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A scuola di Diritti Umani. La nascita della Corte Penale Internazionale

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Chantal Meloni, Professore associato di Diritto penale presso l'Università degli Studi di Milano, ha partecipato al progetto A scuola di Diritti Umani, realizzato con il contributo di Fondazione Cariplo dal Festival dei Diritti Umani di MIlano.
www.festivaldirittiumani.it

Published in: Education
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A scuola di Diritti Umani. La nascita della Corte Penale Internazionale

  1. 1. Con il contributo
  2. 2. La nascita della Corte Penale Internazionale Chantal Meloni
  3. 3. Ormai 20 anni fa, nel luglio del 1998, a Roma i rappresentanti di circa 150 Stati hanno adottato un trattato internazionale per l’istituzione della Corte Penale Internazionale, il cosiddetto Statuto di Roma. Tale Statuto ha come scopo quello di non lasciare impunite le più gravi forme di violazione dei diritti umani, ossia i crimini di guerra, i crimini contro l’umanità e i genocidi ovunque commessi e così riaffermare la validità del diritto internazionale e dei singoli diritti degli uomini. L’idea della creazione di una Corte penale internazionale è nata dopo la seconda guerra mondiale e si basa sulla volontà degli Stati di porre un freno alle atrocità commesse dagli uomini contro i loro simili durante le guerre. Il predecessore della attuale Corte penale internazionale è stato il tribunale di Norimberga, che nel 1946 ha processato e condannato i responsabili dei crimini di guerra della Germania nazista.
  4. 4. Come sancito nella storica sentenza del Tribunale di Norimberga, “i crimini sono commessi da uomini, non da entità astratte, e soltanto punendo gli individui che commettono tali crimini si può dare effettivamente attuazione alle previsioni del diritto internazionale”. Dopo Norimberga altri tribunali penali internazionali sono stati istituiti per processare i responsabili dei gravi crimini che hanno insanguinato la storia degli ultimi anni del secolo scorso, in ex-Jugoslavia come in Ruanda e nei molti conflitti che continuano a mietere vittime specie in diversi paesi africani. Tuttavia i molti crimini commessi in alcuni dei più gravi conflitti contemporanei, come quello israelo-palestinese e quello in Siria, al momento non sono oggetto di alcun processo internazionale.
  5. 5. Il processo di Norimberga (1) Martino Seniga Rai News 20.11.2015 (vai all’articolo)
  6. 6. 1 ottobre 1946: A Norimberga viene emessa la sentenza nel processo che vede imputati 22 tra i maggiori gerarchi nazisti. Iniziato il 20 novembre 1945, il processo termina con 12 condanne a morte, alcune pene detentive, dall’ergastolo a svariati anni di reclusione, e tre assoluzioni. I reati riconosciuti sono terribili: complotto e crimini contro la pace, crimini di guerra, crimini contro l'umanità. Gli imputati vengono riconosciuti responsabili della morte di dieci milioni di persone, assassinate a sangue freddo, fucilate, soffocate con i gas, uccise per fame, stenti e torture nei campi di sterminio. Il processo di Norimberga (2) Fonte: Rai Storia (vai al video)
  7. 7. Rai News: Non dimenticare Norimberga. Le nuove sfide dei tribunali internazionali (vai al video) Il processo di Norimberga (3)
  8. 8. Antonio Cassese I diritti umani oggi Editori Laterza 2009
  9. 9. Antonio Cassese Il sogno dei diritti umani Feltrinelli Editore 2008
  10. 10. “Gli Stati Parti del presente Statuto Consapevoli che tutti i popoli sono uniti da stretti vincoli e che le loro culture formano un patrimonio da tutti condiviso, un delicato mosaico che rischia in ogni momento di essere distrutto, Memori che che nel corso di questo secolo, milioni di bambini, donne e uomini sono stati vittime di atrocità inimmaginabili che turbano profondamente la coscienza dell'umanità Riconoscendo che crimini di tale gravità minacciano la pace, la sicurezza ed il benessere del mondo …” Lo Statuto di Roma (vedi Statuto completo)
  11. 11. Chantal Meloni è Professore associato di Diritto penale presso l'Università degli Studi di Milano ove è titolare del corso di International Criminal Law. Dopo la laurea in giurisprudenza nel 1998 ha conseguito il titolo di Avvocato nel 2001. Ha poi conseguito il titolo di Dottore di Ricerca nel 2006, specializzandosi in Diritto penale internazionale. Nel 2006 è stata visiting professional presso la Corte Penale Internazionale (ICC) dell'Aia (Olanda), e nel 2007 ha lavorato come assistente giuridica dei giudici della camera preliminare della stessa Corte sui casi dell'Uganda, del Congo e del Darfur. Dal 2011 al 2014 ha lavorato presso la Humboldt Universität di Berlino (Lehrstuhl Prof. G. Werle) ad un progetto di ricerca in materia di tutela del diritto alla vita e responsabilità per crimini di guerra nel contesto dei conflitti asimmetrici. Collabora con l'European Centre for Consitutional and Human Rights (ECCHR) di Berlino, in particolare su progetti inerenti crimini internazionali e il principio della giurisdizione universale ed è inclusa nella lista degli assistenti-avvocato presso la Corte Penale Internazionale. Chantal Meloni
  12. 12. Con il contributofestivaldirittumani.it #ioalzolosguardo

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