Gaining Buy-In - Larry Tracy - for FCG and FCN

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Gaining "Buy-in:" - Making Persuasive Presentations to your Bosses and the Public, Larry Tracy, Tracy Presentation Skills, In Conjunction with the Federal Consulting Group and the Federal Communicators Network, also available at http://www.fcg.gov/speech_coach.shtml

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Gaining Buy-In - Larry Tracy - for FCG and FCN

  1. 1. Gaining “Buy-in:” Making Persuasive Presentations to Your Bosses and the Public Larry Tracy Tracy Presentation Skills In Conjunction with The Federal Consulting Group and the Federal Communicators Network © Copyright Tracy Presentation Skills 2006
  2. 2. WHAT WE’LL COVER <ul><li>Conceptual Overview of Presenting </li></ul><ul><li>Developing “Buy-in” Presentations with the S3P3 System </li></ul><ul><li>Persuading Skeptical Audiences </li></ul>© Copyright Tracy Presentation Skills 2006
  3. 3. CONCEPTUAL OVERVIEW OF THE SPEAKING ART © Copyright Tracy Presentation Skills 2006
  4. 4. FOUR-IN-ONE <ul><li>Every presentation is really four presentations: </li></ul><ul><li>The one you PLAN to deliver </li></ul><ul><li>The one you ACTUALLY deliver </li></ul><ul><li>The one you WISH you had delivered </li></ul><ul><li>The one your audience HEARS </li></ul>© Copyright Tracy Presentation Skills 2006
  5. 5. SIX QUESTIONS FOR PRESENTERS <ul><li>What is my message/objective? </li></ul><ul><li>Will this message/objective help my audience solve its problem? </li></ul><ul><li>3. What are obstacles between audience and me? </li></ul><ul><li>4. Is there common ground between audience and me that I can exploit? </li></ul><ul><li>What action(s) do I want the audience to take as a result of my presentation? </li></ul><ul><li>6. How can I make my presentation memorable? </li></ul>© Copyright Tracy Presentation Skills 2006
  6. 6. THE ASAP FORMULA <ul><li>A nticipate </li></ul><ul><li>S tructure </li></ul><ul><li>A nalyze </li></ul><ul><li>P ractice </li></ul>© Copyright Tracy Presentation Skills 2006
  7. 7. THE THREE Cs <ul><li>Credibility </li></ul><ul><li>Clarity </li></ul><ul><li>Conviction </li></ul>© Copyright Tracy Presentation Skills 2006
  8. 8. FEARS OF AMERICANS © Copyright Tracy Presentation Skills 2006 S P E A K I N G D Y I N G 41% 19% London Sunday Times October 7, 1973
  9. 9. THE FEARSOME FIVE <ul><li>Fear of rejection </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of embarrassment </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of forgetting </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of questions </li></ul>© Copyright Tracy Presentation Skills 2006
  10. 10. BENEFITS OF NERVOUSNESS <ul><li>Properly controlled, can create enthusiasm </li></ul><ul><li>Nervous presenters more likely to plan and practice to avoid humiliation </li></ul><ul><li>Overly confident presenters more likely to “wing it,” resulting in a rambling, unfocused presentation and unsatisfactory answers </li></ul>© Copyright Tracy Presentation Skills 2006
  11. 11. CONTROLLING NERVES <ul><li>Know subject from both sides </li></ul><ul><li>Visualize success coming from your preparation,not wishful thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Work off excess nervous energy </li></ul><ul><li>Take three deep breaths </li></ul>© Copyright Tracy Presentation Skills 2006
  12. 12. DEVELOPING “BUY-IN” PRESENTATIONS WITH THE S3P3 SYSTEM © Copyright Tracy Presentation Skills 2006
  13. 13. WHAT IS “BUY-IN?” <ul><li>Occurs when listener willingly and enthusiastically concludes that what speaker is advocating is in listener’s best interest </li></ul><ul><li>Is the result of the speaker fusing his/her objective with listener’s problems, needs, concerns </li></ul><ul><li>Is the positive answer to the listener’s WIIFM </li></ul>© Copyright Tracy Presentation Skills 2006
  14. 14. THE S3 P3 SYSTEM © Copyright Tracy Presentation Skills 2006 PRESENTING PRACTICING PLANNING S U B S T A N C E S T Y L E S T R U C T U R E
