KAPLAN UNIVERSITYHW410 Stress: Critical Issues in Management andPrevention Stress Management and Prevention Program Resource Guide 1
KAPLAN UNIVERSITYStress Management and Prevention Program Resource Guide By Karla L. Jackson Kaplan University HW410: Stress: Critical Issues in Management and Prevention June 21, 2011
Table of Contents UNI T 1 THE NATURE OF STRESS Information to Remember: “What is Stress?” Quotes that Define Stress Resources: My Health Philosophy Tools: Are You Stressed? UNI T 2 THE PHYSI OLOG Y OF STRESS Information to Remember: The Physiology of Stress Resources: Immediate, Intermediate, and Prolonged Stress Effects Tools: Journal Writing: Physical Symptoms Questionnaire UNI T 3 PSYCHOLOGY OF STRESS Information to Remember: Stress and Various Aspects of Psychology Quotes Resources: Emotional Well-Being Tools: Journal Writing: The Psychology of Your Stress UNI T 4 PERSONALI TY T RAI TS AND HUMAN SPI R I TUALI TY Information to Remember: “What is Stress?” Quotes that Define Stress Resources: Your Personal Value System Tools: Journal Writing: Stress-Resistant Personality Survey UNI T 5 DEALI NG WI TH STRESS: COPI NG STRA TEGI ES Information to Remember: Various Quotes on Coping Strategies & Stress Tools: Journal Writing: The Time-Crunch Questionnaire UNI T 6 RELAXATION TE CHNI QUES 1: BREATHI NG, MEDI TATI ON, AND MENTAL I MAGERY Information to Remember: Quotes Resources: Bridging the Hemispheres of Thought Tools: Journal Writing: Too Much Information UNI T 7NUTRI TI ON & ST RESS Information to Remember: Various Quotes on Nutrition & Stress Tools: Journal Writing: Self-Assessment: Nutritional Eating Habits UNI T 8 PHYSI CAL EXER CI SE & ACTI VI TY
Information to Remember: The Benefits of Fitness to De-stressing Quotes Tools: Journal Writing: Physical ExerciseREFERENCES (End of the Guide)
1 UnitUnit 1: The Nature of StressInformation to Remember: Stress is a physiological response to external or internal stimuli, an action or a thought. Stress can be good (eustress) or bad (distress). Stress is an integral part of life, as human beings are reactive and responsive to their environments and thoughts, and the circumstances that occur there. Stress is a survival response. The stimulus is the stressor. ―Selye added …that stress is the nonspecific response of the body to any demand placed upon it to adapt, whether that demand produces pleasure or pain.‖ Selye observed that whether a situation was perceived as good (e.g., a job promotion) or bad (e.g., the loss of a job), the physiological response or arousal was very similar. The body, according to Selye, doesn‘t know the difference between good and bad stress. (Brian Luke Seaward, 2009, p. 5) ―A stressor is anything in the outside world that knocks you out of homeostatic balance, and the stress response is what your body does to reestablish homeostasis.‖ (Saplosky, 1998, p. 6)Resources: Exercise 1.1My Health PhilosophyLife is a kaleidoscope of the infinite variety. No two things are the same. Everyone’s life is individual. --Paramahansa YoganandaWe all have philosophies. Philosophies are nothing more than our opinions, dressed up with anintroduction and conclusion—a way to present to someone, even ourselves, what we really thinkabout some topic or ideal. We have philosophies on everything—the types of music we like andlisten to, the state of world affairs, and even the foods we eat at restaurants.
Now it‘s time to examine your philosophy about your health. Based on what you already know, andperhaps have been taught or exposed to, define as best you can what the words health and wellnessmean to you. After having done this, ask yourself why health is so important and write a few linesabout this.Given the premise that every issue is a health issue, identify some seemingly non-health issues suchas the global economy, deforestation, or TV programming. See if you can discover the connectionbetween these issues and your state of well-being. How is your state of health influenced by stress?Finally, where do you see yourself twenty-five years from now? If you were to continue your currentlifestyle for the next three to four decades, how do you see yourself at that point in the future? Yourhealth philosophy guides your state of health. What is your health philosophy?What has influenced your philosophy up to now (e.g., parents, teachers, friends, books)? Be specific.Take some time to write it down here now. If you need additional space to write,use the extra pages provided at the back of this book.My Health Philosophy My philosophy on health and wellness, along with my faith in Christ, defines who I am as awoman. My health is as free of disease, neuroses, and any other negative, debilitating issue, whetherphysiological, psychological, physical, social, or spiritual, as much as is possible per my control.Wellness is living with positivity and optimism throughout life‘s joys and tragedies; I choose to livewith a good attitude. My health and wellness philosophy is eloquently stated by Howley and Franks: “Total fitness is a condition reached through striving to optimize life in all aspects – social, mental, psychological, spiritual, and physical. This dynamic, multidimensional state has a positive health base and includes individual performance goals. The highest quality of life includes mental alertness and curiosity, and positive emotional feelings,meaningful relationships with others, awareness and involvement in social strivings, recognition of the broader forces of life, and the physical capacity to accomplish goals with vigor…high fitness in one area enhances the other areas, and conversely, lower fitness in any area restricts the accomplishments possible in other areas…An optimal quality of life
requires individuals to strive, grow, and develop, though they may never achieve the highest level of fitness. The totally fit person…continually strives for the highest quality of life possible.” (Howley, 2007, p. 6) I am totally fit! It is health, it is wellness, it is celebratory, it is dynamic, it is evolutionary, it isgood, and it these are all me! This is how I am able to express myself in and throughout life, tomyself and others. Good health is what I own, how I will continue to strive toward the things Idream of, and how I will attain them; how I be with those I love and care for, how I will serveothers; how I am. I am healthy, grateful, and thankful every day. My good health a gift.Reason: I had to really think about how I want to live in regards to health and wellness. Havingwritten these thoughts down is like having a map upon which to reference.Tools: Journal WritingAre You Stressed?Although there is no definitive survey composed of 20 questions to determine if you are stressed orburnt out or just exactly how stressed you really are, questionnaires do help increase awareness that,indeed, there may be a problem in one or more areas of your life. The following is an example of asimple stress inventory to help you determine the level of stress in your life. Read each statement, andthen circle either the word Agree or Disagree. Then count the number of "Agree" points (one perquestion) and use the Stress Level Key to determine your personal stress level. Statement: Agree Disagree 1. I have a hard time falling asleep at night. Agree Disagree 2. I tend to suffer from tension and/or migraine headaches. Agree Disagree 3. I find myself thinking about finances and making ends meet. Agree Disagree 4 .I wish I could find more to laugh and smile about each day. Agree Disagree 5. More often than not, I skip breakfast or lunch to get things done. Agree Disagree 6. If I could change my job situation, I would. Agree Disagree 7. I wish I had more personal time for leisure pursuits. Agree Disagree 8. I have lost a good friend or family member recently. Agree Disagree
