.
It is for these reasons that we have decided to recommend to form CDC enter into a contract
with various sub contractors specializing in commercial diving operations for a "turn key"
Cyprus Airways Hawker Siddeley HS.121 Trident artificial reef.
CDC would be responsible for all cleanup of the craft- engine part remains removal,
passenger room removal of all interior, fuel tank cleaning, superstructures preparation, hull
preparation etc. The subcontractor is required to remove all wiring according to the European
artificial reef directives, prior to transfer. CDC would confirm that this has been completed
prior to taking possession.
The plane would be cleaned to the defined standard of European Environment standards in
order that it can be safely placed as an artificial reef, with minimal environmental impact and
Consistent with regulatory and best practice guidelines. Third party inspection and regulatory
agency inspections would ensure that all cleanups have been completed to the defined
All environmental cleanup work would be completed prior to the vessel arriving in the marine
park. The only work to be done in the area would be to place and secure the wings on the
structure, and removing hatches related to diver safety. CDC would ensure that the plane is
safely fastened on trailers for transportation to the area. CDC and the local group would work
with the traffic police to address any concerns for the safe transportation to the marine park,
where a ship with a high capacity crane will be commissioned for the sinking.
. Source: http://www.pacificwebsites.com/diving/
Sect ion 5 - Financial Information
Financing for the project will be achieved through corporate sponsorships, UN grants, EU
sponsorship, Cyprus Tourism Organization sponsorship in assistance of the provincial and
municipal governments, as well as revenue generating initiatives such as licensing, sale of
advertising and the sale of merchandise. The main expenditures will be the transportation,
cleaning, and sinking of the ship and CDC fees.
Currently, a major title sponsor is being sought to finance the purchasing and towing of the
ship based on a corporate advertising sponsorship.
There are 4 major costs that have been identified:
1. Contracting CDC to provide a "turn key" reef.
2. Cleaning the aircraft and removing the wings for transportation on trailers.
3. Towing of Cyprus Airways Hawker Siddeley HS.121 Trident artificial reef
From Nicosia to Protaras, then from shore on board the crane ship.
4. Preparing the site for the scuttling of the Cyprus Airways Hawker Siddeley HS.121
There will be other costs associated with the project such as travelling to various locations in
5. Advertising and office supplies. These costs however are considered small.
The cost of towing the vessel can only be determined once a tender has been sent out to
perspective tug boat companies. This will be done 2 months before the scuttling date, thereby
allowing us to acquire the best pricing.
The costs for site preparation will include:
1. Survey of the Sea bottom
2. Mooring blocks for charter / private boats
3. Anchor blocks for the artificial reef
These costs will be sent out for tender to ensure the best pricing possible.
Other incidental costs such as travel will be the most economical possible. All other costs will
be kept to the absolute minimum.
After an initial survey by CDC this summer, the estimate from CDC is Euro,
IMPORTANT NOTES – INFORMATION ON FISHING
European Union and International Affairs
Cyprus accession to the European Union (EU) and the implementation of the European
Aquis Communitaire, related to fisheries, constitutes an obligation of the Cyprus
Government in the fields of fisheries research and development as well as in relation to
the application of the Common Fisheries Policy.
The Fisheries Officers of the Fisheries Resource division participate in the various
Working Party Committees of the EU aiming the improvement of the application of
Aquis Communitaire and the safeguarding of the Cyprus Governments fisheries policy
and strategic objectives.
The various EU Structural funds (Financial Instrument for Fisheries Guidance-FIFG)
and the Data Collection Regulation today constitute the most important source of
economic support and research of the fisheries sector of Cyprus.
Cyprus applies the Single Program Document for Fisheries 2004-2006 and the research
program MEDITS (Mediterranean Trawl Survey). Cyprus will be participating in the
European Fisheries Fund for the period 2007-2013.
Table 1: Cyprus marine capture production 2003
Scientific name Species (groups) Ton
Spicara spp Picarels nei 580
Boops boops Boque 151
Mullus surmuletus Stripped Red Mullet 130
Osteichthyes Marine fishes nei 129
Octopodidae Octopuses, etc, nei 93
Sepia officinalis Common cuttlefish 85
Mullus barbatus Red mullet 84
Thunnus thynnus Atlantic bluefin tuna 79
Xiphias gladius Swordfish 47
Sparidae Porgies, seabreams nei 44
Siganus spp Spinefeet(=Rabbitfishes) nei 44
Thunnus alalunga Albacore 30
Scaridae Parrotfishes nei 26
Pagellus acarne Axillary seabream 25
Pagellus erythrinus Common pandora 21
Dentex dentex Common dentex 16
Pagrus pagrus Red porgy 16
Epinephelus spp Groupers nei 15
Seriola dumerili Greater amberjack 13
Elasmobranchii Sharks, rays, skates, etc. nei 13
Serranidae Groupers, seabasses nei 12
Merluccius merluccius European hake 11
Oblada melanura Saddled seabream 11
Scorpaenidae Scorpionfishes nei 11
Euthynnus alletteratus Little tunny(=Atl. Black skipj) 10
Sardina pilchardus European pilchard (=Sardine) 7
The Cyprus marine capture production for the year 2003 is shown on Table 1, *for more
information see Fisheries Statistics.
Bilateral agreements ratified by the Republic of Cyprus from 1960 are:
• The amendments to the Agreement establishing the General Fisheries Commission
for the Mediterranean-GFCM.
• Agreement to promote compliance with international conservation and management
measures by fishing vessels on the high seas
• International Convention for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas – ICCAT
• The United Nations Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of the United
Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea of December 10, 1982, Relating to the
Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish
"The plane was built in the 1960’s and is 120 feet long, has a 96 foot wingspan, and in its
stripped state weighs about 20 tonnes. She served the people of CYPRUS very well for many
For further information contact:
Andy Varoshiotis, Project Co-ordinator: (99) 689961, or 23823636 or email:
Upon Agreement of the above project and financial needs we can provide a step by step
project management description with qualitative and quantitative information as well budgets
and fusibility studies.
Bird, J. 2002. To live and dive in Kwal. In Skin Diver Magazine (Alert Diver Edition) January
Kaulikauskis, E., Jacksonville Offshore Fishing Club. 1997. From local newspaper article
"Restoring valuable offshore habitat - Navy's obsolete aircraft become latest artificial reef", by
Stuart Lee Johnston. September 1997.
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evaluation dives, Bay County, FL May 6, 1997. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation
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November 20, 2001, Bay County, FL. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission
artificial reef field report archives. 4pp.
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Port Authority (Volusia County) Artificial Reef field report archives. 1p.
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FL) artificial reef field report archives. 1p.
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Sea Grant College Program. Gainesville, FL 32611.
Pitcher, T. 2001. Volusia County reef research team diver field report on dive undertaken
2001 at Volusia County reef site #9. Ponce De Leon Port Authority (Volusia County, FL)
artificial reef field report archives. 1p.
Pitcher, T. 2000. Volusia County reef research team diver field report on dive undertaken
August 26, 2000 at Volusia County reef site #9. Ponce De Leon Port Authority (Volusia
County, FL) artificial reef field report archives. 1p.
Rinehart, L. T. 1991. The captain's guide to wrecks and reefs. Published by the author.