  15. 15. STRUCTURE <ul><li>Hypothesize audience problem, your solution </li></ul><ul><li>Organize logically--and condense--relevant data </li></ul><ul><li>Know audience “hot buttons” </li></ul><ul><li>Intersect your objective, audience’s problem </li></ul><ul><li>Develop theme, logical flow </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on one main point </li></ul><ul><li>Results in repeatable methodology </li></ul>© Copyright Tracy Presentation Skills 2006
  16. 16. SUBSTANCE OR STLYE? <ul><li>BOTH! </li></ul><ul><li>“ I’ve put half-baked ideas into great presentations and seen them soar, and I’ve put great ideas into bad presentations , and watched them die.” (emphasis added) </li></ul><ul><li>Professor Bob Garda, </li></ul><ul><li>Fuqua School of Business, Duke University </li></ul>© Copyright Tracy Presentation Skills 2006
  17. 17. PLANNING © Copyright Tracy Presentation Skills 2006
  18. 18. AUDIENCE “INTELLIGENCE” <ul><li>Needs/ wants/concerns/problems </li></ul><ul><li>Listening style </li></ul><ul><li>Open-minded or opinionated? </li></ul><ul><li>Who are decision-makers? </li></ul><ul><li>Who influences decision-makers? </li></ul><ul><li>Personalities/idiosyncrasies </li></ul><ul><li>Hot buttons to push/avoid </li></ul>© Copyright Tracy Presentation Skills 2006
  19. 19. EASY AS 3-1-2: STRUCTURING BACKWARDS TO “GET TO THE POINT” <ul><li>3-Bottom Line/Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>1-Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>2-Organized data </li></ul>© Copyright Tracy Presentation Skills 2006
  20. 20. THE PLAN B PRESENTATION <ul><li>Need when time reduced at last minute </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitated by 3-1-2 System </li></ul><ul><li>Place content on 3x5 cards marked 2A, 2A (1), </li></ul><ul><li>2A (2), 2B, 2B (1), 2B (2), 2C, 2C (1), 2C (2), etc </li></ul><ul><li>When time is suddenly reduced, pull out cards </li></ul><ul><li>(1), (2) where appropriate, to reduce detail </li></ul><ul><li>(and time), but still maintain coherence </li></ul>© Copyright Tracy Presentation Skills 2006
  21. 21. WRITE IT OUT OR “WING IT?” <ul><li>WRITE IT OUT, BUT… </li></ul><ul><li>Use spoken, not written, language </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce to outline </li></ul><ul><li>Further reduce to 3x5 cards </li></ul><ul><li>Following this procedure assures logical flow and seeing “holes’ in your argument </li></ul>© Copyright Tracy Presentation Skills 2006
  22. 22. HARNESS CREATIVITY <ul><li>Subconscious mind will generate ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Carry 3x5 cards for when the muse strikes </li></ul><ul><li>Cell phone to record spontaneous brilliance </li></ul>© Copyright Tracy Presentation Skills 2006
  23. 23. PRACTICING © Copyright Tracy Presentation Skills 2006
  24. 24. THE PRACTICE THREE STEP <ul><li>Solo w/ tape recorder/ video camera </li></ul><ul><li>With colleague, spouse, friend </li></ul><ul><li>Convene “Murder Board” </li></ul>© Copyright Tracy Presentation Skills 2006
  25. 25. THE MURDER BOARD <ul><li>The Murder Board is to the presenter what the flight simulator is to the pilot </li></ul><ul><li>Presenter hones speaking skills under pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Role-playing colleagues ask tough questions </li></ul><ul><li>This allows presenter to develop focused responses to the questions of the actual audience </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitates staying within time limit </li></ul>© Copyright Tracy Presentation Skills 2006
  26. 26. PRESENTING © Copyright Tracy Presentation Skills 2006
  27. 27. USING POWERPOINT <ul><li>DO NOT overuse “Bells and Whistles” </li></ul><ul><li>DO use some of the “Bells and Whistles” </li></ul><ul><li>DO use built-in color scheme </li></ul><ul><li>DO check spelling and grammar </li></ul><ul><li>DO e-mail copy to site of presentation </li></ul>© Copyright Tracy Presentation Skills 2006
  28. 28. MOVING ABOUT IN POWERPOINT <ul><li>To give the audience an occasional “break,” hit the “B” key--the screen will go black; hit he “B” key again--the slide comes back on </li></ul><ul><li>To return to a previously-viewed slide, or to view a back-up slide, hit the slide’s number, then “Enter” </li></ul>© Copyright Tracy Presentation Skills 2006