2 UnitUnit 2: The Physiology of StressInformation to Remember: Having learned that stress can enhance and disrupt memory, improving your memory during stress is crucial to survival. ―When a stressor is occurring it is a good time to be at your best in memory retrieval…and formation.‖ (Sapolsky, 1998, p. 211). You need to be able to gain the experience (if the stressor is new), or be able to remember (application) what you did the last time (the recurring stressor) in order to get yourself out of it again to ensure your survivability and ensure optimal functionality; conversely, ―practice makes perfect.‖ (Unit 2 Discussion Post, Author‘s Submission, Question #1). The stress, or ―fight or flight,‖ response is the set of ―… dynamics involved in the body‘s physiological arousal to survive a threat.‖ It involves: Stage 1. Stimuli from one or more of the five senses are sent to the brain (e.g., a scream, the smell of fire, the taste of poison, a passing truck in your lane). Stage 2. The brain deciphers the stimulus as either a threat or a nonthreat. If the stimulus is not regarded as a threat, this is the end of the response (e.g., the scream came from the television). If, however, the response is decoded as a real threat, the brain then activates the nervous and endocrine systems to quickly prepare for defense and/or escape. Stage 3. The body stays activated, aroused, or ―keyed-up‖ until the threat is over. Stage 4. The body returns to homeostasis, a state of physiological calmness, once the threat is gone. (Brian Luke Seaward, 2009). Physiological Systems Affected by “Fight or Flight” Response (Ibid, p. 7): a. Increased heart rate to pump oxygenated blood to working muscles b. Increased blood pressure to deliver blood to working muscles c. Increased ventilation to supply working muscles with oxygen for energy metabolism d. Vasodilation of arteries to the body‘s periphery (arms and legs) with the greatest muscle mass e. Increased serum glucose for metabolic processes during muscle contractions f. Increased free fatty acid mobilization as an energy source for prolonged activity (e.g., running)
g. Increased blood coagulation and decreased clotting time in the event of bleeding h. Increased muscular strength i. Decreased gastric movement and abdominal blood flow to allow blood to go to working muscles j. Increased perspiration to cool body-core temperature The body does not differentiate between eu- (good) and distress (bad); ―… [it] responds identically to all types of perceived threats.‖ (Ibid) Stress inhibits the immune system. ―Stress will suppress the formation of new lymphocytes and …shorten the time preexisting lymphocytes stay in the circulation….will inhibit the manufacturing of new antibodies in response to infectious agent,…will inhibit innate immune response, suppressing inflammation…‖ (Saplosky, 1998, p. 151).Resource: ExerciseImmediate, Intermediate, and Prolonged Stress EffectsAs noted in Chapter 2, the stress response has immediate (seconds), intermediate (minutes to hours),and prolonged (days) effects through which the symptoms of physical stress can manifest. Toreinforce your understanding of each phase of this physiological process, please take a moment toreflect on how your body reacts to stress through these three processes.1. What do you feel when immediately threatened? a. Tingling sensations Yes No b. Sweating Yes No c. Muscle tension (e.g., jaw muscles) Yes No d. Rapid heart rate Yes No e. Rapid breathing (or holding your breath) Yes No f. Rush of blood to your face and neck (blushing) Yes No g. Racing thoughts2. How would you best classify your body‘s intermediate (within hours) response to stress? a. Tension headache Yes No b. Migraine headache Yes No
c. Sore neck and shoulders Yes No d. Sore throat Yes No e. Allergies Yes No f. Stomachache Yes No g. GI tract problems Yes No3. What do you notice as long-term effects of prolonged stress (five to ten days)? a. Cold or flu Yes No b. Acne (broken-out face blemishes) Yes No c. Herpes flare-up (around lips) Yes No d. Menstrual period irregularities Yes NoReason: This Exercise was chosen because it serves as a quick reference of the physical symptoms ofstress on the body so that one learns to become vigilant and preventive.Tools: Journal WritingPhysical Symptoms QuestionnairePlease look over this list of stress-related symptoms and circle how often they have occurred in thepast week, how severe they seemed to you, and how long they lasted. Then reflect on the pastweek‘s workload and see whether you notice any connection between your stress levels and possiblestress-related symptoms. How Often? How Severe? How Long? (Number of days (1 = mild; (1 = 1 hour; in the past week) 5 = severe) 5 = all day)1. Tension headache 01234567 12345 123452. Migraine headache 01234567 12345 12345
24. Cramps 01234567 12345 1234525. Frequent accidents 01234567 12345 1234526. Other 01234567 12345 12345Score: Look over this entire list. Do you observe any patterns or relationships between your stresslevels and your physical health? A value over 30 points most likely indicates a stress-relatedhealth problem. If it seems to you that these symptoms are related to undue stress, they probablyare. Although medical treatment is advocated when necessary, the regular use of relaxationtechniques may lessen the intensity, frequency, and duration of these episodes.Comments: I have a value of 33 – not good, but understandable. Sadly, there is stress in my life, and I amuncomfortable with this information. For one, I hate the effects of stress on my body. I knowimmediately my racing heart, tightening gut, and awareness of not breathing mean stress. Knowingthe physiological effects of hormone-dumping is, in this case, more stressful. Nevertheless, I am empowered. First, I know what I am experiencing is not justpsychological, but physiological, with reactions that can result in long-lasting and/or permanentdamage to me. I am too young and vivacious to live with limitations possible should I succumb tostress. No, there is a way to ameliorate and eradicate all the stressors in my life. As stated, I am empowered. I am determined to learn and apply better/improved copingskills to the stressors. My immediate stress relievers are prayer and Bible-reading, especially thePsalms, such as this portion: ―As for me, I will call upon God, and the LORD shall save me. Evening and morning and at noon I will pray, and cry aloud, And He shall hear my voice. He has redeemed my soul in peace from From the battle that was against me, For there were many against me.
Psalm 55:16-18, NKJV (Thomas Nelson, Inc., 1982) I have learned to take comfort in Scripture, agreeing with Larry Dossey, who states ―…prayerand religious devotion are directly correlated with positive health outcomes.‖ (Schlitz, 2005, p. 230).As with being physically fit, spirituality must also be habitual in order to be maintained – thedemands of school are stressors. Being that I am determined to enjoy this return to school, I amworking on improving my time-management skills as I desire strongly to enjoy this academicjourney.Reason: I have chosen to include this Journal write-up assignment to remember that stressors canhappen anytime and reading my Bible is another way to cope.
