can be defined as that which
characterizes or distinguishes the
habits, manners, and dress of a period
or group. Fashion is what people
choose to wear.
Style is a distinctive appearance
and combination of unique
features that creates a look that is
acceptable at the time by a majority of
Trends are the first signal of
change in general direction or
Fashion forecasting is the practice of
predicting upcoming trends based
on past and present style-related
information , the interpretation and
analysis of the motivation behind a trend,
and an explanation of why the prediction
is likely to occur. By communicating the
information to designers, retailers,
product developers, manufacturers, and
business professionals, they are able to
produce products that consumers will
want to purchase and profits can be
the vision of the
business and profile of target
Collecting information about available
Determining trends, and
Choosing merchandise appropriate for
the business and target customers.
reviewing the general media (i.e., reading
newspapers, watching television, and using other
current events sources)
scanning fashion publications and literature from
using a fashion forecasting service
attending trade shows and markets
reviewing store information
reviewing literature and information from vendors
attending major social or sports events
traveling to other areas within the United States
and to other areas in the world, and
Observing and pinpointing trends in other product
Fashion magazines and publications show
what’s hot and what’s not for the season as
well as giving the inside scoop of what’s to
This menswear fashion forecast by Fabiana Negron,
named Lycanthropy, the inspiration, title, mood, color
palette, textiles, and boards illustrate the look.
Fashion for a cause
Red carpet fashion
Where fashion is found: a Christian Dior 2009 runway
Hilary Swank’s star power adds to a Gucci gown on the
Robert Pattinson arrives at the 81st Annual Academy
Kim Kardashian attends the CFDA fashion awards.
Fashion design is the art of the application of
design and aesthetics or natural beauty to
clothing and accessories.
Fashion design is influenced by cultural and
social latitudes, and has varied over time and
Haute couture: Until the 1950s, fashion clothing
was predominately designed and manufactured on a
made-to-measure or haute couture basis (French for
high-sewing), with each garment being created for a
Ready-to-wear: Ready-to-wear clothes are a cross
between haute couture and mass market. They are
not made for individual customers, but great care is
taken in the choice and cut of the fabric.
Mass market: The mass market caters for a wide
range of customers, producing ready-to-wear
garments using trends set by the famous names in
Major manufacturing centers are Indonesia, Malaysia,
Philippines, China, Bangladesh, South Korea, Spain,
Germany, Brazil and India.
Five countries have established an international
reputation in fashion: France, Italy, the United
Kingdom, the United States, and Japan.
The ongoing change of different fashions
constantly coming in and going out of
popularity is known as fashion movement.
People discard old fashions and purchase new
Fashion changes occur due to politics, religion,
leisure, and success change.
Fashion Leaders: They are the trendsetters.
They wear new trends before anyone else.
Present: People in the media (celebrities).
Fashion Followers: wear certain fashion looks
only when they become accepted and are
available in stores. They make the fashion
Fashion Laggers: The last people to adopt the
Celebrities are followed and observed for new
cutting edge trends: Jennifer Lopez causes a
stir in a Roberto Cavalli animal print dress.
Lauren Conrad takes the spotlight at a runway
Trickle-Down Theory Oldest and most accepted
theory of the fashion movement. Assumes the
existence of a social hierarchy. Suggests that
fashion trends start at the top of a “social ladder”
and progress downward.
Trickle-Up Theory Suggests that fashion
acceptance begins among the young or lower
income groups and moves upward to older and
higher income groups.
Trickle-Across Theory Claims that fashion moves
horizontally through groups at similar social levels.
Each social group has a “fashion leader.”
The new style is introduced (Introduction): Fashion
Shows, In-store Promotions.
Increases in popularity (Rise): Manufacturers copy or
adapt the main features (more people are wearing it).
Worn by many people (Peak)
Decreases in popularity (Decline)
Discarded for a newer style (Obsolescence)
Fashion marketing is the application of a range of
techniques and a business philosophy that centres
upon the customer and potential customer of clothing
and related products and services in order to meet the
long-term goals of the organization.
Design centred: fashion marketing as promotion
Marketing is seen as synonymous with promotion.
Designers are the real force
All marketing activity carried out by either public
relations or advertising departments or agencies.
Marketing centred: design as a research prescription
marketing is dominant
someone must respond to the specifications of
customer requirements as established by marketing
Fashion marketing research
Fashion product management
Fashion product positioning and pricing
The world of fashion is often depicted as a glamorous
exception to everyday life, but the catwalks and highprofile designers are just the tip of a very complex,
evolving iceberg rooted in the issues that many
corporations face daily. The market for fashion is a
multi-billion dollar global industry with the power to
influence our lives and our environment, for better or
for worse. It brings goods into our homes, shapes our
consumer preferences, and extends across the globe
through its labor, supply and marketing chains.
Fashion Trends: Analysis and Forecasting by Eundeok Kim, Ann Marie Fiore.
Fashion Design by Elizabeth Bye.
Fashion and the Consumer by Jennifer Yurchisin, Kim K. P. Johnson.
Fashion Forward: a Guide to fashion Forecasting by Chelsea Rousso.