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Fashion, apparel, textile, merchandising, garments

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02.02 Power Point

  1. 1. UNIT B EVOLUTION AND MOVEMENT OF FASHION 2.02 Summarize the movement and acceptance of fashion.
  2. 2. Fashion movement: Ongoing change in what is considered fashionable. Fashion: The styles that are accepted and used by a particular group of people at a given time.
  3. 3. Theories of fashion movement <ul><li>Trickle-down theory </li></ul><ul><li>Trickle-up theory </li></ul><ul><li>Trickle-across theory </li></ul>
  4. 4. Trickle-down theory (Downward flow theory): The assumption that fashion trends start among the upper class or fashion leaders and move down to the masses or fashion followers.
  5. 5. Trickle-down theory <ul><li>World’s oldest and most accepted fashion theory </li></ul><ul><li>Asserts that fashions are accepted by people of lower socioeconomic income levels only after they have been worn by people of upper socioeconomic income levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These styles are seen on high-fashion runways. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jackie Kennedy’s pillbox hat, Barbara Bush’s pearls, Nancy Reagan’s red, Hillary Clinton’s pantsuits in the office </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Trickle-up theory (Upward flow theory): The assumption that fashion trends start among the young or lower income groups and move upward to older or higher income groups.
  7. 7. Trickle-up theory <ul><li>Style originates with the lower class and gains approval by upper class or the fashion elite. </li></ul><ul><li>Ripped jeans, leather jackets </li></ul>
  8. 8. Trickle-across theory (Horizontal flow theory): The assumption that fashion moves horizontally through groups at similar social levels from fashion leaders to followers.
  9. 9. Trickle-across theory <ul><li>Members of each social group look at the leaders of their own group for fashion trends. </li></ul><ul><li>A leader within each class influences peers or a leader of one group affects the other group members. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Designer fashions are copied quickly for mass production, providing similar styles at most price ranges. However, they don’t become popular until the fashion leaders of each group have accepted them. </li></ul>
  10. 10. The fashion cycle <ul><li>Fashion cycle: The ongoing introduction, rise, peak, decline, and obsolescence in popularity of specific styles or shapes. </li></ul><ul><li>All styles that come into fashion rotate through the fashion cycle. </li></ul><ul><li>Fashion acceptance can be illustrated using a bell-shaped curve. </li></ul>
  11. 11. The fashion cycle (cont.) <ul><li>The cycles for some styles are exceptions to the bell-shaped curve. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flops: Fashions that are introduced and expected to sell but that are not accepted by consumers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fads: Temporary, passing fashions that have great appeal to many people for a short period of time; styles that gain and lose popularity quickly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classics: Styles that continue to be popular over an extended period of time even though fashion changes; styles that remain in fashion year after year. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Stages of the fashion cycle <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Rise </li></ul><ul><li>Peak </li></ul><ul><li>Decline </li></ul><ul><li>Obsolescence </li></ul>
  13. 13. Stages of the fashion cycle (cont.) <ul><li>Introduction: The first stage of the fashion cycle when new styles, colors, textures, and fabrics are introduced. </li></ul><ul><li>The new style may be accepted by a small number of people called fashion leaders. </li></ul><ul><li>Promotional activities include fashion shows and advertising in high fashion magazines. </li></ul><ul><li>Fashions are produced in small quantities at high prices. </li></ul><ul><li>Retail buyers purchase limited numbers to see if the style will be accepted. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Stages of the fashion cycle (cont.) <ul><li>Rise: The second stage of the fashion cycle when consumer interest grows and the fashion becomes more readily accepted by consumers. </li></ul><ul><li>Mass production brings down the price of the fashion, which results in more sales. </li></ul><ul><li>Styles are manufactured in less expensive materials and in lower quality construction than the original style. </li></ul><ul><li>Promotional efforts are increased in high fashion magazines to heighten consumer awareness. </li></ul><ul><li>Retail buyers order items in quantity. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Stages of the fashion cycle (cont.) <ul><li>Peak (Culmination stage): The third stage of the fashion cycle during which a style is at its height of popularity. </li></ul><ul><li>The fashion is demanded by almost everyone because it is now within the price range of most consumers and is mass produced in many variations. </li></ul><ul><li>Each retailer tries to persuade customers that its version of the style is the best. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Stages of the fashion cycle (cont.) Peak (Culmination stage) <ul><li>The style may have a long or short stay at this stage. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short-run fashions: Styles that are popular for a brief period of time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fads, usually lasting only one season </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accepted and rejected quickly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teenagers’ fashions change the fastest and have the most trends. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Styles are easy for the manufacturer to produce and are relatively inexpensive to the consumer. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Styles typically have more details than seen in classics. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Stages of the fashion cycle (cont.) Peak (Culmination stage) <ul><ul><li>Long-run fashions: Styles that take a long time to complete the fashion cycle. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Classics, basics, and/or staple fashions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slow introduction, long peak, slow decline </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Styles have simple lines, minimal detail. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Stages of the fashion cycle (cont.) <ul><li>Decline: The fourth stage of the fashion cycle when the market is saturated and popularity decreases. </li></ul><ul><li>The fashion is overused and becomes dull and boring. </li></ul><ul><li>As the fashion decreases in popularity, retailers mark down their prices. </li></ul><ul><li>Promotions center around major clearance or closeout sales of the fashion. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Stages of the fashion cycle (cont.) <ul><li>Obsolescence: The fifth stage of the fashion cycle when the style is rejected, is undesirable at any price, is no longer worn, and is no longer produced. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Lengths of fashion cycles <ul><li>Cycles have no specific lengths. </li></ul><ul><li>Recurring fashions: Styles which have been in fashion at one time, gone out of fashion, and come back in fashion again. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fashion trends seem to recur about every generation or every 20 to 30 years. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fashion cycles are less distinct now than in the past. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Fashion leaders and followers <ul><li>Fashion leaders: Trendsetters who have the credibility and confidence to wear new fashions and influence the acceptance of new trends. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The first to purchase new styles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desire distinctiveness and uniqueness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be innovators and/or influencers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Royal families, first families, movie stars, television personalities, athletes, singers, musicians </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Fashion leaders and followers (cont.) <ul><li>Fashion followers: Those who accept and wear a fashion only after it becomes acceptable to the majority. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Basic principles of fashion movement <ul><li>Consumer acceptance or rejection establishes fashion. </li></ul><ul><li>Price does not determine fashion acceptance. </li></ul><ul><li>Sales promotion does not determine fashion. </li></ul><ul><li>Fashion movement is evolutionary rather than revolutionary. </li></ul><ul><li>Fashion extremes cause reversals or abrupt changes. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Factors that accelerate fashion movement <ul><li>Communications and mass media </li></ul><ul><li>Good economic conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Increased competition </li></ul><ul><li>Technological advances </li></ul><ul><li>Social and physical mobility </li></ul><ul><li>More leisure time </li></ul><ul><li>Higher levels of education </li></ul><ul><li>Changing roles of women </li></ul><ul><li>Seasonal changes </li></ul>
  25. 25. Factors that decelerate fashion movement <ul><li>Bad economic conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural and religious customs </li></ul><ul><li>Laws or other governmental regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Disruptive world events </li></ul>