3 UnitUnit 3: Psychology of StressInformation to Remember: ―As the mind-body connection is more closely examined with regard to the stress response, it becomes increasingly clear that the mind is a very complex phenomenon, and not merely a by- product of neurochemical interactions. The interactions of thoughts, emotions, behaviors, and personality traits—the mind is held accountable for all of them and a bit more.‖ (Brian Luke Seaward, 2009, p. 90) Stages of grieving: A process outlined by Elisabeth Kübler-Ross regarding the mental preparation for death, including denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance. (Ibid, p. 95). These Stages can also be applied to divorce, terminal illness, and termination of a job, to name several. Sapolsky‘s ‗Subtleties of Predictability‘ explains the lowered physiological stress response a person or animal experiences when warned- ―predictability makes stressors less stressful.‖ The subtleties (Sapolsky, 1998, p. 258). In reference to my exercise routines, when I know what move is coming next, when I am familiar and confidant to perform that move, and when I know how many more are left (or, time remaining when holding The Plank – I can hold one for 2 minutes 45 seconds, by the way…, working up to 3 minutes). Though there is stress, I stress less because I know what is coming next. ―In effect, information that increase predictability tells you that there is bad news, but comforts you that it‘s not going to be worse…‖ (Ibid). I can hold on for those last ten seconds…! (Unit 3 Discussion Post, Author‘s Submission, Question #2).Resources: ExercisesEmotional Well-Being Emotional well-being is best described as ―the ability to feel and express the entire range ofhuman emotions, and to control them, not be controlled by them.‖ Sounds like a pretty tall order,huh? Well, it doesn‘t have to be. What is the range of human emotions? Everything from anger tolove, and all that‘s in between. No emotion is excluded, meaning that it is perfectly all right to feelangry, jealous, giddy, sad, depressed, light-hearted, and silly. All of these feelings comprise the totalhuman experience, the complete spectrum of human emotions.
A well-accepted theory suggests that early in our development, we spend the greatestamount of time trying on and exploring emotions. But if you are like most people, you were told atan early age one or more of the following expressions related to your behavior: ―Wipe that smile offyour face,‖ ―Big boys don‘t cry,‖ ―Don‘t you ever talk back to me,‖ or ―I‘ll give you something tocry about.‖ Perhaps our parents had good intentions, or perhaps they were just at wit‘s end.Regardless of whatprompts such comments, most youngsters interpret the message altogether differently thanintended. Instead of relating such phrases only to the moment, most children take themeaning of such messages globally and think it is never all right to laugh or to cry. If we hearthese messages enough, we begin to deny some of our feelings by stuffing them down into ourunconscious minds—only to meet them head-on later in life. The second half of the emotional well-being equation says that to be emotionally well, wemust control our feelings, not let them control us. Our feelings control us when we refuse to feeland express them or when we linger too long in the moods of anger, anxiety, depression, grief, orboredom. The result is stagnation, not dynamic living.Here are some questions to ponder about your own sense of emotional well-being: 1. What is your least favorite emotion, one that you don’t like to feel or perhaps would rather avoid feeling? Can you explain why? My least favorite emotion is jealousy. Jealousy conveys a general dissatisfaction with everyone and anything at anytime for any reason. Jealousy is due to insecurity, low, low, low self-esteem, and comes from an individual who has not felt she/he was/is loved, or is unwilling to love and trust. Jealous people lack stability and are, therefore unpredictable and dangerous; are untrusting. Jealous people are difficult to be around because of their suspicious and mistrusting nature; they also ―ooze‖ (my term describing the inability to contain the negative, harmful, and hurtful emotions), making them unpredictable and unstable. Jealous people do not seem to mind hurting others because they are also selfish and unloving; they hurt people hurting people. Jealous people are high-maintenance due to aforementioned reasons. I am not a jealous person. 2. Combing through your memory, can you remember a time (or times) when you were told or reminded not to act or feel a certain way (e.g., big boys don’t cry), or were perhaps even humiliated? Take a moment to describe this incident. (Disclaimer: This is the ―ultra-short‖ version of this recount.) While serving as director of a children‘s program at my church, (volunteer staff of 20 adults, intermittent parent volunteers
and teens; serving approx. 40 children weekly). A disagreement developed during my 5th year that, had I not been grounded in my faith, would have ―rocked‖ me right out of the church. A piece of ―advice‖ I received in large doses during that trial, was ―don‘t take it personally.‖ Really!?! Though I did not like the process and the outcome, I have since learned to appreciate both: did I want to be right or reconciled? I decided that reconciliation is the way to live. What became the focus were the people and not the incident that began the riff. 3. What is your favorite emotion? Why? How often would you say you feel this emotion throughout the course of a typical day? My favorite emotion is joy. Joy, in my opinion, is the ―older sister‖ to happiness, which I define as ―younger,‖ more fickle, less faithful, more transient, less resilient. Because of joy there is laughter, love, trust, wholeness, people around, healing, strength, bond, and progress. Joy is a God-given gift to keep us grounded as we go through the issues of lifes. Joy is deeper, more dynamic (it grows with maturity), more committed, more lasting.4. If you feel you may be the kind of person who doesn’t acknowledge or express your emotions, can you think of ways to change your behavior and begin to gain a sense of emotional balance? I am emotionally intelligent. As an emotionally intelligent woman, I ―…know and manage [my] emotions well, and read and deal effectively with other people‘s feelings – [I am] at an advantage in any domain in life…picking up the unspoken rules that govern success in organizational politics…likely to be content…mastering the habits of mind that foster their own productivity…‖ (Goleman, 1994, pp. 34, 36). I am the talker; I have no problems expressing my emotions, never have. What I have had to work on is finesse, tact, diplomacy, listening, patience, empathy, and timing. Reason: I enjoyed this introspection; taking opportunity to carefully word some deep thoughts. This goes to show the importance of thinking purposefully about things. This was cathartic, had to delve deep for this one.Tools: Journal WritingThe Psychology of Your Stress
The following questions are based on several theories from Chapter 4 to help you become moreaware of your perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors during episodes of stress:1. In hindsight (because Freud said people are not aware at the time that they are doing it),do you find that you use one or more defense mechanisms to protect your ego? Reflectingon your behavior, which of the following do you see as common behaviors in yourpsychology of stress profile? a. Defensiveness (I didn‘t do it) Yes No b. Projection (She did it) Yes No c. Repression (I don‘t remember doing it) Yes No d. Displacement (He made me do it) Yes No e. Rationalization (Everyone does it) Yes No f. Humor (I can laugh about this now) Yes No Understanding each, I do not identify with any of these being my psychological stress profile;at least not in the ways defined. In all fairness, however, I have done these at one time or another, but they are not my normalresponse: projecting, repressing, or displacing; but I have been defensive when I have felt attacked.I have rationalized, but not because everyone does it, but to give further clarity as to why I did it.Humor is how I diffuse/lighten up a tense/heated situation, especially when I REALLY don‘t wantto ―go there,‖ and/or feel the individual(s) cannot ―handle‖ the weightiness of the matter.2. Carl Jung was adamant that we need to listen to the wisdom of our dreams. Please answerthe following questions based on Jung’s theories related to stress. a. Do you often remember your dreams? Yes No b. Do you make it a habit to try to understand your dreams and dream symbols? Yes No
