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Groundwater Governance A Global Framework for Action


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7th GEF Biennial International Waters Conference in Barbados Presentation on Groundwater Governance A Global Framework for Action by Andrea Merla

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Groundwater Governance A Global Framework for Action

  1. 1. Groundwater Governance A Global Framework for Action 2012 - 2014 JORDAN DESERT Andrea Merla
  2. 2. Groundwater Resources of the World Groundwater is everywhere
  3. 3. A CRITICAL RESOURCE domestic industrial GROUNDWATER represents 96% of Earth’s unfrozen freshwater 53% average of total water abstractions in N. Africa and the Middle East irrigation
  4. 4. Importance of groundwater: • 96% of all liquid freshwater on Earth • supplies nearly ½ of all drinking water and 40% of irrigated areas in the world • crucial buffer in water-stressed areas Threats to groundwater: • storage depletion, lowering water tables • pollution, often irreversible • decreasing recharge rates due to land use patterns, deforestation
  5. 5. Groundwater abstraction it might have a significant role in sea level rise
  6. 6. Groundwater development stress indicator at country level
  7. 7. “In spite of the efforts being made across the planet to introduce some degree of management to the use of this invaluable resource, groundwater exploitation at the global level is, however, far from being sustainable. Groundwater resources are being rapidly degraded in terms of quality and quantity, and the opportunities that currently exist for the strategic expansion of groundwater use are being compromised, or simply remain unknown to stakeholders.” from Synthesis Paper, Groundwater Governance Project 2013 HAITI
  8. 8. “The lack of adequate governance hinders the achievement of groundwater resources management goals such as resource sustainability, economic development, equitable access to benefits from water and conservation of ecosystems.” from Synthesis Paper, Groundwater Governance Project 2013
  9. 9. It is for these reasons that the Global Environmental Facility (GEF) has joined forces with the FAO, UNESCO, the IAH, the World Bank, and a multitude of scientists and water managers from across the globe, in the project “Groundwater Governance A Global Framework for Action”
  11. 11. Project process and milestones 1. Baseline 2. Diagnostic • Status of groundwater governance 3. Vision • Scientific and technical knowledge, regional and country experiences 4. A global Framework for Action (2014) Policy and institutional guidelines, recommendations, best practices. • A shared vision for groundwater governance
  12. 12. Phase 1. The baseline  agreement on the scientific and economic issues in relation to groundwater management,  consensus on the scope for future action. Outputs • Case studies exemplifying various socio-economic, geologic and climatic conditions: India, Kenya, South Africa. • 12 Thematic papers synthesizing the current knowledge and experience concerning key economic, policy, institutional, environmental and technical aspects of groundwater management, and address emerging issues and innovative approaches.
  13. 13. Thematic Papers • • Groundwater Governance: Synthesis of Thematic Papers and Case Studies No.1 – Trends in groundwater pollution; trends in loss of groundwater quality and related aquifers services • No.2 - Conjunctive Use and Management of Groundwater and Surface Water • No.3 – Urban-rural tensions; opportunities for co-management • No.4 - Management of aquifer recharge / discharge processes and aquifer equilibrium states • No.5 - Groundwater Policy and Governance • No.6 – Legal framework for sustainable groundwater governance • No.7 – Trends in local groundwater management institutions / user partnerships • No.8 - Social adoption of groundwater pumping technology and the development of groundwater cultures: governance at the point of abstraction • No.9 – Macro-economic trends that influence demand for groundwater and related aquifer services • No.10 - Governance of the subsurface and groundwater frontier • No.11 - Managing the Invisible - Understanding and Improving Groundwater Governance • No.12 - Groundwater and climate change adaptation 
  14. 14. Phase 2. A global groundwater diagnostic  build the technical basis for the visioning process and the Global Framework for Action  make the best scientific and technical knowledge accessible to policy and decision makers Outputs • 5 Regional Consultations to discuss specific challenges and priorities within the different regional contexts • Private Sector Roundtable to explore opportunities for partnerships and information sharing
  15. 15. Regional consultations First Regional Consultation - Latin America and the Caribbean Montevideo, Uruguay - 18-20 April 2012 Second regional consultation: sub-Saharan Africa Nairobi, Kenya - 29-31 May 2012 Third regional consultation: Arab States Amman, Jordan - 8-10 October 2012 Fourth regional consultation: East and South Asia and the Pacific Shijiazhuang, China - 3-5 December 2012 Fifth regional consultation: UNECE Region The Hague, The Netherlands - 19-21 March 2013
  16. 16. Thematic papers Case studies Regional diagnostics Global diagnostic A lot to read!
  17. 17. Private sector roundtable: Public and Private Sector Cooperation The Hague, Netherlands 21 March 2013  capture the views and interests of the private sector  explore opportunities for partnerships and information sharing
