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ALLELOPATHY
Department of Agronomy BZU Multan
Presented By:
Malik Ghulam Asghar
Outline
1) Background
2) Allelopathy
3) Allelopathic interactions
4) Allelopathic Chemicals
5) Mode of Action of Alleloche...
Background
Harmful
effects of
Herbicides
ALLELOPATHY
Definition
Greek words
allelon which means "of each other“
pathos which means "to suffer".
“Allelopathy refers...
Forms of Allelopathic Interactions
Forms of Allelopathy
Weed on
Crop
Weed on
Weed
Crop on weed
Allelopathic Interaction
1) Weed on Crop
Jungli pallak affect the wheat plant growth and development
Inhibits
Allelopathic Interaction
2) Weed on Weed
Impereta cylindrica (Cogon grass) inhibits the emergence and growth
of an annual ...
Allelopathic Interaction
3) Crop on Weed
Oat, pea, wheat suppress the growth of Chenopodium album
(Lamsquarter)
Inhibits
Allelopathic effects of crops on weeds
Crop Weed sp. Source of inhibitors
Maize Chenopodium album,
Amaranthus retroflexus
...
Allelopathic Chemicals
Phenolic acid
Coumarins
Terpinoids
Flavinoids
Scopulatens
Mode of Action of Allelochemicals
Extract preparation of Allelochemicals
Washing
Drying
70 ˚c
Chopping
Grinding
Mixing
1:20
Extract
Types of allelopathy
1. True Allelopathy
The true allelopathy is the release of substances that are toxic in the form
in w...
Ways of releasing Allelochemicals
Allelopathic chemicals are released from
the plants as:
Vapour – from root and leaf (th...
Factors affecting Allelopathic effect
Allelopathic effects might also depend on a number of other factors that might be
im...
Advantages of Allelopathy
1) Limit competition for space,
light, nutrients, water
2) Autotoxity (Chemical produced
inhibit...
Allelopathy and Weed Management
Allelopathic extracts have been successfully
used for organic weed management.
Allelochemi...
Allelopathy and competition
Plants will compete for sunlight, water
and nutrients.
Allelopathic plants prevent other pla...
Management of Plant Allelopathy
Arrangement of Cropping Systems
Crop allelopathy can be effectively used to
control weeds ...
Management of Plant Allelopathy
Straw Mulching
Allelopathic applications, such as straw
mulching, provide sustainable weed...
Thank you !
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Allelopathy

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Allelopathy is the chemical inhibition of one plant (or other organism) by another, due to the release into the environment of substances acting as germination or growth inhibitors.

Published in: Environment
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Allelopathy

  1. 1. ALLELOPATHY Department of Agronomy BZU Multan Presented By: Malik Ghulam Asghar
  2. 2. Outline 1) Background 2) Allelopathy 3) Allelopathic interactions 4) Allelopathic Chemicals 5) Mode of Action of Allelochemicals 6) Effects of Allelochemicals 7) Types of Allelopathy 8) Ways of releasing Allelochemicals 9) Factors affecting the Allelopathy 10) Allelopathy and Competition 11) Allelopathy and weeds management
  3. 3. Background Harmful effects of Herbicides
  4. 4. ALLELOPATHY Definition Greek words allelon which means "of each other“ pathos which means "to suffer". “Allelopathy refers chemicals released into the environment where it affects the development and growth of neighboring plants”
  5. 5. Forms of Allelopathic Interactions Forms of Allelopathy Weed on Crop Weed on Weed Crop on weed
  6. 6. Allelopathic Interaction 1) Weed on Crop Jungli pallak affect the wheat plant growth and development Inhibits
  7. 7. Allelopathic Interaction 2) Weed on Weed Impereta cylindrica (Cogon grass) inhibits the emergence and growth of an annual broadleaf weed i.e. Borreria hispada (Button weed) by exudation inhibitory substances through rhizomes. Inhibits
  8. 8. Allelopathic Interaction 3) Crop on Weed Oat, pea, wheat suppress the growth of Chenopodium album (Lamsquarter) Inhibits
  9. 9. Allelopathic effects of crops on weeds Crop Weed sp. Source of inhibitors Maize Chenopodium album, Amaranthus retroflexus Roots Sorghum Abutylontheophrasti, Amaranthus hybridus Shoots and foliages Rye Digitaria sanguinalis, Ambrosia artimisifolia Shoots and foliages
  10. 10. Allelopathic Chemicals Phenolic acid Coumarins Terpinoids Flavinoids Scopulatens
  11. 11. Mode of Action of Allelochemicals
  12. 12. Extract preparation of Allelochemicals Washing Drying 70 ˚c Chopping Grinding Mixing 1:20 Extract
  13. 13. Types of allelopathy 1. True Allelopathy The true allelopathy is the release of substances that are toxic in the form in which they are produced in the plant. 2. Functional Allelopathy Functional allelopathy is the release of substances that are toxic or a result of transformation by micro-organism .
  14. 14. Ways of releasing Allelochemicals Allelopathic chemicals are released from the plants as: Vapour – from root and leaf (through stomata) Foliar Root Breakdown/ decomposition product of dead plant parts Seed extract
  15. 15. Factors affecting Allelopathic effect Allelopathic effects might also depend on a number of other factors that might be important in any given situation: Varieties Specificity Auto-toxicity Crop on crop effects Environmental factors
  16. 16. Advantages of Allelopathy 1) Limit competition for space, light, nutrients, water 2) Autotoxity (Chemical produced inhibits germination of it's own seeds) 3) Allelopathic Weed Suppression Through the Use of Cover Crops
  17. 17. Allelopathy and Weed Management Allelopathic extracts have been successfully used for organic weed management. Allelochemicals are diverse in nature and structure and thus lack common mode of action. This phytotoxic activity of Allelochemicals is responsible for growth suppression of weeds.
  18. 18. Allelopathy and competition Plants will compete for sunlight, water and nutrients. Allelopathic plants prevent other plants from using the available resources and thus influence the evolution and distribution of other species.
  19. 19. Management of Plant Allelopathy Arrangement of Cropping Systems Crop allelopathy can be effectively used to control weeds in the field. By intercropping those field crops which can suppress weeds of next crops
  20. 20. Management of Plant Allelopathy Straw Mulching Allelopathic applications, such as straw mulching, provide sustainable weed management The allelochemicals from decomposed straw can suppress weed growth in farmlands, and reduce the incidence of pests and diseases.
  21. 21. Thank you !

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