c. Do you have any recurring dreams? Yes No d. Have you ever had a dream of an event that later came to pass? Yes No3. Kübler-Ross’s stages of grieving are not just for cancer patients. These same stages occurfor the death of every unmet expectation. What recent expectation was unmet that broughtyou to the door of the grieving process? What stage of Kübler-Ross’s progression have youcurrently reached with this stressor? My marriage is an area where I have had to apply the ability to lower my expectations; I havehad to ―grieve‖ the loss of intimacy. My husband is not dead, has been a wonderful provider, yet,has not been as equal in giving of himself. This has produced a marriage of two people existingparallel-ly, especially when it comes to being intimate and transparent in our feelings. I could never hate or mistreat this man, but, after 25 years of vying for his intimacy, I havecome to accept (the 5th Stage of Grieving) that he may never mature in this area. I have evenaccepted that I am not satisfied living with a man I cannot be intimate with, whom I cannot sharemy true thoughts and feelings nor laugh with, agree with… (It is amazing, I have ―pulled back;‖ henow wants to ―move in‖…).4. Refer to your Unit 1 Journal Writing Assignment, Exercise 1.5 (―Personal Stress Inventory: TopTen Stressors‖). Please list your stressors as predominantly anger-based or fear-based stressors.DISCLAIMER: I am not responding to the situations listed by being angry or fearful, myresponses are in compliance with the activity.Anger-Based Stressorsa. marital relationshipb. getting minimum exercisec. behind in home-school scheduleFear-Based Stressorsa. not getting enough sleepb. eating habits
c. neck & LB painReason: We are stressed for reasons we do not always closely examine. This Journal Writingassignment took me ―close to home.‖ I particularly appreciated learning about Kübler-Ross‘s stagesof grieving, seeing its added ―value‖ applicable also to divorce, job termination, and terminal illness.My emotional well-being must be kept healthy. This is shareable material!
4 UnitUnit 4: Personality Traits and theHuman SpiritualityInformation to Remember: ―…researchers have identified specific personality traits and behaviors, classified as personality types, which have begun to shed some light on the relationship between personality and disease. They include Type A behavior, codependent personality, helpless-hopeless personality, hardy personality, survivor personality, and sensation seeker or Type R personality.‖ (Brian Luke Seaward, 2009, p. 135) Stress-prone personalities are: a. Type A Personality Types – are rushed and hurried, ultra-competitive, exhibit high tendencies of polyphasia (multi-tasking), have rapid speech patterns as they seek to dominate conversations with volume and tone; display manipulative control, being they are ego-driven; are aggressive, abrasive, and have ―free-floating‖ hostility, which is an ―…indwelling anger that erupts at trivial occurrences…‖ (Brian Luke Seaward, 2009, p. 136). Because of these tendencies, Type As are more prone for cardiovascular disease. b. Type D Personality Types – represent individuals who turn their anger inward, giving them commonality with Type As; Type Ds are prone to be negative, and therefore tend to be gloomy, irritable, socially inhibited and depressed. Type Ds are the highest demographics to be on antidepressants. c. Codependent Personality Types – the Type C personality; an addictive, stress-prone personality that is ―…dependent on making other people dependent on them as a means of self-validation.‖ (Ibid, p. 139); they are typically enablers, functioning in a dysfunctional sense of concern; the codependency is in the thinking that the dysfunctional person needs the codependent, and the codependent feeling needed because of the dysfunction. Sadly, this personality trait is exhibited in children. Codependents are in great need of approval (external referencing), are perfectionists, over-achievers, perfectionists, victims, crisis managers, devoted loyalists, martyrs (the martyr syndrome), feel inadequate (lack of spiritual health), and are reactionary,
meaning they react rather than respond to situations and people, this is where a lack of emotional boundary is exhibited. They are Type C, as they are more prone to cancer. d. Helpless-Hopeless Personality Types – displaying low self-esteem, these personality types ―…have encountered repeated bouts of failure, to the point where they give up on themselves in situations where they clearly have control;‖ (Ibid, p. 143) repeated failure has become a learned response. (Unit 2 Discussion Post, Author‘s Submission, Question #2). Jung postulated that there is a profound, divine level of unconsciousness, the collective unconscious, which unites all people. Poor spiritual health results from the inability to access this source within us. (Brian Luke Seaward, 2009, p. 189)Resource: ExerciseYour Personal Value SystemWe all have a personal value system—a core pillar of the human spirit that is constantly undergoingrenovation. What does your value system currently look like? Perhaps this diagram can give yousome insights and, in turn, help resolve some issues that might be causing stress.The circle in the center represents your core values: abstract or intangible constructs of importancethat can be symbolized by a host of material possessions. It is believed that we hold about four tosix core values that constitute our personal belief system, which, like a compass, guide the spirit onour human journey. Give this concept some thought and then write in this circle what you considerto be your current core values (e.g., love, happiness, health).The many circles that surround the main circle represent your supporting values: those values thatlend support to your core values (these typically number from five to twelve). Take a moment toreflect on what these might be and then assign one value per small circle. Inside each small circle,include what typically symbolizes that value for you (e.g., wealth can be symbolized by money, a car,or a house). Finally, consider whether any stress you feel in your life is the result of a conflictbetween your supporting and core values. Faith Relationships Patience Balance Health & Wellness Perseverance
5. Although I like to be in control of my fate, I know when to go with the 4 3 2 1 0 flow when things are out of my control.6. Curiosity is one of my stronger 4 3 2 1 0 attributes.7. Life isn‘t always fair, but I still 4 3 2 1 0 manage to enjoy myself.8. When things knock me off balance, I am resilient and get back on my feet 4 3 2 1 0 quickly.9. My friends would say that I have the 4 3 2 1 0 ability to turn misfortune into luck.10. I believe that if you don‘t take risks, you live a boring life and won‘t get 4 3 2 1 0 far.11. I like to think of myself as being a 4 3 2 1 0 creative person.12. I believe in the philosophy that ―one 4 3 2 1 0 person truly can make a difference.‖13. I am both organized and flexible 4 3 2 1 0 with my life‘s day-to-day schedule.14. Sometimes having nothing to do is 4 3 2 1 0 the best way to spend a day.15. I trust that I am part of a greater 4 3 2 1 0 force of life in the universe.