  29. 29. AVOIDING “DEATH BY POWERPOINT ” <ul><li>When possible, limit slide to 30 words </li></ul><ul><li>Use large, bold font </li></ul><ul><li>10-to-1 rule (laptop to screen) </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid “distracting” transitions </li></ul><ul><li>Normally, dark background,white text </li></ul><ul><li>When you must make paper copies--black text, white background) </li></ul>© Copyright Tracy Presentation Skills 2006
  30. 30. BODY LANGUAGE <ul><li>Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Facial expression </li></ul><ul><li>Eye contact </li></ul><ul><li>Gestures </li></ul>© Copyright Tracy Presentation Skills 2006
  31. 31. VOCAL PROBLEMS <ul><li>ACCENT- regional or foreign </li></ul><ul><li>TONE- monotone or inflection? </li></ul><ul><li>PITCH- too high? </li></ul><ul><li>RATE- too fast, too slow? </li></ul><ul><li>VOLUME- Too soft, too loud? </li></ul><ul><li>FILLERS- “Uh,” “Y’know” </li></ul>© Copyright Tracy Presentation Skills 2006
  32. 32. ANSWERING QUESTIONS: THE “GOLDEN OPPORTUNITY ” <ul><li>Anticipate (“Murder Board”) </li></ul><ul><li>Eye contact with questioner, others </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid saying “Good question” </li></ul><ul><li>Bridge from question to “bottom line” </li></ul>© Copyright Tracy Presentation Skills 2006
  33. 33. THE FINAL ARROW <ul><li>Reduced version of your “3” </li></ul><ul><li>Your “closing argument” </li></ul><ul><li>Audience likely to remember </li></ul><ul><li>Complete in about fifteen seconds </li></ul>© Copyright Tracy Presentation Skills 2006
  34. 34. POST- PRESENTATION ANALYSIS <ul><li>Counter-intuitive </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct immediately </li></ul><ul><li>Tape record </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrate on audience questions </li></ul><ul><li>Use as basis for next “Murder Board” </li></ul>© Copyright Tracy Presentation Skills 2006
  35. 35. PERSUADING SKEPTICAL AUDIENCES © Copyright Tracy Presentation Skills 2006
  36. 36. THE COMMUNICATION NEXUS Audience problemsand needs © Copyright Tracy Presentation Skills 2006 Presenter’s objective COMMUNICATION
  37. 37. THE “PERSUASION” DILEMMA <ul><li>Presenter wants to persuade the audience to his/her point of view </li></ul><ul><li>Audience members do not want to be persuaded, only informed of “facts” </li></ul>© Copyright Tracy Presentation Skills 2006
  38. 38. COGNITIVE DISSONANCE <ul><li>Judgments formed when critical mass of cognitions (facts) are received </li></ul><ul><li>Mind does not like disharmony; protects existing judgments despite new, contradictory input </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive CD results in “Closed Mind” </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used to “turn” audience members by showing that their actions/opinions are inconsistent with their core values </li></ul>© Copyright Tracy Presentation Skills 2006
  39. 39. TACTICS FOR DEALING WITH ALL DEMANDING AUDIENCES <ul><li>Be balanced, acknowledge opposing view </li></ul><ul><li>Talk beforehand with “opponents” </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain composure under fire </li></ul><ul><li>Stay within evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Selective rebuttal/response </li></ul><ul><li>Watch non-verbals </li></ul><ul><li>Reverse quoting </li></ul>© Copyright Tracy Presentation Skills 2006
  40. 40. TWO SIMILAR, BUT DISTINCT, SPEAKING CHALLENGES <ul><li>BRIEFING THE BOSS: </li></ul><ul><li>The internal presentation for funding, project approval. etc. </li></ul><ul><li>PUBLIC DEBATES/PANELS: </li></ul><ul><li>With opponents of US policy in front of audiences opposed to that policy </li></ul>© Copyright Tracy Presentation Skills 2006
  41. 41. CHARACTERISTICS OF “BOSSES” <ul><li>Impatient and time-sensitive </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom-line and budget-oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Looking for competitive “edge” </li></ul><ul><li>More interested in answers than the presentation itself;will ask probing questions </li></ul><ul><li>More macro than micro (Beware of detailed presentations) </li></ul><ul><li>Seeking “information nuggets” to brief their boss </li></ul>© Copyright Tracy Presentation Skills 2006
