Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Presented by
Gajendra C.V
Allelopathy – Meaning and definition
• Coined by Hans molisch (1937), In Greek, Allelo and Pathos
literally Mutual sufferi...
Allelopathy perspectives and
problems
• Lack of adequate field studies
• Difficulties in determining the critical concentr...
Roles of microbes in modulating the interaction of allelopathic
donor-receiver species
Marsmin
Allelochemicals – Diversity , Nature, Mode of
Release and Significance
• In, general the chemicals responsible for the phe...
Nature
• These phytochemicals synthesized as 20
metabolites – have no direct effect function in
growth and development of ...
Release of allelo-chemicals
• Lechation
• Volatilization
• Root exudates
• Decomposition of plant parts
Induction of allelochemical production by the plant
itself and environmental factors
Plant factors
Environmental factors
B...
Methods study the Allelopathy
• Plot box method
• Sandwich method
• Stair-step method
• Revised substitutive design (to de...
A New sloped box method to study allelopathic
effects of Acacia dealbata under competitive
interactions (Lorenzo et al., 2...
A dish pack method - (Fang Cheng and Zhihui
Cheng, 2015)
Major pathway leading to production of
allelochemicals – (Wang et al., 2006)
Shikimmic acid pathway, Acid mevalanonate pat...
Chemical Warfare in the Plant Kingdom
Allelopathic Species Type of Chemical Affected Species
Sugar Maple Phenolics Yellow ...
Allelopathic problems associated with
Agriculture, Horticulture and Forestry
1) Soil sickness
2) Auto toxicity under same ...
Recommendation
• Application of allelopathy in sustainable developmental
agriculture, especially as natural herbicide and ...
2nd AFRICA - INTERNATIONAL
ALLELOPATHY CONGRESS
Topics
1. Allelopathy in sustainable and organic agriculture
2. Allelopath...
Allelopathy
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Allelopathy

3,638 views

Published on

general description about the allelopathy and allelochemistry with respect to agroforestry. Also, includes methods to study the allelopathy.

Published in: Environment
  • Be the first to comment

Allelopathy

  1. 1. Presented by Gajendra C.V
  2. 2. Allelopathy – Meaning and definition • Coined by Hans molisch (1937), In Greek, Allelo and Pathos literally Mutual suffering • Definition: Allelopathy as any direct or indirect positive or negative effect of one plant on the other (including the microbes) through the release of chemicals into the environment
  3. 3. Allelopathy perspectives and problems • Lack of adequate field studies • Difficulties in determining the critical concentrations of allelo- chemicals in soil • Inappropriate bio-assay models • Difficulty in establishing the role of microbes in litter decomposition, release of allelo-chemicals and subsequent transformation
  4. 4. Roles of microbes in modulating the interaction of allelopathic donor-receiver species Marsmin
  5. 5. Allelochemicals – Diversity , Nature, Mode of Release and Significance • In, general the chemicals responsible for the phenomenon of allelopathy is called allelochemicals Allelopathic classes of chemical interactions 1. Antibiotic - (Microorganism to Microorganism 2. Koline - (Plants to Plants) 3. Marsmin – (Microorganisms to Plants) 4. Phytoncide - (Plants to Microorganisms) Based on type of donor Plant eco-chemicals (Sapro- inhitors and phyto – inhibitors) • The plant phenolics and Terpenoides show great chemical diversity
  6. 6. Nature • These phytochemicals synthesized as 20 metabolites – have no direct effect function in growth and development of plant - Defensive adapation
  7. 7. Release of allelo-chemicals • Lechation • Volatilization • Root exudates • Decomposition of plant parts
  8. 8. Induction of allelochemical production by the plant itself and environmental factors Plant factors Environmental factors Biotic factors
  9. 9. Methods study the Allelopathy • Plot box method • Sandwich method • Stair-step method • Revised substitutive design (to descriminate the allelopathic contribution o field condition) • New sloped box method (allelopathy under competitive interactions) • A dish pack method (Volatile allelo-chemicals)
  10. 10. A New sloped box method to study allelopathic effects of Acacia dealbata under competitive interactions (Lorenzo et al., 2012)
  11. 11. A dish pack method - (Fang Cheng and Zhihui Cheng, 2015)
  12. 12. Major pathway leading to production of allelochemicals – (Wang et al., 2006) Shikimmic acid pathway, Acid mevalanonate pathway
  13. 13. Chemical Warfare in the Plant Kingdom Allelopathic Species Type of Chemical Affected Species Sugar Maple Phenolics Yellow Birch, White Spruce Hackberry Coumarins Herbs, grasses Eucalyptus Phenolics Shrubs, herbs, grasses Black Walnut Juglone (Quinone) Pines, Apple, Birch, Black Alder, Hackberry, Basswood, Azalea, Juniper Phenolics Grasses Sycamore (Planetree) Coumarins Yellow Birch, herbs, grasses Black Cherry Cyanogenic glycosides Red Maple, Red Pine Oaks Coumarins, Herbs, grasses Other phenolics Sassafras Terpenoids Elm, Silver Maple, Boxelder Balsam Poplar Green Alder Southern Red Oak Sweetgum
  14. 14. Allelopathic problems associated with Agriculture, Horticulture and Forestry 1) Soil sickness 2) Auto toxicity under same crop mono - cropping. 3) Increased crop- weed interference 4) Growing susceptibility of plants to disease/ pests 5) Reduced nitrification and biological nitrogen fixation 6) Reduced nutrient uptake 7) Weed seed decomposition delayed/ prevented 8) Poor success on replanting of tree crops 9) Failure of vegetative propagation (e.g. grafting, budding) 10) Suppression effect from trees
  15. 15. Recommendation • Application of allelopathy in sustainable developmental agriculture, especially as natural herbicide and pesticide models
  16. 16. 2nd AFRICA - INTERNATIONAL ALLELOPATHY CONGRESS Topics 1. Allelopathy in sustainable and organic agriculture 2. Allelopathy in natural ecosystems 3. Allelopathy in soil sickness 4. Chemistry of alleochemicals 5. Molecular biology and genetics of allelopathy 6. Physiology and biochemistry of allelopathy 7. Allelopathy mechanisms and interactions 8. Alleopathy methodologies and modelling Allelopathy for sustainability November 16th -19th ,2016 Tunisia

×