5 UnitUnit 5: Dealing with Stress:Coping StrategiesInformation to Remember: Coping - as defined by stress scholar Richard Lazarus (1981), is ―the process of managing demands that are appraised as taxing or exceeding the individual‘s resources; ‖ a specific frame of mind to deal with the situation in the best way possible. Skill sets utilized to deal with stress. (Brian Luke Seaward, 2009) Some factors that enable successful aging, which is a positive coping mechanism, are: a. Neonatal handling, or, parent-to-infant-bonding, the giving of love and affection, which transfers/conveys security, confidence and sense of belonging, these, in turn, sets the individual to age successfully later in life. Physiologically speaking, less glucocoritoids are secreted, or there is greater ability to cope, in the presence of stress. b. Another factor to successful aging is having a sense of contentment. If negative emotions, such as depression, can create an unhealthy physiological environment (again, increased levels of glucocoritoids), how much more so a positive, contented one. c. Having a social network, which seems to increase in quality versus quantity as we age, is another characteristic for aging successfully. d. A Harvard study showed people more apt to age successfully when they did not smoke, consume minimal amounts of alcohol, exercised as a habit, maintained a normal body weight throughout their lives, and exemplified resilient coping skills. e. Lastly, being needed and respected in their old age lend to aging successfully. Roger Allen (1983) developed and introduced cognitive restructuring, which means changing a perception from a negative interpretation to a neutral or positive one, making it less stressful. This process is also called reappraisal, relabeling, reframing, and attitude adjustment.
Meditation enhances EI, is negatively associated with perceived stress and negative mental health; increased meditation experience equals increased emotional intelligence (EI); meditation can decrease negatively perceived stress, anger, hostility, anxiety, and depression; answered the hypothesis: ―…participants who had greater meditation experience exhibited higher [emotional intelligence, EI]…and less perceived stress, and negative mental health than those who had less or none. This research study recommends meditation to be integrated into lifestyle practices, since it cultivates well-being and emotional balance; ―…meditation seems to be one of the most effective coping strategies.‖‖ (Chu, 2010, p. 169).Tools: Journal WritingThe Time-Crunch QuestionnaireThe following is a survey based on the traits of the codependent personality. Please answer thefollowing questions with the most appropriate number. 1 = rarely 2 = sometimes 3 = often1. I tend to procrastinate with projects 3 2 1 and responsibilities.2. My bedtime varies depending on the 3 2 1 workload I have each day.3. I am the kind of person who leaves 3 2 1 things till the last minute.4. I forget to make To Do lists to keep 3 2 1 me organized.5. I spend more than two hours 3 2 1 watching television each night.6. I tend to have several projects going 3 2 1 on at the same time.7. I tend to put work ahead of family 3 2 1 and friends.8. My life is full of endless interruptions 3 2 1 and distractions.9. I tend to spend a lot of time on the 3 2 1 phone.
10. Multi-tasking is my middle name. I 3 2 1 am a great multi-tasker.11. My biggest problem with time 3 2 1 management is prioritization.12. I am a perfectionist when it comes to 3 2 1 getting things done.13. I never seem to have enough time 3 2 1 for my personal life.14. I tend to set unrealistic goals to 3 2 1 accomplish tasks.15. I reward myself before getting things 3 2 1 done on time.16. I just never have enough hours in the 3 2 1 day to get things done.17. I can spend untold hours distracted 3 2 1 while surfing the Internet.18. I tend not to trust others to get things done when I can do them 3 2 1 better myself.19. If I am completely honest, I tend to 3 2 1 be a workaholic.20. I have been known to skip meals in 3 2 1 order to complete projects.21. I will clean my room, garage, or kitchen before I really get to work on 3 2 1 projects.22. I will often help friends with their 3 2 1 work before doing my own.23. It‘s hard to get motivated to get 3 2 1 things done.
Total score 43Questionnaire Key75–51 points = poor time management skills (time to reevaluate your life skills)50–26 points = fair time-management skills (time to pull in the reins a bit)0–25 points = excellent time management skills (keep doing what you are doing!)Reason: These Journal Writing activities really make me look at myself purposefully, intentionally,unashamedly…this is how I get to see where I need to grow! This Questionnaire revealed what Ialready knew about myself: I tend to procrastinate. Finding out that I am not Type A was a goodthing, however. There is always room for improvement!
6 UnitUnit 6: Relaxation Techniques 1:Breathing, Meditation, and MentalImageryInformation to Remember: ―Diaphragmatic breathing is unequivocally the easiest method of relaxation to practice. It is easy because breathing is an action that we do normally without thought or hesitation. In its simplest form, diaphragmatic breathing is controlled deep breathing. It is symbolic of a deep sigh…‖ (Brian Luke Seaward, 2009, pp. 344-345). Also known as a lower belly breathing. ―Meditation is thought to be the oldest form of relaxation. In simple terms, it is a mind- cleansing or emptying process. At a deeper level, meditation is focused concentration and increased awareness of one‘s being. When the mind has been emptied of conscious thought, unconscious thoughts can enter the conscious realm to bring enlightenment to our lives.‖ (Ibid, p. 370). Mental imagery describes the ability of the unconscious mind to generate images that have a calming, healing effect on the body. Visualization is one aspect of mental imagery, wherein there is conscious direction of self- generated images. Guided mental imagery is a variation wherein images are suggested by another person (either live or on tape). Diaphragmatic breathing coupled with mental imagery facilitates healing of chronic pain by using a person‘s ―inner energy‖ to ―unlock the cause of pain.‖ (Ibid, p. 346)Resources: ExerciseBridging the Hemispheres of ThoughtIn 1956 a researcher named Roger Sperry conducted some experiments on a handful of patientswith grand mal epileptic seizures. In the procedure he created, he cut the corpus callosum, thebridge of neural fibers that connects the right and left hemispheres of the brain. Not only did theoperation reduce the number and intensity of the grand mal seizures, but it also soon gavecredence to a whole new concept of how the mind, through the brain, processes
information. Roger Sperry‘s research led to a Nobel Prize in medicine and to the householdexpressions right-brain thinking and left-brain thinking.Left-brain thinking skills are associated with judgment, analysis, mathematical and verbal acuity,linear thought progression, and time consciousness; right-brain functioning is associated withglobal thinking, holistic thinking, imagination, humor, emotionality, spatial orientation,receptivity, and intuition.Western culture grooms and rewards left-brain thinking. It is fair to say that judgmentalthinking is one of our predominant traits. Although it is true that Western culture is left-braindominant in thinking skills, the truth of the matter is that to be dominant in one style of thinking isactually considered lopsided and imbalanced.1. How would you describe your dominant thinking style? Would you say that your left brain orright brain dominates?2. If you were to make a guess or assumption as to why your thinking skills gravitate toward onedirection or the other, what would be your explanation? Genetics, my hard-wiring3. One of the basic themes of wellness is balance—in this case, balance of the right-brain and left-brain functions. Based on your answer to the first question, what are your dominant thinking skillsand your non-dominant thinking skills? What are some ways you can balance your patterns bybridging between the right and left hemispheres of your brain? I am right-brain dominant in my thinking skills. The description of being global thinking,holistic thinking, imagination, humor, emotional, having spatial orientation, receptivity, andintuition, all rightly describe me and the way I think. Though not predominantly left-brained, I alsohave verbal acuity, am time conscious (but this may be more due Type A personality traits), and canbe artistically analytical. My non-dominant thinking skills are judgment, mathematical acuity, andlinear thought progression, and time consciousness. Being a student/teacher (I home school 3; grades 6th, 10th, and 11th /12th) balances out theright/left brain thinking patterns: all the activities to be done draw on all of these thinking skillsfrom seminal, creative thoughts to timely completion.
