Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.



Published on

Published in: Education, Business, Lifestyle


  1. 2. CONSUMER Is a person who buys and uses the merchandise (product which can be apparel or non apparel) and are the primary influence on the market.
  2. 3. COSTUME The term costume can refer to wardrobe or dress of a certain period in history, people or class Costume may also refer to the artistic arrangement of accessories in a picture , statue or play , appropriate to the time, place, or other circumstances represented or described to a particular style of clothing worn to portray a type of character at a social event such as a fancy dress party or in an artistic theatrical performance . Costume used in yakshagana - a theater art from India. A Kid wearing a Bee costume Costumed performers in Bristol Renaissance Faire . Santa
  3. 4. Co-ordinates & Separates <ul><ul><li>Co-ordinate is designed to mix and match interchangeably and is sold as a package to the retailer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separates do not show an obvious relationship and are sold individually </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. SOFT GOODS Are goods that are used up when used once, or that have a short & specific lifespan & wear & tear of the merchandise is quicker Fashion and Textile merchandise is a soft good (e.g. dresses, lingerie, coats, household textiles) as contrasted with hard goods (home appliances, hardware or furniture) Health care & beauty products Furnishings
  5. 6. Woven <ul><ul><li>A woven is a cloth formed by weaving . It only stretches in the bias directions (between the warp and weft directions), unless the threads are elastic. Woven cloth usually frays at the edges, unless measures are taken to counter this, such as the use of pinking shears or hemming . </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Blends Yarns & Fabrics <ul><ul><li>Yarns that are composed of two or more fibers mixed together then spun to form one yarn e.g. cotton fibers & polyester fibers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When such a yarn is used to make fabric, the fabric possesses the qualities of both the fibers </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Weight & Hand <ul><ul><li>Weight & Hand dictate the silhouette of the garment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weight is the heaviness or lightness, thinness or thickness of the fabric. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hand is the tactile quality the feel body and fall of the fabric </li></ul></ul>Performance Fabrics – fabric made for a variety of end use applications which provide functional qualities such as moisture management, UV Protection, anti-microbial, thermo regulation & wind, water resistance
  8. 9. Knits <ul><ul><li>Process of making a fabric, or an item of apparel, by the inter-lacing of loops either by machine or hand. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A great variety of stitches and yarns can be used to give textured effects and surface interest </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Details – Are features which enhance the look of the garment like Embroideries, placket enhancements, button
  10. 11. MOTIFS <ul><ul><li>In creative work : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motif (narrative) , any recurring element in a story that has symbolic significance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motif (textile arts) , a recurring element or fragment that, when joined together, creates a larger work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motif (visual arts) , a repeating theme or pattern </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Victorian motifs African motifs Celtic Motif
  12. 13. REPEAT Repeat is the “ Repetition” of floral or geometric print in a fabric design. And Repetition is use of same form again and again Block Repeat Half Drop Repeat All Over Repeat Ogee Plaid
  13. 14. Pattern <ul><ul><li>Pattern is an underlying structure that organizes surfaces or structures in a consistent, regular manner. Pattern can be described as a repeating unit of shape or form, but it can also be thought of as the &quot;skeleton&quot; that organizes the parts of a composition. </li></ul></ul>Flowing Branching Spiral
  14. 15. FASHION FORECASTING Fashion forecasting is the prediction of the colors and style of apparel and accessories which are new directions in fashion that the majority of people would like to buy at a given time and place. It is anticipating the customers wants & needs by Designers, Merchandisers & Buyers. It needs to be done well in advance i.e minimum of 2 seasons away so as to produce fresh stocks on time & to keep the business going.
  15. 16. INCLUDES FOLLOWING ACTIVITIES :- <ul><ul><li>Studying market conditions – how the consumers buying behavior is influenced by society, economics, technology & the environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Noting the lifestyles of the customers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Past data analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observing “street fashion” & what celebrities are wearing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keeping up with current events, media, arts & the mood of the public </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surveying Fashion publications, catalogs, magazines & fashion websites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluating popular designer collections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback from customers </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. DRAPING Is a procedure of creating fashion designs by manipulating, pinning & cutting muslin or other fabric over a dress form so as to alter the fall of the fabric in different positions. In this technique, the drapes garment is then used to create a pattern from which garment can be made
  17. 18. PATTERN MAKING Patternmaking is the art of designing patterns with specific body measurements with hand on paper or cardboard before A pattern is an original garment from which other garments of a similar style are copied, or the paper or cardboard templates from which the parts of a garment are traced onto fabric before cutting out and assembling (sometimes called paper patterns ). Worked across all clothing categories it is an integral part of fashion design & clothing industry. e.g: Different parts of a trouser pattern Coat pattern
  18. 19. GRADING Grading means scaling i.e the act of arranging in a graduated series Pattern grading means creating a set of pattern pieces for each of the sizes listed on the garment specification sheet for a style.
