T4 Session Report
Session Title: Groundwater Protection, Management and Governance
Session number: T4
Type of session (ple...
Reporting during the session

Global ideas issued from the presentations
H.E. Prof. Mahmoud Abu-Zeid (President, AWC) – In...
-

management of water resources. It will also help to manage seasonal fluctuations in desalination
water production and c...
Other issues of interest raised (specify the issue and target session)
e.g. Guidelines / manuals referred to as used/usefu...
-

Farmers’ perception of groundwater ownership
Compliance of farmers with regulations

Opportunities:
- New supply option...
4. Options and recommendations to develop for the Regional Collaborative Strategy within the
framework of Regional Water S...
Regarding the promotion of community participation in groundwater management
-

Understanding the existing set-up followed...
(1) local and new communities have applied for licensing their water points (if appropriate);
(2) replacement of poor well...
Participants’ feedback
Post-its should be distributed to all the participants before the end of the session. They should w...
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Session 4: Groundwater Protection, Management and Governance

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Session 4: Groundwater Protection, Management and Governance, Land and Water Days in Near East & North Africa, 15-18 December 2013, Amman, Jordan

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Session 4: Groundwater Protection, Management and Governance

  1. 1. T4 Session Report Session Title: Groundwater Protection, Management and Governance Session number: T4 Type of session (plenary, panel session, other): Technical session Day – time : Day II, 17th of December 2013, 11.30- 13.30 Place: Main hall Convener/Coordinator/ Session Chair: H.E. Dr. Hussein El-Atfy (AWC) Key speakers (name, organization): 1) Dr. Edwin Rap (E.Rap@cgiar.org) (Arab Region - IWMI): “Groundwater Governance in the Arab World: Taking Stock and Addressing Challenges.” 2) Prof. Fatma A. Attia (Egypt - NWRC) (f-attia@link.net): "Groundwater Management and Water Governance: Egyptian Experience.” 3) Prof. Mohamed A. Dawoud (UAE – Env. Agency) (mdawoud@ead.ae): “Groundwater Aquifer Storage and Recovery in Arid Regions: Abu Dhabi Pilot Experiment Case Study.” (FAO Ref. 52) 4) Dr. Omar ElBadawy (Egypt, Libya, Sudan and Chad - CEDARE) (elbadawy@cedare.int): “Regional Strategy for the utilization of Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System” Facilitator(s): Professional facilitator: Ms. Lucy-Lamoureux (FAO) Technical facilitator: Dr. Omar Elbadawy (CEDARE) & Dr. Faycel Chenini (FAO) Rapporteurs: Dr. Mary Halim (AWC)/ Ms. Nicole Stuber (GIZ) Number of participants (total): around 30 Number of men: 24 Number of women: 6 Session Objective : The session aims at raising awareness on the risks of uncontrolled development of groundwater for multiple uses, and in particular for agriculture production and on the need for groundwater governance to address these risks. It will illustrate consequences of unregulated pumping and present solutions that have been attempted to slow or reverse trends in aquifer depletion and groundwater quality decline. It will also discuss solutions for the sustainable management of groundwater resources in agriculture (protection, management and governance), including governance guidelines. Rationale: Groundwater constitutes one of the most reliable sources of water for most countries of the NENA region. In some countries it is in fact the only source of water. However, the uncontrolled use of this water is threatening its sustainability for future generations. Groundwater protection and management is hence a must if we are to realize future water security. Knowledge-sharing method used: The session started with opening remarks by H.E. Dr. Mahmoud Abu-Zeid, President of AWC, , followed by four keynote presentations of case studies by professionals in the field of groundwater from different NENA countries, then a brainstorming session and interactive discussions in small Working Groups concluded by Lessons Learned and recommendations for the future.
  2. 2. Reporting during the session Global ideas issued from the presentations H.E. Prof. Mahmoud Abu-Zeid (President, AWC) – Introductory speech - Importance of integrating groundwater protection measures in all integrated water management activities; - Groundwater protection mechanisms should include strategic decisions, regulatory mechanisms (legislations and bylaws) and non-regulatory mechanisms (public education, awareness programs, engaging stakeholder groups), apart from financial incentives. - Successful groundwater governance should include effective leadership, funding, clear objectives, scope and schedule, sufficient scientific information; - Shared groundwater resources bear a great potential for conflicts between countries, hence need to be managed within the framework of bi-lateral and multi-lateral cooperation; - It is imperative to protect and manage this vital resource if we are to secure a sustainable water future. 1st Presenter: Dr. Edwin Rap (IWMI) - Project of IWMI (Cairo office) on “Groundwater Governance in the Arab World: Taking Stock and Addressing the Challenges” involving 6 countries in the Middle East (Oman, Yemen, Jordan, Abu Dhabi, Tunisia and Lebanon) with different backgrounds and experiences in groundwater aquifers. - The project is intended to address the challenges posed by the unsustainable use of groundwater in the NENA region in a systematic way. - A multi-scale approach is adopted working on the global, regional and national levels. 