Reason: Knowing the kind of thinkeran individual is lends to how he/she interprets/filters information that may become stressors.Leaning towards my strengths become my strength, versus trying to be proficientat what‘s notalleviates stress. The informationprovided isaccurate of me.Tools: JournalToo Much InformationIf no one has officially said this to you yet, then you are overdue to hear these words: Welcome tothe information age!‖ Satellite television, cable television, the Internet, cell phones, and embeddedcomputer chips are just a few things that inundate us with a tsunami of information. As if thisweren‘t enough, there are more things looming on the horizon, all of which are begging for ourattention. If you are like most people today, most likely you are drowning in information. There iseven a new name for this: information stress.Although we take in information through all of our five senses, over 80 percent of all theinformation we take in is received through the senses of sight and sound. Well before the term―information age‖ was coined, it was very easy to experience sensory overload from too muchinformation taken from the eyes and ears, such as from watching too much television to pullingan all-nighter to cram for an exam. The consequence of sensory overload is becoming numb to it alland walking around like a zombie. It‘s no stretch to say there are people who fit this description.Living in the information age, discernment is essential. Discernment means being able to distinguishtruth from non-truth. Perhaps more accurately, it means discerningnews from marketing, news from entertainment, and truth from hype and spin.There is a solution to information overload. It is a practice called meditation: cleaningthe mind of all the clutter and useless information that bombards your attention span.1. List five ways to successfully decrease the quantity of information with which you are barragedevery day. a. Turn off TV, Cell phone, PC, radio b. Listen to Classical music c. Go into dark closet to pray
d. Use bathroom in the dark e. Do a Contemplative Practice: Subtle Mind Practice2. People tend to mirror behavior, often not even knowing that they do this. In terms of too muchinformation, or TMI, people who take in too much information often talk to their friends and sharetoo much information (e.g., how much they make, how many times they have sex per week, or howoften they clean their bathroom). There is a real art to sharing information without revealingeverything. As a rule, people who share too much information about themselves have acceptanceproblems. Are you the kind of person who volunteers too much information? If so, what can you doto filter out the less important facts and perceptions and still get your point across? I have been guilty of this at times, only to feel the ―sting‖ of being too revealing afterwards.What I have learned and am learning to do is to simply become a better listener. If I am listening tothe other person, I do not have to talk as much. I will offer, ―I feel you.‖ ―I can empathize.‖ or,―Let‘s pray about that…;‖ these tend to keep me from offering too much information. Also, when I am engaged in conversation with another, I try to think before I speak, askingmyself if I want that bit of information known, or do I want to be reminded of that information. IfI have to ask myself, I most likely do not have to share.3. See if you can come up with a handful of ways to bring balance back into your life by taking timeto quiet your mind and explain them here. Prayer Contemplative Practice: Subtle Mind Practice Soak in the tub in silence Go for a jog/walk 2 hr 18 min drive back home alone after dropping daughter off at college listening to ―Believe‖ by the Newsboys Laying in bed 1st thing in A.M. and deep-breathing for ~3-5 min. before getting out of bed Reading the Bible (esp. Psalms, Colossians, and Ephesians, etc.) Reading a book of prayers Listening to my ―Rain & Thunder‖ or ―Calming Ocean Waves‖ tracks on my iPod
Reason: In this current age of FB, Twitter, cell phones, when information can be kept up-to-the-minute, information over-load is pervasive to our Western culture. This can be a major stressor.Knowing when and having the discipline to turn these portals off is key to living a stress-decreased,if not stress-free, life.
7 UnitUnit 7: Nutrition and StressInformation to Remember: ―Nutrition is a complex subject consisting of five aspects: nutrients, digestion, absorption, metabolism, and elimination. …if the nutrients are not digested, absorbed, and metabolized, and waste products are not eliminated properly, then there is a real problem with one‘s state of wellbeing.‖ (Brian Luke Seaward, 2009, p. 490). ―Water is said to be the most important nutrient because,…one cannot survive without water. Water is critical to the optimal functioning of every cell in the body. It not only acts as a means of transportation of essential nutrients to all cells, but is involved in a host of chemical reactions as well as maintenance of the body‘s temperature.‖ (Ibid, p. 494). ―Research has shown that some foods actually induce a state of stress. Excess amounts of sugar, caffeine, salt, and foods poor in vitamins and minerals weaken the body‘s resistance to the stress response and may ultimately make a person more vulnerable to disease and illness.‖ (Ibid. p. 508). The ―…gastrointestinal (GI) tract is very sensitive to stress.‖ (Ibid, 494). Stress affects the body‘s ability to digest, absorb, and eliminate (the digestive process) foods, as it shuts down major systems to provide the energy needed for the ―fight or flight.‖ Facilitating ―…the rapid mobilization of energy [glucose, amino acids (converted to glucose in the liver), and free fatty acids, for example] from storage sites and the inhibition of further storage,‖ (Sapolsky, 1998, pp. 11, 56), are primary actions performed when the body perceives stress. This action inhibits the entire process of digestion in order to make energy (glucose, the best source) available to the larger muscle groups for movement. Digestion is irrelevant in the fight or flight. (Unit 7 Discussion Post, Author‘s Submission, Question #2).Tools: Journal WritingSelf-Assessment: Nutritional Eating Habits
1. Do you regularly consume caffeine? Yes No2. List the foods that you ingest that contain Type of Food with caffeine (e.g., coffee, tea, sodas, chocolate) and Caffeine Amount per Day the estimated amounts you consume per day. a. 82% dark chocolate 1 square /2-3 days b. 5 Hr Energy Drink ½ Bottle/Day c. coffee 2 servings/wk Do you take vitamin supplements? If yes, what Yes No kinds? (Women‘s, C, omega-3, Flaxseed, B12)4. Do you frequently use table salt? Yes No5. Do you eat one or more meals that are prepared Yes No outside the home daily?6. Do you consume junk food (from vending Yes No machines or convenience stores) regularly?7. Do you eat cereals that contain sugar? Yes No8. Do you drink a lot of soft drinks? Yes No9. Do you find that when you are stressed you tend Yes No to eat more?10. Do you find that when you are angry you tend Yes No to eat more?11. Do you eat a wide variety of fruits and Yes No vegetables?