  18. 18. Phase 3. A Vision for groundwater governance Groundwater Governance aims at ensuring full and long lasting use of groundwater resources and dependent ecosystem services WATER SECURITY
  19. 19. Where are we now Water security SDGs Vision Global Diagnostic Global Framework for Action Enabling Frameworks Guiding Principles • Thematic Papers • Case Studies • Synthesis Paper • Regional Consultations • Regional Diagnostics
  20. 20. Groundwater governance can be qualified as “an overarching framework and set of guiding principles that determines and enables the sustainable management of groundwater resources and the use of aquifers”. Enabling Frameworks: They refer to fundamental requirements for sound groundwater governance. They are generic, process oriented, and neutral: clear definition of responsibility and accountability; transparent data provision; stakeholder participation through social organization; etc.
  21. 21. Guiding Principles of Groundwater Management : A set of groundwater specific prerequisites and guidance considered essential for the achievement of the Vision: • Recognize Aquifer Recharge Areas to be managed and protected through appropriate land use planning, and enhanced when needed (MAR). • Conjunctive management of shallow groundwater systems with the surface water resources with which they naturally interact • Conjunctive management of all groundwater and surface water resources in basin/aquifer systems, small islands, and/or other physical/administrative jurisdictions • Managing groundwater quantity and quality on an integrated basis (especially as regards the threat of resource salinization)
  22. 22. Issues presently being debated within the core drafting team, and soon also within the Permanent Consultation Mechanism • How should the Vision be structured for maximum reach and impact? • How closely should the Vision be linked with the Sustainable Development Goal process? • Are there issues essential to a global groundwater Vision? • What are the priority actions for the Framework?
  23. 23. Issues presently being debated within the core drafting team, and soon also within the Permanent Consultation Mechanism • Approach to groundwater management both within and outside river-basin organizations • Administration of subsurface space for construction and other uses (mainly in urban areas) • Dealing with the use of non-renewable groundwater resources • Handling transboundary aquifers and groundwater flow, as an opportunity for international collaboration and synergy • Need for neutral repositories of subsurface information and groundwater resources
  24. 24. What is next Framework for Action circulated and discussed with PCM Approval of Steering Committee and of Advisory Board Dissemination and Outreach Activities • GEF Groundwater Conference • Final Project Conference & Participation to WWF6 and other global events WATER SECURITY
  26. 26. Recognition of the role of groundwater in the GEF International Waters Strategy for the GEF 6th Cycle
  27. 27. Title of Project GEF Groundwater Portfolio of Regional Projects F D Countries Status IA/EA Integrated Natural Resources Management in the Baikal Basin Transboundary Ecosystem Protection and Sustainable Use of the Dinaric Karst Aquifer System Protection of the NW Sahara Aquifer System (NWSAS) and related humid zones and ecosystems Russian Federation Mongolia Under Implementation UNDP/ UNESCO Albania, B&H, Croatia, Montenegro Under Implementation UNDP/ UNESCO MedPartnership – Regional Component: Mediterranean Coastal Aquifers sub-Component Algeria, Libya, Tunisia Phase 1 UNEP/ completed. Phase 2 starting implementation OSS Albania, Algeria, B&H, Croatia, Egypt, Lebanon, Libya, Montenegro, Serbia, Tunisia, Turkey Under implementation UNEP/ UNESCO Mainstreaming Groundwater Consideration into the Integrated Management of the Nile River Basin Ethiopia, Egypt, Congo, Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Sudan, Uganda, Tanzania Under implementation UNDP/ IAEA Formulation of an Action Program for the Integrated Management of the Shared Nubian Aquifer Groundwater and Drought Management in SADC Chad, Egypt, Libya, Sudan Nearing completion UNDP/ IAEA Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa, Zimbabwe Completed World Bank/ Integrating Watershed and Coastal Area Management in the Small Island Developing States of the Caribbean Environmental Protection and Sustainable Management of the Guarani Aquifer System Bahamas, Trinidad & Tobago. Completed Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Completed Developing Renewable Groundwater Resources in Arid Lands: A Pilot case – The Eastern Desert of Egypt Managing Hydrogeological Risk in the Iullemenden Aquifer System Egypt Completed UNDP/ Cairo Univ. Mali, Niger, Nigeria Completed UNEP/ OSS Enabling countries of the transboundary Syr Darya Basin to make sustainable use of their groundwater potential and subsurface space with consideration to climate variability and change. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, In preparation UNDP/ Uruguay Tajikistan, Uzbekistan SADC UNDPUNEP/ CHEI World Bank/ OAS UNESCO
  28. 28. Portfolio of REGIONAL GROUNDWATER PROJECTS • Small: 12 projects for an investment of around $35M • Strategic: Addresses a variety of situations and includes innovative aspects • Most project are completed or nearing completion Only one project under preparation (PPG)
  29. 29. Groundwater resources sustain life and livelihoods. Let’s change the way we govern them and make sure that they last.
  30. 30. More Information at: LAKE BAIKAL THANK YOU!