The Preliminary Choice of Fan or Compressor

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The Preliminary Choice of Fan or Compressor

0 INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE
1 SCOPE
2 FIELD OF APPLICATION
3 DEFINITIONS
4 METHOD FOR PRELIMINARY SELECTION
OF COMPRESSOR
5 PROCESS DATA SHEET
5.1 Essential Data for the Completion of a
Process Data Sheet
5.2 Gas Properties
5.3 Discharge Requirements

6 PRELIMINARY CHOICE OF FAN AND
COMPRESSOR TYPE
6.1 Essential Data for Preliminary Selection

7 FAN AND COMPRESSOR APPLICATIONS
7.1 Fans
7.2 Centrifugal Compressors
7.3 Axial Compressors
7.4 Reciprocating Compressors
7.5 Screw Compressors
7.6 Positive Displacement Blowers
7.7 Sliding Vane Compressors
7.8 Liquid Ring Compressors

8 PROVISION OF INSTALLED SPARES

9 PRELIMINARY ESTIMATE OF COSTS

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The Preliminary Choice of Fan or Compressor

  1. 1. GBH Enterprises, Ltd. Engineering Design Guide: GBHE-EDG-MAC-1030 The Preliminary Choice of Fan or Compressor Information contained in this publication or as otherwise supplied to Users is believed to be accurate and correct at time of going to press, and is given in good faith, but it is for the User to satisfy itself of the suitability of the information for its own particular purpose. GBHE gives no warranty as to the fitness of this information for any particular purpose and any implied warranty or condition (statutory or otherwise) is excluded except to the extent that exclusion is prevented by law. GBHE accepts no liability resulting from reliance on this information. Freedom under Patent, Copyright and Designs cannot be assumed. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  2. 2. Engineering Design Guide: The Preliminary Choice Of Fan or Compressor Type CONTENTS SECTION 0 INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE 3 1 SCOPE 3 2 FIELD OF APPLICATION 3 3 DEFINITIONS 3 4 METHOD FOR PRELIMINARY SELECTION OF COMPRESSOR 3 PROCESS DATA SHEET 3 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 6 Essential Data for the Completion of a Process Data Sheet Gas Properties Discharge Requirements 4 4 5 PRELIMINARY CHOICE OF FAN AND COMPRESSOR TYPE 5 6.1 Essential Data for Preliminary Selection 5 Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  3. 3. 7 FAN AND COMPRESSOR APPLICATIONS 6 7.1 Fans 6 7.2 Centrifugal Compressors 6 7.3 Axial Compressors 6 7.4 Reciprocating Compressors 8 7.5 Screw Compressors 8 7.6 Positive Displacement Blowers 9 7.7 Sliding Vane Compressors 9 7.8 Liquid Ring Compressors 9 8 PROVISION OF INSTALLED SPARES 9 9 PRELIMINARY ESTIMATE OF COSTS 11 Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  4. 4. APPENDICES A B DETAILS OF OPERATING LIMITS FOR FANS AND COMPRESSORS 13 DETAILS OF PROCESS DATA SHEET FOR COMPRESSOR 15 FIGURES 1 SELECTION SEQUENCE FOR FAN OR COMPRESSOR TYPE 2 GRAPH SHOWING OPERATING LIMITS OF FANS AND COMPRESSORS 3 4 4 13 PROCESS DATA SHEET FOR COMPRESSOR - SHEET 1 OF 2 15 PROCESS DATA SHEET FOR COMPRESSOR - SHEET 2 OF 2 16 TABLES 1 COMPRESSOR/FAN OPERATING LIMITS 7 2 LIKELY INSTALLED SPARES BASED ON FAN AND COMPRESSOR TYPE AND DUTY 10 DOCUMENTS REFERRED TO IN THIS ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDE Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  5. 5. 0 INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE This GBHE Engineering Guide has been prepared to assist in the selection of Fan or Compressor types and to prepare information for an enquiry to be issued to a supplier. 1 SCOPE This GBHE Engineering Guide defines the way in which the type of fan or Compressor, and the number of units required for a particular duty, may be determined from knowledge of the process parameters. This Guide shall be read in conjunction with the relevant engineering and purchase specification for the specified fan or compressor type. 2 FIELD OF APPLICATION This GBHE Engineering Guide is intended to be used by personnel responsible for the selection of rotating equipment for chemical process plant. 3 DEFINITIONS For the purposes of this Engineering Guide, the following definitions apply: There are no terms which are specific to the subject which require definition. With the exceptions of terms used as proper nouns or titles, those terms with initial capital letters which appear in this document and are not defined above are defined in the Glossary of Engineering Terms. 4 METHOD FOR PRELIMINARY SELECTION OF COMPRESSOR Having obtained the process data, the first step in the selection process is the preliminary choice of fan or compressor type. The choice is constrained by the operating limits which are a characteristic of each machine type. Further selection constraints arise from considerations of the plant operation such as desired turndown and freedom from contamination of the product by the machine lubricating oil or corrosion debris from the materials of construction, as well as the required availability of the machine. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  6. 6. Once the preliminary choice of fan or compressor type has been made, refer to either Clause 6, 7 or 8 for more details of fan and compressor applications. The sequence for preliminary selection is shown in Figure 1. 5 PROCESS DATA SHEET The purpose of the process data sheet is to describe the normal duty, including all operating cases, all possible combinations of gases, pressures, flow and temperatures. It should not, at this stage, contain any margins on the flowrate or pressure. A typical 'Process Data Sheet' is shown in Appendix B. FIGURE 1: SELECTION SEQUENCE FOR FAN OR COMPRESSOR TYPE Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  7. 7. 5.1 Essential Data for the Completion of a Process Data Sheet Specify the normal process duty in the following terms: Mass flows - kg/hour Gas composition - Molar percentage Gas pressures - bars absolute Temperatures - °C Actual volume flow - 5.2 m3/hour. Gas Properties The following gas properties are to be given for the inlet to each stage: (A) Gas compressibility factor ‘Z'. (B) Adiabatic exponent ‘k'. (C) Minimum and maximum gas molecular weight attainable in any process operating condition. (D) Corrosive constituents by quantity and type. (F) Particle solids content by quantity, particle size and particle hardness. 5.3 Discharge Requirements Specify whether oil free discharge is required. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  8. 8. 6 PRELIMINARY CHOICE OF FAN AND COMPRESSOR TYPE Operating limits for fans and compressors are summarized in Table 1. Figure 2 shows a fan and compressor selection chart which shows the operating ranges and areas of application. Calculate the essential data required for preliminary selection from 6.1 and use Table 1 and Figure 2 for making the preliminary choice. It may be necessary to refer to Clause 7 which contains application guidance for various types of fan and compressor. 6.1 Essential Data for Preliminary Selection The following essential data will be required to make the preliminary selection from Table 2 and Figure 2. (a) Pressure Inlet pressure Discharge pressure bars absolute = Pressure differential (b) bars absolute = bars = Volume flowrate The actual volume flowrate Q1 at the inlet can be calculated from the expression: Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  9. 9. (c) Power Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  10. 10. 7 FAN AND COMPRESSOR APPLICATIONS This clause provides guidance on the application of the various types of fans and compressors available. The information should be read in conjunction with Table 1. 7.1 Fans Centrifugal and axial fans are suitable for low pressure applications over a wide range of flowrates. Special designs are available for high temperature duties. Although fans are normally specified with a modest aerodynamic duty, care needs to be taken with material selection and fan fabrication standards. Fans which handle arduous duties (e.g. high tip speeds or contaminated fluids) will need careful design specification. Care should be taken with the selection of fans where a wide range of gas densities is to handled. For example, extreme atmospheric variations will have a significant effect on the fan absorbed power and driver power rating. To minimize fan costs the selection may be made for normal ambient conditions, accepting that in the occasional extreme condition the fan may fail to meet plant requirements. 7.2 Centrifugal Compressors For efficiency reasons centrifugal compressors should only be specified if the discharge volume flow is greater than 100 actual m3/hour. This limitation does not apply to some special compressor designs which operate with close running clearances. As for fans care should be taken with the selection of centrifugal compressors where a wide range of gas density is to be handled, particularly when driven by a fixed speed driver. The discharge temperature should not normally exceed 200°C without specific analysis of the compressor design and material selection. However, special compressors with a discharge temperature of 400°C are commercially available. For some high alloy compressor casings the maximum differential temperature between inlet and discharge may be limited to 120°C. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  11. 11. A suction catchpot may be required to collect liquid droplets. Although centrifugal compressors are generally tolerant to atomized liquid carryover, liquid entrained with the gas can cause erosion and other severe damage. 7.3 Axial Compressors Axial compressors are generally used for high flows and low discharge pressure applications, achieving high compression efficiencies. They should only be used where the process gas is clean and dry. As with fans and centrifugal compressors they should be avoided where a wide range of gas density is to be handled. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  12. 12. TABLE 1: COMPRESSOR/FAN OPERATING LIMITS Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  13. 13. 7.4 Reciprocating Compressors Reciprocating compressors are well suited to applications involving low flow rates or high pressure ratios. They can accommodate a relatively wide range of gas compositions, pressure ratios and flow rates, whilst maintaining a good efficiency. Turndown in rate can be achieved by either individual valve lifters, or by bypassing the stage or compressor. The latter is less efficient. A disadvantage of the reciprocating compressor is the requirement for routine maintenance which, in many cases, necessitates an installed spare. This requirement should be considered when comparing costs with other compressor types. Oil lubricated reciprocating machines may subject the process to oil contamination. The sensitivity of the process to oil contamination needs to be checked. An important safety issue is the build up of carbonaceous deposits in the compressor discharge system. This can lead to self ignition and fire or explosion. Preventative measures include selecting the correct type of oil, regular cleaning and temperature trip protection. Reciprocating compressors are not ideally suited to dirty or polymerizing gases, and cannot tolerate liquid droplets in the suction flow without causing erosion damage. 7.5 Screw Compressors A screw compressor is likely to have a higher initial cost than a reciprocating compressor for the equivalent duty. However, screw machines offer high efficiency, high availability, moderate operating costs, and do not normally require an installed spare. Screw compressors should be considered when the gas composition and pressure ratio is likely to vary. Dirty and polymerizing gases will require careful specification and specific applications should be discussed with a manufacturer. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  14. 14. 7.5.1 Oil-free Screw Compressors Oil free screw compressors are ideal for a wide variety of gases where the duty requires low pressure ratios at constant volume flow. Typical gases include: Methane, Ethylene/Ethane, Propylene/Propane, Acetylene, Butadiene, Cokeoven gas, Lime kiln gas, Steam (typically for vapor recompression cycle). They should be considered when liquid is entrained with the gas. The capacity turndown is inefficient. Oil free screw machines are relatively inflexible and will not tolerate excessive pressure differentials or discharge temperatures. Noise levels will be high [typically 95-105 dB(A) at 1 meter]. They are frequently used in vacuum applications with suction pressures as low as 0.1 bar absolute. 7.5.2 Oil Injected Screw Compressors Turndown capacity is stepless, hence are more flexible and with higher efficiency than the oil free types. Noise levels are lower than the oil free machines [typically 85-95 dB(A) at 1 meter]. They should not be used where oil carry-over cannot be tolerated in the process (typically 5 ppm), or where oil/gas compatibility They may be used on applications for low molecular weight gases, most hydrocarbon gases, refrigerants and corrosive gases. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  15. 15. 7.6 Positive Displacement Blowers Positive displacement blowers are a less efficient method of compression and hence normally limited to low power, low pressure applications e.g. pneumatic conveying of particulate material. When fitted with shaft seals they are suitable for a variety of clean and dry gases. Turndown is inefficient, generally requiring bypass or blow off arrangements Noise levels can be high [typically 90-100 dB(A) at 1 meter]. They can operate as a blower working between atmospheric pressure and above, or as an exhauster working from below atmospheric inlet to atmospheric pressure. 7.7 Sliding Vane Compressors Vane compressors are limited to low power, low pressure applications. They generally operate at low speed and therefore noise levels are usually low. Where vanes are oil lubricated, oil carryover into the process needs to be considered. For continuous duties reliability may be affected by vane wear. 7.8 Liquid Ring Compressors Liquid ring compressors are generally limited to low power, low pressure applications. The cooling effect of the sealing liquid means that discharge temperatures are low, and in some applications discharge aftercoolers can be eliminated. Since oil is not used to lubricate the compressor internally, the discharge process gas is oil free. Liquid ring compressors are suitable for dirty gas duties, however it is important to ensure that the process gas is compatible with the circulating liquid. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  16. 16. 8 PROVISION OF INSTALLED SPARES Whether to install a spare machine is a key decision in the selection process, not only because of the effect on the total cost, but also because the choice of multiple machines may allow several smaller machines to be used. Three factors will influence this decision. (a) Reliability Rotating machinery is intrinsically more reliable than reciprocating machinery. For example, centrifugal compressors can be specified for continuous operation for periods of up to 3 years. Therefore, a single unspared centrifugal machine can be used, whereas the same duty may require at least two reciprocating machines. (b) Availability requirements In considering the likely availability of the plant to produce its final product rather than the reliability of the compressor installation, repair time is a significant factor. The definition of availability is: This effect of repair time on availability can either be eliminated by having installed spare machines, or mitigated by carrying major items of spares. (c) Part-load performance The required part-load performance of the plant shall be considered, and for an installation with more than one machine, a machine failure may allow the plant to continue in operation with reduced output. As a preliminary guide to the provision of installed spares, Table 2 should be used for estimating the number and size of installed machines. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  17. 17. TABLE 2: LIKELY INSTALLED SPARES BASED ON FAN AND COMPRESSOR TYPE AND DUTY Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  18. 18. 9 PRELIMINARY ESTIMATE OF COSTS The total installed cost of the machine will be affected by many of the factors listed below. This list is not intended to be a detailed list of all cost factors, but only those which are likely to influence the preliminary choice of compressor type. (a) Equipment costs (1) (2) Gearbox between machine and driver. (3) Testing in manufacturers works. (4) Pulsation dampers, separators, intercoolers. (5) Instrumentation and control system. (6) Inlet filtration. (7) Lubrication and seal systems. (8) Driver. (9) (b) Driven machine. Baseplate. Installation costs (1) Foundations. (2) Area classification. standard packaged machines are not suitable for installation in some areas of process plant. (3) Noise control. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  19. 19. (c) Operating costs (1) Efficiency at duty points. (2) Efficiency at turndown. (3) Maintenance requirements. (4) Major spares Provided that an acceptable estimate of costs has been obtained, the preliminary choice of fan or compressor can be confirmed. Then refer to the appropriate GBHE Engineering Design Guide to specify the principle characteristics of the chosen type. An unacceptable estimate of costs will require a recycle to Clause 6 to establish other feasible options, or to Clause 5 to revise the proposed process duty. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  20. 20. APPENDIX A: DETAILS OF OPERATING LIMITS FOR FANS AND COMPRESSORS FIGURE 2: GRAPH SHOWING OPERATING LIMITS OF FANS AND COMPRESSORS (These are nominal limits check with individual manufacturer limits) Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  21. 21. APPENDIX B: DETAILS OF PROCESS DATA SHEET FOR COMPRESSOR FIGURE 3: PROCESS DATA SHEET FOR COMPRESSOR - SHEET 1 OF 2 – Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  22. 22. APPENDIX B: CONTINUED FIGURE 4: PROCESS DATA SHEET FOR COMPRESSOR - SHEET 2 OF 2 Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  23. 23. DOCUMENTS REFERRED TO IN THIS GBHE ENGINEERING GUIDE This GBHE Engineering Guide makes reference to the following documents: GBHE ENGINEERING GUIDES GBH Enterprises Glossary of Engineering Terms (referred to in Clause 3) GBHE ENGINEERING PROCESS DATA SHEETS COMPRESSOR Sheet 1 of 2 (referred to in Appendix B) COMPRESSOR Sheet 2 of 2 (referred to in Appendix B) Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com
  24. 24. Refinery Process Stream Purification Refinery Process Catalysts Troubleshooting Refinery Process Catalyst Start-Up / Shutdown Activation Reduction In-situ Ex-situ Sulfiding Specializing in Refinery Process Catalyst Performance Evaluation Heat & Mass Balance Analysis Catalyst Remaining Life Determination Catalyst Deactivation Assessment Catalyst Performance Characterization Refining & Gas Processing & Petrochemical Industries Catalysts / Process Technology - Hydrogen Catalysts / Process Technology – Ammonia Catalyst Process Technology - Methanol Catalysts / process Technology – Petrochemicals Specializing in the Development & Commercialization of New Technology in the Refining & Petrochemical Industries Web Site: www.GBHEnterprises.com

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