  42. 42. “ BRIEFING THE BOSS” (1) <ul><li>Get inside his/her head through question-anticipating Murder Board </li></ul><ul><li>Briefing likely to become “inquisition” with “drill down” questions-have back-up material/slides readily accessible </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrate not just on benefits , but also on </li></ul><ul><li>consequences of not adopting your proposal </li></ul>© Copyright Tracy Presentation Skills 2006
  43. 43. “ BRIEFING THE BOSS” (2) <ul><li>Don’t sugarcoat bad news, but attempt to show upside, perhaps long-term benefit resulting from this short term setback </li></ul><ul><li>Present options briefing, with realistic advantages and disadvantages for each option. Be prepared to make recommendation </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t be afraid to say, “I don’t’ know, but I’ll get that information for you” (AND GET IT!) </li></ul>© Copyright Tracy Presentation Skills 2006
  44. 44. CHARACTERISTICS OF CRITICAL PUBLIC AUDIENCES <ul><li>Opposed to Administration in power </li></ul><ul><li>Contains some angry people </li></ul><ul><li>High degree of cognitive dissonance </li></ul><ul><li>Supports anti-government debaters </li></ul><ul><li>Makes assumption that the government representative will follow “party line” </li></ul><ul><li>Will be surprised when you are candid, ( but don’t stray too far off the reservation) </li></ul>© Copyright Tracy Presentation Skills 2006
  45. 45. WHY SPEAK TO CRITICAL PUBLIC AUDIENCES? <ul><li>Democracy depends on informed public </li></ul><ul><li>Public should know what the government is doing FOR them, not what they believe it is doing TO them </li></ul><ul><li>Critics should not go unopposed in public arena </li></ul><ul><li>Will help your career to be known as the “Go To” person who accepts difficult assignments others avoid </li></ul>© Copyright Tracy Presentation Skills 2006
  46. 46. PUBLIC DEBATES / PANELS <ul><li>FACTS OF LIFE </li></ul><ul><li>You are the guest of honor at a public hanging </li></ul><ul><li>Your presentation is limited by USG policy </li></ul><ul><li>Your adversaries not limited by truth </li></ul><ul><li>Audience probably against you </li></ul>© Copyright Tracy Presentation Skills 2006
  47. 47. THE MURDER BOARD FOR SKEPTICAL AUDIENCES <ul><li>Recruit four fellow presenters to be “audience” </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule two days prior to presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Share “intelligence” to facilitate “role-playing” </li></ul><ul><li>Request “audience” to ask very tough questions </li></ul><ul><li>Audio/videotape </li></ul><ul><li>Request critique of style/substance </li></ul><ul><li>Q&A on 3x5 cards </li></ul><ul><li>Revise presentation to incorporate changes </li></ul>© Copyright Tracy Presentation Skills 2006
  48. 48. TACTICS FOR DEBATES PANELS (1) <ul><li>Contact organizer, elicit details, develop rapport, explore common ground </li></ul><ul><li>For panel with two or more opponents, demand half the time be allotted for you </li></ul><ul><li>Be balanced, acknowledge opposing view </li></ul><ul><li>Demand questioners be recognized from audience, then go to microphones to avoid having the most angry people “capture” the microphones </li></ul>© Copyright Tracy Presentation Skills 2006
  49. 49. TACTICS FOR DEBATES/PANELS (2) <ul><li>Attempt to go second in debates so you can state your case while undermining that of your opponent </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain composure </li></ul><ul><li>Stay within evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Reverse quoting </li></ul>© Copyright Tracy Presentation Skills 2006
  50. 50. MY FINAL ARROW <ul><li>“ If, through some inscrutable act of providence, I were to lose all my faculties save one, I would wish to retain the gift of speech, for through it, I would soon regain all the others.” Senator Daniel Webster </li></ul>© Copyright Tracy Presentation Skills 2006
  51. 51. CONTACT INFORMATION Larry Tracy Tracy Presentation Skills (703) 360-3222 [email_address] www.tracy-presentation.com © Copyright Tracy Presentation Skills 2006

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