  19. 20. CAD-CAM-CIM <ul><ul><li>Computer-aided design/manufacturing (CAD)- The linking of computer systems for creating designs with those for pattern creations, grading & marker in ordered to coordinate steps in production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)- Computer aided systems that Grade and make Markers Electronically. They may also have the capability to do computer controlled cutting, use lasers for specialized cutting & employ robotics in manufacturing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer integrated manufacturing – The production of a finished product integrating various computer aided process (CAD,CAM) that link information & equipment throughout the manufacturing process </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. RETAILER Is an individual or firm that sells merchandise to the consumers. These items are purchased from the manufacturer or wholesaler and sold to the end user at a marked up price. In the fashion industry, that merchandise would be apparel and related products.
  21. 22. <ul><li>(VM) is the activity of promoting the sale of goods, especially by their presentation in retail outlet. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is the art of presentation, which puts the </li></ul></ul><ul><li>merchandise in focus.  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It has become an important element in retailing as it educates the customers, creates desire and finally augments the selling process. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enables long lasting impact and recall value. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Setting the company apart in an exclusive position. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>drawing the attention of the customer to enable him to take purchase decision within shortest possible time, and thus augmenting the selling process . </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. ELEMENTS USED IN VM This includes combining product, environment, and space into a stimulating and engaging display to encourage the sale of a product or service. Many elements can be used by visual merchandisers in creating displays, including , color, lighting, space, product information, sensory and interactive installations. inputs such as smell, touch, and sound as well as technologies such as digital displays educating the customers about the product/service in an effective and creative way. COLOR THEME
  23. 24. MERCHANDISER Merchandiser is a person responsible for ensuring that right product appear in the right store at the right time and in the right quantities. Role of Sourcing Merchandiser: This involves procurement of all raw materials required to make a product Role of Production Merchandiser This involves ensuring that the work flow & time chart for the production is followed; at times Quality control may also be handled by the production merchandiser Role of a Retail Merchandiser :- This involves working closely with the buying teams to accurately forecast trends, plan stock levels and monitor performance, maximize profits and manage the performance of the ranges. They also decide on the quantity & oversee the delivery and distribution of the stock and deal with problems with suppliers as they arise.
  24. 25. Balance <ul><ul><li>Balance is the concept of visual equilibrium, and relates to our physical sense of balance. It is a reconciliation of opposing forces in a composition that results in visual stability. Most successful compositions achieve balance in one of two ways: symmetrically or asymmetrically. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symmetrical balance can be described as having equal &quot;weight&quot; on equal sides of a centrally placed fulcrum. It may also be referred to as formal balance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asymmetrical balance , also called informal balance , is more complex and difficult to envisage. It involves placement of objects in a way that will allow objects of varying visual weight to balance one another around a fulcrum point. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 27. Proportion <ul><ul><li>Proportion refers to the relative size and scale of the various elements in a design. The issue is the relationship between objects, or parts, of a whole. This means that it is necessary to discuss proportion in terms of the context or standard used to determine proportions. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 28. Fashion Evolution <ul><ul><li>Fashion Cycles : Fashion acceptance is usually described as a fashion cycle. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basically five stages: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>- Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>- Rise in popularity </li></ul><ul><li>- Peak of popularity </li></ul><ul><li>- Decline in popularity </li></ul><ul><li>- Rejection. </li></ul>
  27. 29. <ul><li>Introduction of a style: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>higher price levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Styles are changed by changing various elements of fashion like line, shape, color, fabric and details and their relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production costs are high, only few people can afford the resulting garments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New styles are shown to retail buyers and the press at collection showings and market weeks </li></ul></ul>
  28. 30. <ul><li>Increase in popularity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When new styles are seen worn by celebrities on television or photographed in magazines, they attract the attention of general public. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Popular styles are copied or adapted by mainstream manufactures to make them available to the general public. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less Expensive fabrics are used and designs are modified for the general public. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptations of the original designs in greater quantities are sold by high priced designers. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 31. <ul><li>Peak of popularity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fashion is at the height of popularity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More manufactures copy it or produce adaptations at many price levels </li></ul></ul>
  30. 32. Decline in Popularity <ul><ul><li>Mass production so that fashion conscious people tire of the style and begin to look for something new. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumers still wear garments in the style but they are no longer willing to buy them at regular prices. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retail stores put declining styles on sale racks, hoping to make room for new merchandise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many shoppers today wait it to buy when merchandise goes on sale, causing price deflation . </li></ul></ul>
