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Prof. Gaurav Singh
Associate Dean,
Faculty of Architecture and Planning,
Dr. APJAKTU
What is IoT?
 The Internet of Things (IoT) is the network of
physical objects or "things" embedded with electronics,
software, sensors, and network connectivity, which enables
these objects to collect and exchange data.
 IoT allows objects to be sensed and controlled
remotely across existing network infrastructure, creating
opportunities for more direct integration between the
physical world and computer-based systems, and resulting
in improved efficiency, accuracy and economic benefit.

2
"Things," in the IoT sense, can refer to a wide variety
of devices such as heart monitoring implants, biochip
transponders on farm animals, electric clams in coastal
waters, automobiles with built-in sensors, DNA analysis
devices for environmental/food/pathogen monitoring or
field operation devices that assist fire-fighters in search
and rescue operations.
These devices collect useful data with the help of
various existing technologies and then autonomously flow
the data between other devices.
3
Iot Definition
 “The Internet of Things (IoT) is a system of
interrelated computing devices, mechanical and
digital machines, objects, animals or people that are
provided with unique identifiers and the ability to
transfer data over a network without requiring
human-to-human or human-to-computer
interaction.”
5
6
The concept of the Internet of Things first became
popular in 1999, through the Auto-ID Center at MIT and
related market-analysis publications.
Radio-frequency identification (RFID) was seen as a
prerequisite for the IoT at that point. If all objects and
people in daily life were equipped with identifiers,
computers could manage and inventory them. Besides
using RFID, the tagging of things may be achieved through
such technologies as near field communication, barcodes,
QR codes, bluetooth, and digital watermarking.
History of IoT
7
History of IOT
•1999- The term "Internet of Things" was used by
Kevin Ashton during his work at P&G which
became widely accepted
•2004 - The term was mentioned in famous
publications like the Guardian, Boston Globe, and
Scientific American
•2005-UN's International Telecommunications
Union (ITU) published its first report on this topic.
•2008- The Internet of Things was born
•2011- Gartner, the market research company,
include "The Internet of Things" technology in their
research
How IoT Works?
Internet of Things is not the result of a single novel
technology; instead, several complementary technical
developments provide capabilities that taken together help
to bridge the gap between the virtual and physical world.
These capabilities include:
 Communication and cooperation
 Addressability
 Identification
 Sensing
 Actuation
 Embedded information processing
 Localization
 User interfaces
9
How IoT Works?
10
RFID Sensor Smart Tech Nano Tech
To identify
and track
the data
of things
To collect
and process
the data to
detect the
changes in
the physical
status of
things
To enhance
the power of
the network
by devolving
processing
capabilities to
different part
of the
network.
To make the
smaller and
smaller
things have
the ability to
connect and
interact.
How IoT works?
 1) Sensors/Devices
 2) Connectivity
 3) Data Processing
 4)User Interface
1) Sensors/Devices
 Sensors or devices are a key component
that helps you to collect live data from the
surrounding environment.
 All this data may have various levels of
complexities.
 It could be a simple temperature
monitoring sensor, or it may be in the
form of the video feed.
2) Connectivity
 All the collected data is sent to a cloud
infrastructure.
 The sensors should be connected to the
cloud using various mediums of
communications.
 These communication mediums include
mobile or satellite networks, Bluetooth,
WI-FI, WAN, etc.
3) Data Processing
 Once that data is collected, and it gets to
the cloud, the software performs
processing on the gathered data.
 This process can be just checking the
temperature, reading on devices like AC
or heaters.
 However, it can sometimes also be very
complex like identifying objects, using
computer vision on video.
4)User Interface
• The information needs to be available to
the end-user in some way which can be
achieved by triggering alarms on their
phones or sending them notification
through email or text message.
o The user sometimes might need an
interface which actively checks their IoT
system.
• For example, the user has a camera
installed in his home. He wants to access
video recording and all the feeds with the
help of a web server.
The Structure of IoT
The IoT can be viewed as a gigantic network
consisting of networks of devices and computers
connected through a series of intermediate technologies
where numerous technologies like RFIDs, wireless
connections may act as enablers of this connectivity.
 Tagging Things : Real-time item traceability and addressability
by RFIDs.