8 UnitUnit 8: Physical Exercise andActivityInformation to Remember: ―A sound mind in a sound body,‖ reads the opening quote of Seaward‘s chapter twenty-eight. (Brian Luke Seaward, 2009, p. 511). There is a mind-body connection and exercising is an excellent way to maintain its most optimal health that soundness may be found in mind and body. Exercise benefits the body physically, physiologically, and psychologically. Exercise is one demonstration of how these systems work in concert to keep the body in homeostasis, articulating that mind-body connection. (Unit 8 Discussion Post, Author‘s Submission, Question #3). The following are the reported psychological benefits of habitual exercise (particularly from jogging): a. Improved self-esteem b. Improved sense of self-reliance and self-efficacy c. Improved mental alertness, perception, and information processing d. Increased perceptions of acceptance by others e. Decreased feelings of depression and anxiety f. Decreased overall sense of stress and tension (Brian Luke Seaward, 2009, p. 521) ―There is new speculation that cortisol, a hormone released from the adrenal gland during the stress response [and insulin], may be related to the steady accumulation of body fat in one‘s lifetime…cortisol may be a principal hormone to regulate appetite under stress, to ensure that there is an adequate supply of both short- and long-term energy. A training program that includes regular cardiovascular exercise helps to ensure that the hormones synthesized and released as a result of chronic stress are used for their intended purposes and then flushed out of the system with other metabolic waste products. Exercise also burns calories, making this a desired health package for everyone.‖ (Brian Luke Seaward, 2009, p. 524).
When exercise becomes habitual (the ultimate goal), it is able to facilitate bringing physiological systems into balance more efficiently and consistently, can create psychological calmness, ameliorate the symptoms of stress on the body, improving coping mechanisms, and provide the outlet for participants to mull and meditate through life‘s problems, while burning off those stress hormones and extra pounds, gaining physical fitness, and having fun. Of particular interest are cardiovascular endurance and rhythmic exercises, which ―…[act] as … catalysts to keep the body‘s physiological systems in balance,‖ and rhythmic exercises, such as running, which can produce thoughts of ―Zen-like‖ quality so intense that runners express depression when running is interrupted for days or more. Exercise benefits our mental capacities, since the same ―…spark that ignites the brain‘s mental capabilities also helps neutralize the brain‘s response to stress.‖ (Brian Luke Seaward, 2009, pp. 516, 520, 515). (Unit 8 Discussion Post, Author‘s Submission, Question #3). Some last thoughts on exercise and stress from Sapolsky (Sapolsky, 1998, pp. 401-402): a. Exercise is great to counter stress: decreases risks of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, eventually decreasing their physiological effects, b. Due to beta-endorphin secretion, exercise makes you feel good; it improves mood, giving the sense of self-efficacy and achievement, reduces tension, positively engaging the stress- response, reduces the stress-response, and is therefore, stress-reducing, c. Exercise must be habitual, part of a daily life-style to gain the physiological benefits stated, d. Do not over-exercise.Tools: Journal Writing:Physical ExerciseIn simplest terms, we are physical animals with a human spirit. As human beings we were nevermeant to sit behind a desk for eight to ten hours a day. Human anatomy and physiologywere designed to find a balance between motion and stillness, stress and homeostasis,exercise and relaxation. Some would say that the mounting incidence of disease and illnessis a result of being out of physiological balance.In this day and age, in which stress is at an all-time high, our bodies kick out several stresshormones, which, if not used for their intended purpose (to mobilize the body‘s systems for fight orflight), circulate throughout the body and tend to wreak havoc on various organs and constituents ofthe immune system. Physical exercise is considered the best way to keep the physiological systems ofthe body in balance, from stress hormones and adipose tissue to the integrity of bone cells andmacrophages of the immune system.Exercise doesn‘t have to be all that hard or time consuming; perhaps more important than what youdo is just making the time to do it. Mark Twain once said, ―Oh, I get the urge to exercise everynow and then, but I just lie down till it goes away.‖ This may be humorous, but the truth of thematter is that physical exercise is what we need to promote the balance and integrity of our
physiological systems. Although there is no doubt we seem to have a certain magnetic attractionto the couch and TV, this pattern of behavior has proved to be hazardous to our health.1. Describe your exercise habits, including the formula for success (intensity, frequency, andduration of exercise). Physical Activity Patterns and Objectives - Per Thygerson‘s recommendation, I engage in at least ―…2 hours and 30 minutes a week of moderate-intensity,… and an equivalent combination of moderate- and vigorous- intensity aerobic physical activity. [My] aerobic activity [is] performed in episodes of at least 10 minutes, … spread throughout the week.‖ (Alton L. Thygerson, 2011). I will continue following this prescription for physical fitness to remain in optimal health. 2012 Update: I exercise over one hour daily, over five hours weekly: 30 minutes of strengthening, up to 34 minutes of running (cardiorespiratory), and stretch 20- 25 minutes. I also am personal trainer to two female clients (each one hour), which increases the exercises I do. - Weight-bearing Exercises/Training: Mode: weight-bearing aerobic exercise (jog/run/kick boxing), dynamic constant external resistance (DCER; bicep curls; 5-10 lbs. free weights), plyometrics (jumps), isometrics (holds/planks) Intensity: moderate to high Frequency: Weight-bearing endurance exercise 3-5 days (2012 update: 5 days); Duration: 30-60 min. - Cool-Down & Stretches:
Mode: Yoga poses/stretching/Pilates/Static holds Intensity: low Frequency: Stretching 7 days Duration: 10-20 min. (2012 update: 20-25 minutes) Personal Fitness Challenge: Perform 80 push-ups weekly to strength arms and shoulder girdle (upper body); treat when accomplished. Currently in progress. (2012 update: had to cease this Challenge, currently doing rehabilitative exercises with free weights to strengthen my right shoulder injured).2. What are your favorite activities? If for some reason you were injured and couldn’t do yourfavorite activity, what would be your second option for exercise? My favorite activities are running (alternate: elliptical) and weight training; Pilates, stretchingand deep-breathing.3. What do you do to motivate yourself when you are less than inspired to get upand out the door? What are some additional incentives to maintain a regular exerciseregimen? Motivating myself to leave is not an issue currently, as I am a stay-at-home wife and mother.When I have to leave, however, I remember the people depending on me, my original motivation,and my desire to be a woman of integrity. I remember the results and what it took to obtain them,and what it will continue to take. Having learned that I can lose the results that I worked so hard toattain in a short amount to time is also incentive to continue. According to the TranstheoreticalModel of Change, I am Stage 5 (Marcus, 2009, p. 13). (2012 Update: I experienced the loss asdescribed in this entry, having lagged for two terms: one with tremendous inconsistencies
and the other with no work-outs at all (that was five months, too easy to slip). February 20,2012 was my definitive return and I will not be turning back. Stresses in my life causedweight-gain, 15 lbs., poor emotions, and a sluggishness I do not want to experience everagain.)4. Most people say that they cannot find the time to exercise. Considering classes, studying, work,social obligations, and the like, it is hard to fit in everything. So the question of priorities comes tomind. What are your priorities in terms of your health? Do you see your perspectivechanging in the course of your life? Right now, what can you do to find (make) the time toget physical exercise every day? Priorities: Taking the absolute best care of myself that I possibly can, involves, exercising(currently doing); eating healthily (currently doing), drinking plenty water (doing, needsimprovement); getting better sleep (work in progress), minimizing the stressors in mylife…lowering the cortisol…yes, goes RIGHT to the viscera!!!; getting more fresh air, lastly,knowing when to take breaks/vacations. I am already committed to exercising daily and faithfully.5. Sketch out a quick weekly program of exercise, including days to work out, time of day,and activity:Weight-Bearing Exercises/Training; Daily: 6:35 – 7:45 A.M. (The updates are the 3-mileruns)Mon.: Gilad’s Total Body Sculpt (fitTV): weights, aerobics, plyometrics & static holds, Abs,stretch & cool-down; 40 minutes; hydrate. Daily Run; 3 miles: ~30-34 mins. PersonalChallenge: 16 push-ups.Tues.: Gilad’s Total Body Sculpt (fitTV): weights, aerobics, plyometrics & static holds, Abs,stretch & cool-down; 40 minutes; hydrate. Daily Run; 3 miles: ~30-34 mins.Personal Challenge:16 push-ups.Weds.: Gilad’s Total Body Sculpt (fitTV): weights, aerobics, plyometrics & static holds, Abs,stretch & cool-down; 40 minutes; hydrate. Daily Run; 3 miles: ~30-34 mins.Billy Blanks‘ TaeBo:This is TaeBo DVD; 65 minutes; hydrate. Personal Challenge: 16 push-ups.
Thurs.: Gilad’s Total Body Sculpt (fitTV): weights, aerobics, plyometrics & static holds, Abs,stretch & cool-down; 40 minutes; hydrate. Daily Run; 3 miles: ~30-34 mins. PersonalChallenge: 16 push-ups.Fri.: Gilad’s Total Body Sculpt (fitTV): weights, aerobics, plyometrics & static holds, Abs,stretch & cool-down; 40 minutes; hydrate. Personal Challenge: 16 push-ups.Sat.: make-up day for missed day during the week, otherwise, rest. However, anything canhappen today: walking in the mall, working in my garden, cleaning the garage, taking a walk ordancing (Belly dancing, Bollywood Dance work-out, or Billy Blanks, Jr., 10-Min. Dance Work-Out on Verizon‘s Demand) with my daughter; Stretch. Personal Challenge: 16 push-ups.Sun.: Rest(2012 Update: Since January 2011, when Oprah Winfrey’s OWN aired, fitTV was invadedand many of its fitness lifestyle programming disappeared, leaving only Gilad’s “Bodies inMotion” and “Total Body Sculpt,” in the 6-7 A.M. time slot, the remainder filled withDiscovery programs.)Reason: Exercising, being physically fit, investing in my health and wellness are integral parts to mylifestyle. I have included schedules that I actually perform. I use these as templates, adding on orreplacing when necessary.
References (Includes three (3) personally chosen resources indicated by asterisk.)Alton L. Thygerson, E. a. (2011). Fit to be Well: Essential Concepts. Boston: Jones and BartlettPublishers.Brian Luke Seaward, P. (2009). Managing Stress: Principles and Strategies for Health and Well-Being.Sudbury: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.*Chu, L.-C. (2010, April 1). The Benefits of Meditation Vis-à-Vis Emotional Intelligence, Perceived Stress andNegative Mental Health. Retrieved June 12, 2011, from A Kaplan University Web site:http://web.ebscohost.com.lib.kaplan.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=daf826b6-72a7-49a8-b0c6-2a2d223d2abc%40sessionmgr110&vid=4&hid=113This research study by Chu (2010) provides researched results of the benefits of meditation to all, especially thosepeople of high emotional intelligence (EI), who, by definition, tend to respond better to stress.*Goleman, D. (1994). Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ. New York: Bantam Dell.I am emotionally intelligent! I know myself better because of this book. I used this book in this project to provide asound definition of emotional intelligence. It complements Chu (2010) research study on meditations added benefit tohigh EI people who meditate often and their better response to stress.*Howley, E. T. (2007). Fitness Professionals Handbook. Champaign: Human Kinetics.Almost poetic, the authors outline the definition of and motivations for attaining and maintaining total fitness. Soprofound is this definition to me, it is officially used as reference both personally and professionally from now on. Itprovides authority on how and why we should seek to totally fit, which lends itself to coping with stress optimally.Marcus, B. H. (2009). Motivating People to Be Physically Active. Champaign: Human Kinetics.Sapolsky, R. (1998). Why Zebras Dont Get Ulcers. New York: St. Martins Griffin.Schlitz, M. A. (2005). Consciousness and Healing. St. Louis: Elsevier.Thomas Nelson, Inc. (1982). The Open Study Bible: The New King James Version. Nashville: ThomasNelson, Inc.