  31. 33. Rejection of a style and obsolescence <ul><ul><li>In the last phase of the Fashion Cycle , some consumers have already turned to new looks , thus beginning a new cycle. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The rejection or discarding of a style just because it is out of fashion is called consumer obsolescence </li></ul></ul>
  32. 34. <ul><ul><li>No measurable timetable for a fashion cycle. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some fashions take a short time to peak in popularity, others take longer, some decline slowly, others swiftly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some styles last a single selling season, others last several seasons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Certain fashions fade quickly others never completely disappear. </li></ul></ul>Length of Cycles
  33. 35. <ul><li>Cycles within Cycles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design elements may change even though the style itself remains popular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jeans became a fashion item in the late 1960s and remain classics. Therefore, their fashion cycle is very long </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, various details, silhouettes and other features came and went during that time . </li></ul></ul>
  34. 36. Recurring Cycles <ul><ul><li>Designers often borrow ideas from the past. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When a style reappears years later, it is reinterpreted for a new time : a silhouette or proportion may recur, but it is reinterpreted with a change in fabric and detail. </li></ul></ul>
  35. 37. Recurring cycle in skirt lengths
  36. 38. Consumer Identification with Fashion Cycles <ul><li>Fashion Leaders: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People who look for new fashion and wear it before it becomes generally acceptable. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are confident of their own taste or have a stylist to advise them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They dare to be different and they attract the attention of others. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very small percentage of the public. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 39. <ul><ul><li>Fashion Leaders fall in two categories like : </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fashion Innovators : They constantly look for interesting new styles, colors, fabrics and ways to accessorize their clothes. They are discerning shoppers who like to wear beautiful or unusual apparel. </li></ul><ul><li>Fashion Motivators or Role Models : Fashion leaders having the beauty, status and wealth to become fashion role models. </li></ul><ul><li>Fashion victims : They are those people who blindly and stupidly follow a brand without any discernment and without any analysis. </li></ul>
  38. 40. <ul><ul><li>Fashion Followers: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fashion followers imitate other only after they are sure of fashion trends. </li></ul><ul><li>Fashion leadership in Manufacturing and Retailing: </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturers and retailers respond to fashion leaders and followers in their product development and merchandising. </li></ul>
  39. 41. Adoption of Fashion <ul><li>Traditional Fashion Adoption (Trickle Down Theory): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on the traditional process of copying and adapting trendsetting fashion from various Fashion centers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As new styles are worn by publicized fashion leaders or shown in fashion publications, more consumers are exposed to these new looks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manufactures produce less expensive versions or adaptations of high fashion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumers then tire of the look, and its popularity fades. </li></ul></ul>
  40. 42. <ul><ul><li>Reverse Adoption(Trickle up or bottom up theories) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Since the 1960s, manufacturers and retailers have paid more attention to consumer innovation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They watch people on the streets to find ideas. Some of these ideas eventually reach the designer market. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dancewear and active wear which began as functional needs of the consumer also have influenced designer collections. </li></ul></ul>
  41. 43. Mass Dissemination (Trickle across Theory) <ul><ul><li>Modern communications bring fashion from around the world into our homes instantly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumers see the trends and want to look as fashionable as the celebrities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manufactures copy hot new styles almost immediately to meet the high demand. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed of production is of the greatest importance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass Dissemination is becoming the prevalent mode of fashion adoption. </li></ul></ul>
  42. 44. <ul><li>Clothing Categories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dresses, suits, Outerwear, Sportswear, Swimwear, Lingerie </li></ul></ul>
  43. 45. Working Designer’s Own Name Giorgio Armani, Dolce and Gabbana, Calvin Klein, Betsey Johnson, Anna Sui, Pamela Dennis, Christy Allen
  44. 46. Label type 2 <ul><li>A Brand or name that is different from those who design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Generic Trademark – Nike, Esprit, theory, Izod, Oshkosh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Former Designer’s Name – Levi, Christian Dior, Chanel, Lanvin, Gianni Versace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Licensed Name – Ralph Lauren, Calvin Klein, Donna Karan </li></ul></ul>
  45. 47. Private Labels <ul><ul><li>A Private Label Only Store – Gap, Old Navy, Banana Republic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited, Express, Structure, Lane Bryant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ann Taylor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>J. Crew </li></ul></ul>
  46. 48. Private Labels Private Labels in Department and Discount Stores Saks Fifth Avenue - Real Clothes, The Works Federated – INC, Charter Club, Alfani, Badge J C Penny – Arizona Jeans, Hunt Club Target – Merona, Pro Sprit Shopper’s Stop - Stop
  47. 49. Couture Custom make clothing for wealthy individuals Christian Dior, Yyes St. Laurent, Givenchy, Chanel etc.