 Feeling Things : Sensors act as primary devices to collect data
from the environment.
 Shrinking Things : Miniaturization and Nanotechnology has
provoked the ability of smaller things to interact and connect
within the “things” or “smart devices.”
 Thinking Things : Embedded intelligence in devices through
sensors has formed the network connection to the Internet. It
can make the “things” realizing the intelligent control.
16
Current Status & Future Prospect of IoT
17
“Change is the only thing permanent in this world”
IoT as a Network of Networks:
18
These networks connected with added security, analytics, and
management capabilities. This will allow IoT to become even
more powerful in what it can help people achieve.
Knowledge Management –
Turning Data into Wisdom
19
The more data that is created, the better understanding and
wisdom people can obtain.
Unlock the Massive potential of IoT
20
Technology roadmap of IoT
21
Why Is Internet of Things (IoT) so
important?
 Over the past few years, IoT has become one of the
most important technologies of the 21st century.
 Now that we can connect everyday objects—kitchen
appliances, cars, thermostats, baby monitors—to the
internet via embedded devices, seamless
communication is possible between people, processes,
and things.
 By means of low-cost computing, the cloud, big data,
analytics, and mobile technologies, physical things can
share and collect data with minimal human
intervention.
Applications of IoT
"The Ultimate Goal of IOT is to Automate Human Life."
23
Few Applications of IoT
Building and Home automation
Manufacturing
Medical and Healthcare systems
Media
Environmental monitoring
Infrastructure management
Energy management
Transportation
Better quality of life for elderly
... ... ...
You name it, and you will have it in IoT!
24
25
26
Internet of Things is the next stage of the
information revolution and referenced the inter-
connectivity of everything from urban transport to
medical devices to household appliances.
Integration with the Internet implies that devices
will use an IP address as a unique identifier. However,
due to the limited address space of IPv4 (which allows
for 4.3 billion unique addresses), objects in the IoT will
have to use IPv6 to accommodate the extremely large
address space required.
Objects in the IoT will not only be devices with
sensory capabilities, but also provide actuation
capabilities (e.g., bulbs or locks controlled over the
Internet).
27
On the other hand, IoT systems could also be
responsible for performing actions, not just sensing
things. Intelligent shopping systems, for example,
could monitor specific users' purchasing habits in a
store by tracking their specific mobile phones. These
users could then be provided with special offers on
their favourite products, or even location of items that
they need, which their fridge has automatically
conveyed to the phone.
Additional examples of sensing and actuating are
reflected in applications that deal with heat, electricity
and energy management, as well as cruise-assisting
transportation systems. Other applications that the
Internet of Things can provide is enabling extended
home security features and home automation.
28
29
30
31
32
IoT helps you in LIFE LOGGING
33
TECHNOLOGICAL CHALLENGES OF IoT
At present IoT is faced with many challenges, such as:
 Scalability
 Technological Standardization
 Inter operability
 Discovery
 Software complexity
 Data volumes and interpretation
 Power Supply
 Interaction and short range communication
 Wireless communication
 Fault tolerance
34
35
IoT and Big Data are two independent technologies that are inseparable from each
other, to enable well-known technological advances. While the IoT would largely
collect data from physical objects through different sensors, Big Data would allow
faster and more efficient storage and processing of this data.
Criticisms and Controversies of IoT
Scholars and social observers and pessimists have
doubts about the promises of the ubiquitous
computing revolution, in the areas as:
 Privacy
 Security
 Autonomy and Control
 Social control
 Political manipulation
 Design
 Environmental impact
 Influences human moral decision making
36
Advantages of IoT
 Ability to access information from anywhere at any
time on any device;
 Improved communication between connected
electronic devices;
 Transferring data packets over a connected network
saving time and money; and
 Automating tasks helping to improve the quality of a
business's services and reducing the need for human
intervention.
Disadvantages IoT
 As the number of connected devices increases and more
information is shared between devices, the potential that a
hacker could steal confidential information also increases.
 Enterprises may eventually have to deal with massive
numbers -- maybe even millions -- of IoT devices, and
collecting and managing the data from all those devices
will be challenging.
 If there's a bug in the system, it's likely that every
connected device will become corrupted.