2nd Presenter: Prof. Fatma A. Attia - Water governance is critical for the resource planning at both regional (shared aquifers) as well as at national (country) and local levels. Groundwater protection is (or should be) one of the aims of water governance. - Three case studies were presented focusing on the institutional responses and lessons learned: (1) Groundwater Management in the Egyptian Oases; (2) Land and Groundwater Management in the North Delta; and (3) Reuse (direct and indirect) of industrial and domestic waste water on groundwater pollution. - In the three cases, the responsible bodies of the ministry have responded after in depth discussions with the people (those affected by, and those responsible for the problems). 3rd Presenter: Prof. Mohamed A. Dawoud - UAE, as well as other arid countries, mainly rely on desalinated water. - The problem facing UAE is the vulnerability of desalination plants to pollution and emergency conditions. - Alternatives are required for reserving fresh water sources for emergency and peak demand conditions. - Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) techniques have been proposed as a cost-effective large water storage alternative that can help to meet the needs of domestic sector in crisis/emergency situations. - Artificial recharge and storage of surplus desalinated water in aquifers can play a major role in the Guidelines and templates in this booklet have been adapted from those used in previous FAO and IFAD share fair events, and especially those prepared for the Climate Change Days, Rome 2010 http://www.sharefair.net/en/
  3. 3. - management of water resources. It will also help to manage seasonal fluctuations in desalination water production and consumption. The excess amount of produced desalinated water during the non-peak hours could be stored in aquifers. Case study of Abu Dhabi Emirate pilot ASR project located at west of the highway between Madinat Zayed and Meziyrah was presented as a success story. The Lesson Learned is that the recharge of desalinated water into groundwater aquifer is an efficient and feasible tool on a large scale for strategic water reserve 4th Presenter: Dr. Omar ElBadawy - Case study of the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System was presented, based on a study funded by IFAD and conducted by CEDARE. - A finite element mathematical model was developed to simulate development scenarios, to analyze the aquifer’s behaviour, and to predict its response to future groundwater abstractions within a regional perspective. A Regional Strategy for the utilization of shared aquifers is highly recommended as a win-win situation between countries. Main points of the discussion, the answers and the exchanges - (Question to Dr. Fatma): How did you manage to resolve conflicts with the original inhabitants (Bedouins) of the oasis for managing their groundwater resources in coordination with the new comers to the oasis? The responsible institutions took various actions, starting by meetings with the old and new communities, design and implementation of field surveys and monitoring systems along with implementing pilot schemes (subject to evaluation). The major results were very successful, resulting in recovery of old springs and lands, cooperation between small land owners and large investors, and reduction of water losses. - (Question to Dr. Dawoud): Is Abu Dhabi also focusing on supply side or only demand side? The last 20 years were supply-driven (drilling more wells and abstracting more groundwater); recently there is a trend to shift from supply to demand-driven approaches; working together with water utilities to manage water salinization; in addition, convincing farmers to comply with regulations was very important. - (Question to Dr. Omar): Did you take into account seawater intrusion in the modelling? We just modelled development plans of 4 countries; water quality and seawater intrusion shall be modelled in the future; Added by Dr. Fatma: Seawater intrusion is happening and is partly being monitored by the Research Institute for Groundwater affiliated to the Water Research Center of Egypt. If possible, try to identify the participants name Use their quotes when possible Guidelines and templates in this booklet have been adapted from those used in previous FAO and IFAD share fair events, and especially those prepared for the Climate Change Days, Rome 2010 http://www.sharefair.net/en/
  4. 4. Other issues of interest raised (specify the issue and target session) e.g. Guidelines / manuals referred to as used/useful or commented about e.g. Funding/networking opportunities, key contact, etc. e.g. Related topics to be picked up in another session or at another occasion Please add 1 quote that you think summarizes your session well On the national scale: Protection of the Groundwater Resource is easier than remediation, so act proactively rather than interactively. On the regional scale: Shared aquifers could be a source of cooperation rather than conflict, if a regional collaborative strategy is adopted. 1 sentence that brings out the key message of the discussion. Something that somebody said that was especially witty. “The future is not what is happening – the future is what we will do” (Quote by Prof. Dr. Ahmed Khater, NWRC, Egypt) This will be used for the final debriefing session Immediately after the session (by rapporteur – convener - facilitator): How has the session contributed to the land and water days expected outputs? Please comment on the concrete outputs/outcomes. The presentations and discussions came up with concrete recommendations and Lessons Learned that can give a clue of how to protect and manage such an important strategic resource as the “Groundwater Resource.” 