  48. 50. Designer <ul><ul><li>Next Level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Armani, Gucci, Prada, Donna Karan, Calvin Klein, Ralph Lauren, Geoffrey Beene </li></ul></ul>
  49. 51. Bridge <ul><ul><li>Next step down </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affordable price line often by the same designers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributed primarily through better department stores e.g. Macy’s, Lord & Taylor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Donna Karan’s DKNY, Calvin Klein’s CK, Anne Klein’s A-line or exclusively bridge lines such as Ellen Tracy, Tahari </li></ul></ul>
  50. 52. Better and Below <ul><ul><li>Better </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Budget/Discounter </li></ul></ul>
  51. 53. Conservative Updated Advanced Better Moderate Budget/Discounter
  52. 54. Putting People in Boxes <ul><ul><li>Price – how much do people want to pay? High, medium or low? Or as better, moderate, or budget? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taste Level – What “look” are they searching for? One that identifies their personality? How daring are they in fashion? Conservative, updated, or advanced ? </li></ul></ul>
  53. 55. <ul><ul><li>Taste Level – A measure of fashion savvy and awareness; the ability to dress stylishly and appropriately. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conservative – A customer who is cautious about fashion and who does not want anything too trendy or odd. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Updated – A customer who follows fashion and dresses with an eye to fashion but does not want to appear extreme. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advanced – A customer who “lives” for fashion and dresses in the latest style no matter how it may look to others. </li></ul></ul>
  54. 56. <ul><ul><li>Conservative – Construction, Fabric quality, Make, beautiful finish. Displays a certain status yet can be worn for a considerable time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advanced – More interested in “look” rather than the make. Looks for style and trend. </li></ul></ul>
  55. 57. Conservative Updated Advanced Better Look: Could be extreme colour, pattern, texture Fit: very current , a bit extreme Make : interesting, but less important than the look Moderate Look: stylish colour, pattern, texture Fit: stylish but not extreme Performance : easy care or somewhat more delicate Make : good, Budget/Discounter Look: A look that has been around awhile Fit: comfortable Performance : wash and wear Make: sturdy, simple
  56. 58. Women’s wear lines Conservative Updated Advanced Better Ralph Lauren Jones New York Liz Claiborne Carole Little (Also known as Contemporary) BCBG (Bon Chic Bon Genre) Theory Laundry by Shelli Siegel Moderate Lauren by Ralph Lauren Alfred Dunner John Paul Richards ABS Budget/Discounter Kathie Lee (Wal-Mart) Russ (Wal-Mart)
  57. 59. Shoe lines Conservative Updated Advanced Better Etienne Aigner Enzo (Also known as Contemporary) BCBG Moderate Dexter Unisa Budget/Discounter Cherokee (Target) Merona (Target)
  58. 60. Men’s wear lines Conservative Updated Advanced Better Polo Nautica Kenneth Cole Claiborne Perry Ellis DKNY CK Moderate Chaps Levi Arrow Ron Chereskin Dockers Guess YMLA Budget/Discounter Manhattan Merona (Target)
  59. 61. Kids Better Polo Baby Dior Guess Tommy Hilfiger DKNY Moderate Buster Brown Oshkosh Budget/Discounter Hush Puppies