 Since there's no international standard of compatibility for
IoT, it's difficult for devices from different manufacturers to
communicate with each other.
THANK YOU
39

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IoT Explained

  • 1. Prof. Gaurav Singh Associate Dean, Faculty of Architecture and Planning, Dr. APJAKTU
  • 2. What is IoT?  The Internet of Things (IoT) is the network of physical objects or "things" embedded with electronics, software, sensors, and network connectivity, which enables these objects to collect and exchange data.  IoT allows objects to be sensed and controlled remotely across existing network infrastructure, creating opportunities for more direct integration between the physical world and computer-based systems, and resulting in improved efficiency, accuracy and economic benefit.  2
  • 3. "Things," in the IoT sense, can refer to a wide variety of devices such as heart monitoring implants, biochip transponders on farm animals, electric clams in coastal waters, automobiles with built-in sensors, DNA analysis devices for environmental/food/pathogen monitoring or field operation devices that assist fire-fighters in search and rescue operations. These devices collect useful data with the help of various existing technologies and then autonomously flow the data between other devices. 3
  • 4. Iot Definition  “The Internet of Things (IoT) is a system of interrelated computing devices, mechanical and digital machines, objects, animals or people that are provided with unique identifiers and the ability to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction.”
  • 5. 5
  • 6. 6
  • 7. The concept of the Internet of Things first became popular in 1999, through the Auto-ID Center at MIT and related market-analysis publications. Radio-frequency identification (RFID) was seen as a prerequisite for the IoT at that point. If all objects and people in daily life were equipped with identifiers, computers could manage and inventory them. Besides using RFID, the tagging of things may be achieved through such technologies as near field communication, barcodes, QR codes, bluetooth, and digital watermarking. History of IoT 7
  • 8. History of IOT •1999- The term "Internet of Things" was used by Kevin Ashton during his work at P&G which became widely accepted •2004 - The term was mentioned in famous publications like the Guardian, Boston Globe, and Scientific American •2005-UN's International Telecommunications Union (ITU) published its first report on this topic. •2008- The Internet of Things was born •2011- Gartner, the market research company, include "The Internet of Things" technology in their research
  • 9. How IoT Works? Internet of Things is not the result of a single novel technology; instead, several complementary technical developments provide capabilities that taken together help to bridge the gap between the virtual and physical world. These capabilities include:  Communication and cooperation  Addressability  Identification  Sensing  Actuation  Embedded information processing  Localization  User interfaces 9
  • 10. How IoT Works? 10 RFID Sensor Smart Tech Nano Tech To identify and track the data of things To collect and process the data to detect the changes in the physical status of things To enhance the power of the network by devolving processing capabilities to different part of the network. To make the smaller and smaller things have the ability to connect and interact.
  • 11. How IoT works?  1) Sensors/Devices  2) Connectivity  3) Data Processing  4)User Interface
  • 12. 1) Sensors/Devices  Sensors or devices are a key component that helps you to collect live data from the surrounding environment.  All this data may have various levels of complexities.  It could be a simple temperature monitoring sensor, or it may be in the form of the video feed.
  • 13. 2) Connectivity  All the collected data is sent to a cloud infrastructure.  The sensors should be connected to the cloud using various mediums of communications.  These communication mediums include mobile or satellite networks, Bluetooth, WI-FI, WAN, etc.
  • 14. 3) Data Processing  Once that data is collected, and it gets to the cloud, the software performs processing on the gathered data.  This process can be just checking the temperature, reading on devices like AC or heaters.  However, it can sometimes also be very complex like identifying objects, using computer vision on video.
  • 15. 4)User Interface • The information needs to be available to the end-user in some way which can be achieved by triggering alarms on their phones or sending them notification through email or text message. o The user sometimes might need an interface which actively checks their IoT system. • For example, the user has a camera installed in his home. He wants to access video recording and all the feeds with the help of a web server.
