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CNC MACHINE

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CNC MACHINE

Published in: Engineering

CNC MACHINE

  1. 1.  1955 - US Air Force define a need to develop a machine tool capable of machining complex and close tolerance aircraft parts.  1959 - MIT is the contractor and builds the machine for the project. MIT announces Automatic Programmed Tools (APT) programming language  1960 - Direct Numerical Control (DNC). This eliminates paper tape and allows programmers to send files directly to machine tools  1980’s - CNC machine is introduced. Unix and PC based systems  1997 - PC-Windows operating system is attached to cnc
  2. 2.  Turning Centers  Milling Centers  Vertical Machining Centers  Horizontal Machining Centers  Drilling Machines  EDM Machines  Laser-Cutting Machines
  3. 3.  Spindle in a vertical orientation.  VMCs are high-precision  Used for tight-tolerance
  4. 4.  Spindle in a horizontal orientation.  Horizontal orientation encourages chips to fall away.  HMCs are high-precision  Used for tight-tolerance
  5. 5.  Controlled by G and M codes.  These are number values and co-ordinates.  Each number or code is assigned to a particular operation.  Typed in manually to CAD by machine operators.  G & M codes are automatically generated by the computer software.
  6. 6.  O - Program number  N - Sequence number  G - Preparatory function  X - X axis designation  Y - Y axis designation  Z - Z axis designation  R - Radius designation  F – Feed rate designation  S - Spindle speed designation  H - Tool length offset designation  D - Tool radius offset designation  T - Tool Designation  M - Miscellaneous function
  7. 7.  G00 Rapid Transverse  G01 Linear Interpolation  G02 Circular Interpolation, CW  G03 Circular Interpolation, CCW  G20/G70 Inch units  G8 Cancel canned cycles  G81 Drilling cycle  G82 Counter boring cycle  G83 Deep hole drilling cycle  G90 Absolute positioning  G91 Incremental positioning
  8. 8.  M00 Program stop  M01 Optional program stop  M02 Program end  M03 Spindle on clockwise  M04 Spindle on counterclockwise  M05 Spindle stop  M06 Tool change  M08 Coolant on  M09 Coolant off  M10 Clamps on  M11 Clamps off  M30 Program stop, reset to start
  9. 9. CNC machine manufactures this items Automobile Part Aerospace
  10. 10. Diamond & Jewellery Ind. Textile Machinery Die & Mould Manufactures
  11. 11. • Posess hardness and strength at high temperatures • Able to withstand when heat is generate • Angle of the cutting face • Flute width, number of flutes, teeth, and margin size
  12. 12.  Lubricating during cutting process  Cooling the workpiece at high cutting speeds  Improving tool life,  Improving surface finish  Flushing away chips from the cutting zone  Corrosion protection of the machined surface
  13. 13.  STRAIGHT OILS -Non-emulsifiable and are used in machining operations in an undiluted form they are composed of a petroleum oil , lubricants such as fats, vegetable oils ( BEST LUBRICATION )  SOLUBLE OILS -Contain no petroleum or mineral oil , composed of alkaline inorganic and organic compounds ( BEST COOLING )  SEMISYNTHETIC FLUIDS- Emulsion when mixed with water ( LEAST EXPENSIVE )  SYNTHETIC FLUIDS-Combination of synthetic and soluble oil fluids ( COST AND HEAT TRANSFER PERFORMANCE )
  14. 14.  High Accuracy e.g. Aircraft parts  Production rate is very high  Complex surfaces need to be machined  Flexibility in job change , automatic tool settings  More safe , higher productivity , better quality  Less paper work , faster prototype production
  15. 15.  Costly setup  Skilled operators  Computers , Programming knowledge required  Maintenance is very difficult
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