1. Technologies and approaches: what works and what does not work Constraints and solutions. Approaches - Groundwater protection and management measures have to be incorporated into the overall integrated water management policies of countries since the start. Challenges / Constraints: - Loss of groundwater rights - Increase of population - Over-exploitation which results in groundwater pollution and deterioration of water quality - mpact of climate change - Seawater intrusion in the coastal aquifers (leading to groundwater salinization and formation of sabkhas and loss of agricultural lands) - Lack of comprehensive monitoring - Limited organisational means - Political and economic interests Guidelines and templates in this booklet have been adapted from those used in previous FAO and IFAD share fair events, and especially those prepared for the Climate Change Days, Rome 2010 http://www.sharefair.net/en/
  5. 5. - Farmers’ perception of groundwater ownership Compliance of farmers with regulations Opportunities: - New supply options (safe use, water harvesting) Solutions: - Aquifer storage and recovery using artificial recharge techniques (surface reservoirs for storage are costly and not environmentally friendly). - Enforcement of groundwater protection laws and legislations - Establishment of a strong database system with maps and satellite images to be networked between countries of the region. - Information-sharing and exchange of relevant expertise. - Formation of water users’ associations. - Empowerment of the role of women in water management. 2. What do we need to know in order to be able to replicate this practice and / or to scale it up? - Convincing farmers regarding the need of forming water users’ associations for shared management, and to comply with regulations is an important issue not to be neglected. 3. What are the lessons learned identified in this session? Regarding Groundwater Management and Water Governance - Groundwater should be considered a strategic water resource…It should not be exploited unless an added value is ensured. - Groundwater is a fragile water resource, once polluted it is almost unrecoverable … Protection is easier than remediation. - Monitoring should be considered an integral part of the project cycle for timely action. - Use of high cost and complicated technologies is not always feasible, rather use what is in place with minor modifications whenever possible, - It is very important to engage the local communities from the beginning. - Decentralization is a key factor in groundwater protection and governance. However, we should not forget the characteristics of the Hydro-geological boundaries. - Participatory and multi-stakeholder on different scale approach. - Awareness is an important factor in the success of actions. It should not be restricted to the normal public, but should also extend to the decision makers. Regarding groundwater Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) in Arid Regions - Increasing the storage capacity using surface reservoirs is costly and not environmentally friendly. - Groundwater storage using the artificial recharge technique is a promising tool for strategic water reserves in all GCC countries. - Storing the fresh water in groundwater aquifers is safer and more reliable in terms of time and location. Guidelines and templates in this booklet have been adapted from those used in previous FAO and IFAD share fair events, and especially those prepared for the Climate Change Days, Rome 2010 http://www.sharefair.net/en/
  6. 6. 4. Options and recommendations to develop for the Regional Collaborative Strategy within the framework of Regional Water Scarcity Initiative. A) Recommendations drawn from the presentations Recommending a Regional Strategy for Utilization of Shared Aquifers - Establishment of a regional monitoring network between countries sharing the same aquifer is recommended for a win-win situation, and for a more sustainable and efficient use of the aquifer. - Using science and technology tools to better understand the aquifer situation for better aquifer management. - Water quality modelling should be undertaken in order to forecast the possible deterioration of the water quality related to water use. Regarding Groundwater Management and Governance - Regional maps (Atlas) for all types of water, including the quality, should be made available for future plans on water allocation to uses. - Research should be carried out on the whole aquifer system, evaluating the potential (reserves) of both fresh and non-fresh groundwater. Changing the type of land use could thus be considered from the beginning of development. - It is necessary to take stock of past experiences in groundwatre governance on the global, regional and local scales, reviewing the laws, regulations, community-based actions, and institutional structures. - Enforcement of water protection legislation, and especially groundwater protection laws, should be given high attention (preceded by awareness) - Human resources development, including both professionals and operators (technicians) should receive proper attention. - Participation of groundwater users is a major concern. It should be ensured prior to the decision on any new scheme and all over the project cycle. We should not forget the role of women (professionals or users) in protecting groundwater. Regarding groundwater Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) in Arid Regions - It is recommended to carry out more extensive studies to evaluate the feasibility of artificial recharge schemes. B) Recommendations drawn from the Working Group Discussions Regarding the most effective and feasible tools and mechanisms for cooperation and coordination on the regional level - Comprehensive data base for knowledge-sharing to understand the aquifer situation and status - Shifting from data-sharing to research-sharing of the countries sharing the same aquifers - Establishing high-level committees/authorities (e.g. political high committee, scientific/technical committee) to develop conventions and establish mechanisms for conflict solution - Initiating joint projects to share the benefits - Awareness campaings (to build trust among all parties) - A mechanism for conflict resolution/management Guidelines and templates in this booklet have been adapted from those used in previous FAO and IFAD share fair events, and especially those prepared for the Climate Change Days, Rome 2010 http://www.sharefair.net/en/