  • 16. The Structure of IoT The IoT can be viewed as a gigantic network consisting of networks of devices and computers connected through a series of intermediate technologies where numerous technologies like RFIDs, wireless connections may act as enablers of this connectivity.  Tagging Things : Real-time item traceability and addressability by RFIDs.  Feeling Things : Sensors act as primary devices to collect data from the environment.  Shrinking Things : Miniaturization and Nanotechnology has provoked the ability of smaller things to interact and connect within the “things” or “smart devices.”  Thinking Things : Embedded intelligence in devices through sensors has formed the network connection to the Internet. It can make the “things” realizing the intelligent control. 16
  • 17. Current Status & Future Prospect of IoT 17 “Change is the only thing permanent in this world”
  • 18. IoT as a Network of Networks: 18 These networks connected with added security, analytics, and management capabilities. This will allow IoT to become even more powerful in what it can help people achieve.
  • 19. Knowledge Management – Turning Data into Wisdom 19 The more data that is created, the better understanding and wisdom people can obtain.
  • 20. Unlock the Massive potential of IoT 20
  • 22. Why Is Internet of Things (IoT) so important?  Over the past few years, IoT has become one of the most important technologies of the 21st century.  Now that we can connect everyday objects—kitchen appliances, cars, thermostats, baby monitors—to the internet via embedded devices, seamless communication is possible between people, processes, and things.  By means of low-cost computing, the cloud, big data, analytics, and mobile technologies, physical things can share and collect data with minimal human intervention.
  • 23. Applications of IoT "The Ultimate Goal of IOT is to Automate Human Life." 23
  • 24. Few Applications of IoT Building and Home automation Manufacturing Medical and Healthcare systems Media Environmental monitoring Infrastructure management Energy management Transportation Better quality of life for elderly ... ... ... You name it, and you will have it in IoT! 24
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  • 27. Internet of Things is the next stage of the information revolution and referenced the inter- connectivity of everything from urban transport to medical devices to household appliances. Integration with the Internet implies that devices will use an IP address as a unique identifier. However, due to the limited address space of IPv4 (which allows for 4.3 billion unique addresses), objects in the IoT will have to use IPv6 to accommodate the extremely large address space required. Objects in the IoT will not only be devices with sensory capabilities, but also provide actuation capabilities (e.g., bulbs or locks controlled over the Internet). 27
  • 28. On the other hand, IoT systems could also be responsible for performing actions, not just sensing things. Intelligent shopping systems, for example, could monitor specific users' purchasing habits in a store by tracking their specific mobile phones. These users could then be provided with special offers on their favourite products, or even location of items that they need, which their fridge has automatically conveyed to the phone. Additional examples of sensing and actuating are reflected in applications that deal with heat, electricity and energy management, as well as cruise-assisting transportation systems. Other applications that the Internet of Things can provide is enabling extended home security features and home automation. 28
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  • 32. 32 IoT helps you in LIFE LOGGING
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  • 34. TECHNOLOGICAL CHALLENGES OF IoT At present IoT is faced with many challenges, such as:  Scalability  Technological Standardization  Inter operability  Discovery  Software complexity  Data volumes and interpretation  Power Supply  Interaction and short range communication  Wireless communication  Fault tolerance 34
  • 35. 35 IoT and Big Data are two independent technologies that are inseparable from each other, to enable well-known technological advances. While the IoT would largely collect data from physical objects through different sensors, Big Data would allow faster and more efficient storage and processing of this data.
  • 36. Criticisms and Controversies of IoT Scholars and social observers and pessimists have doubts about the promises of the ubiquitous computing revolution, in the areas as:  Privacy  Security  Autonomy and Control  Social control  Political manipulation  Design  Environmental impact  Influences human moral decision making 36
  • 37. Advantages of IoT  Ability to access information from anywhere at any time on any device;  Improved communication between connected electronic devices;  Transferring data packets over a connected network saving time and money; and  Automating tasks helping to improve the quality of a business's services and reducing the need for human intervention.
  • 38. Disadvantages IoT  As the number of connected devices increases and more information is shared between devices, the potential that a hacker could steal confidential information also increases.  Enterprises may eventually have to deal with massive numbers -- maybe even millions -- of IoT devices, and collecting and managing the data from all those devices will be challenging.  If there's a bug in the system, it's likely that every connected device will become corrupted.  Since there's no international standard of compatibility for IoT, it's difficult for devices from different manufacturers to communicate with each other.