  7. 7. Regarding the promotion of community participation in groundwater management - Understanding the existing set-up followed/adapted by the community and their needs. Integrate groundwater users in existing management mechanisms (if ever they exist), or form new bodies supported by management institutions and new investors. The formed bodies should be represented in the local and central governmental organizations. GW management should be an integral component of governmental water policies. Involvement of the community in M&E of GW systems. Raising awareness on the community and political levels. Regarding how Governments should address the issue of groundwater management and sustainable development - - Response according to context Applied research and resources Policy and set strategy o Review energy and water policy o Instruments (GW metering) o Involvement of stakeholders o Increase awareness, capacity building o Compensation, trading rights M&E and adoption of GW policies Regarding the best practices that would be recommended for the region - Quality and quantity: o o artificial recharge practices (treated wastewater, standards for treated waste water quality dependent on intended use) o - control balance of extraction and recharge (pricing and flow meters, well networks, crop type/pattern) implement guidelines for infiltration or injection Protection o o - Implement protection zones (1,2,3) Lessons learned from Europe Publish best management practices 5. What are the findings and recommendations in terms of partnership? Regional Partnerships between countries in the form of twin agreements, or between international organizations in the form of networking and information sharing are recommended as basic tools for developing a Regional Strategy for Utilization of Shared Aquifers. 6. Is there a practice that was addressed that could be a good practice or become one and why? Refer to definition and criteria on page 1 The case of the Groundwater Management in the Egyptian Oases (Siwa and Farafra) can well be considered a good practice. The major results included: Guidelines and templates in this booklet have been adapted from those used in previous FAO and IFAD share fair events, and especially those prepared for the Climate Change Days, Rome 2010 http://www.sharefair.net/en/
  8. 8. (1) local and new communities have applied for licensing their water points (if appropriate); (2) replacement of poor wells; (3) formation of water users’ associations (including small and large owners); and (4) implementation of new water management schemes suitable for the prevailing hydrogeological conditions. This has resulted in recovery of old springs and lands, cooperation between small land owners and large investors, and reduction of water losses. Guidelines and templates in this booklet have been adapted from those used in previous FAO and IFAD share fair events, and especially those prepared for the Climate Change Days, Rome 2010 http://www.sharefair.net/en/
  9. 9. Participants’ feedback Post-its should be distributed to all the participants before the end of the session. They should write their answers on the right colour post-it : 1. What have you liked / learned or taken back from this session? (pink for women - orange for men) 2. According to you, what was missing or what else would you like to know on this subject? (green for women and blue for men What have you liked / learned or taken back from this session Women Men - Good experience sharing methods and - The roundtable approach is a good policy participatory approach - Working groups are always fruitful, interesting, - Important studies, interesting outcome and good interactive, learning by sharing experience recommendation from the WG discussions - It was a good discussion and recommendations, well organized - Good practice - Excellent presentations and focus on the way forward is important - Groundwater is public property in UAE What was missing or what else would you like to know on this subject Women Men - Time management (more time needed for Need more time for discussions discussions and group work) Picture of all the post-its should be taken at the end of the session. Transcription of the comments should be done right after the session The flipchart should be given back to the facilitators team. Signed by Rapporteur: Dr. Mary Halim / Ms. Nicole Stuber Lead technical facilitator: Dr. Omar El-Badawy Please send this back to us by the end of day so it can be integrated in the recap session tomorrow morning. Send it to Amr.Fadlelmawla@fao.org (cc. elodie.perrat@fao.org) with the number of your session in subject line Thank you! Guidelines and templates in this booklet have been adapted from those used in previous FAO and IFAD share fair events, and especially those prepared for the Climate Change Days, Rome 2010 http://www.sharefair.net/en/

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