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Presentation on
Presented by
ACHYUTH P & TEAM
BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION, KARNATAKA
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Information source: Internet
Reference websites:
www.wikipedia.com/metal lathe
www.elearning.vtu.ac.in
Contents
 Classifi...
CNC:-It indicates “Computer and Numerically controlled”, It is defined as
“Automation of machine tools operated by precise...
Turning:-Turning is a machining process carried out in lathe machine, Where tool
moves parallel to axis of lathe and remov...
CNC Machining centres are classified THREE types
1.A vertical machining centre (VMC) :-It has its spindle on a vertical ax...
3. A universal machining centre (UMC) :-It has a work head that swivels its spindle
axis to any angle between horizontal a...
CNC machining centers are usually designed with features to reduce non productive
time. The features are:
• Automatic tool...
• Automatic pallet changer:-
Machining centers are often equipped with two (or more) separate pallets that can be
presente...
Memory
• ROM – Operating System
• RAM – Part Program
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
• Operator panel
• Tape reader
Machine ...
CNC PROGRAMMING
CNC is the part program is a set of encoding information, giving
co-ordinates and other details to indicat...
A part program contains a set of instruction which is written in
different block in the order of execution of different op...
Structure of CNC part program
Preperatory functions (Or) G codes
These codes are assosiated with the axis movement of the machine. The G code starts
fro...
M- codes (Miscellaneous functions)
These codes are concerned with the operation of the machine tool.
Following are some of...
CNC milling is a specific form of computer numerical controlled (CNC) machining.
Milling itself is a machining process sim...
Example of CNC Milling program
HOW IT WORKS ?
During CNC milling the computer translates the design into
instructions on how the drill needs to move to ...
Materials used for CNC Milling Tools
 Aluminum Carbon Steel
 Stainless Steel
 Titanium
 Brass
 Copper
 Fiberglass
 ...
CNC TURNING
CNC Turning is manufacturing process in which a
round(cylindrical) material is held in a chuck and rotated
whi...
Example for CNC Turning program
Program
O 1005
[BILLET X32 Z60
G21 G98
G28 U0 W0
M06 T03
M03 S1200
G00 X32 Z1
G01 X5 F45
Z...
How it works ?
 Designed mainly for machining shaft-type workpieces
supported by chuck and heavy-duty tailstock center
 ...
Turning Center Equipments
 Steady rest
◦ Allow facing and threading on end of shafts
 Follower rest
◦ Used to support lo...
 Reduced lead time
 Elimination of operator errors
 Less Operator activity
 Less Labor Cost
 Longer Tool Life
 Elimi...
CNC Turning and Milling centres
CNC Turning and Milling centres
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CNC Turning and Milling centres

This presentation is prepared as per syllabus of "COMMUNICATION ANALYSIS AND SKILL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM (CASP)" prescribed by BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION, KARNATAKA for 5th sem diploma all branches.
This pptx is prepared by lots of information in websites,Textbooks(Author B
A Srinivas and M R Manjunath),And guidance of our lecturers Srinath V- B.E,FIE & M D Dayanand- B.E . SET Polytechnic, Melukote

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CNC Turning and Milling centres

  1. 1. Presentation on Presented by ACHYUTH P & TEAM BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION, KARNATAKA DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
  2. 2. Information source: Internet Reference websites: www.wikipedia.com/metal lathe www.elearning.vtu.ac.in Contents  Classification of CNC Machining centres  Special features of CNC Turning and Milling centres  Configuration of CNC Machine control unit  Advantages of CNC Turning and Milling centres  Introduction to CNC, Turning and Milling operations
  3. 3. CNC:-It indicates “Computer and Numerically controlled”, It is defined as “Automation of machine tools operated by precisely programmed commands with computer playing important role of control ” Milling:-Milling is a machining operation of producing flat, helical surfaces by means of multiple cutting edged rotating tools called “Milling Cutters”. After the advent of computer numerical control (CNC), milling machines evolved into milling machining centers CNC MILLING CENTER
  4. 4. Turning:-Turning is a machining process carried out in lathe machine, Where tool moves parallel to axis of lathe and removes diameter of material. CNC Lathes or Turning centres are rapidly replacing older producing lathes CNC LATHE or CNC TURNING CENTER
  5. 5. CNC Machining centres are classified THREE types 1.A vertical machining centre (VMC) :-It has its spindle on a vertical axis relative to the work table vertical machining centre is typically used for flat work that requires tool access from top. Milling Centre is a type of vertical machining centre 2.A horizontal machining centre (HMC):-It is used for cube shaped parts where tool access can be best achieved on the sides of the cube. Turning centre or Lathe is a type of Horizontal machining centre
  6. 6. 3. A universal machining centre (UMC) :-It has a work head that swivels its spindle axis to any angle between horizontal and vertical making this a very flexible machine tool.
  7. 7. CNC machining centers are usually designed with features to reduce non productive time. The features are: • Automatic tool changer :- The tools are contained in a storage unit that is integrated with the machine tool. When a cutter needs to be changed, the tool drum rotates to the proper position and an automatic tool changer (ATC) operating under program control, exchanges the tool in the spindle for the tool in the tool storage unit. Capacities of tool storage unit commonly range from 16 to 80 cutting tools. • Automatic work part positioner:- Many horizontal and vertical machining centers have the capability to orient the work part relative to the spindle. This is accomplished by means of a rotary table on which work part is fixtured. The table can be oriented at any angle about a vertical axis to permit the cutting tool to access almost the entire surface of the part in a single setup.
  8. 8. • Automatic pallet changer:- Machining centers are often equipped with two (or more) separate pallets that can be presented to the cutting tool using an automatic pallet changer. While machining is performed with one pallet in position at the machine, the other pallet is in a safe location away from the spindle. In this location, the operator can unload the finished part and then fixture the raw work part for next cycle.
  9. 9. Memory • ROM – Operating System • RAM – Part Program Central Processing Unit (CPU) • Operator panel • Tape reader Machine tool controls • Position control • Spindle speed control Sequence controls • Coolant • Fixture clamping • Tool changer System bus Configuration of CNC machine control unit
  10. 10. CNC PROGRAMMING CNC is the part program is a set of encoding information, giving co-ordinates and other details to indicate how a tool should move in a relation to a work piece in a machine should perform desirable operation on the job. CNC controls will be the program and execute the operations. The program is prepared by co-ordinate values (XYZ) of the entire tool path as suited to machine to complete the component and it also contains the following basic information. •Preparatory function (G code) •Miscellaneous function (M code) •Spindle speed (S) •Feed rate (F) •Tool number (T)
  11. 11. A part program contains a set of instruction which is written in different block in the order of execution of different operations to be performed on the job. The part program contains a string of blocks which defined as the sequence of operations. Each block contains a set of letters and numerical values and followed by and charecters. The length of the block is sufficient to accommodate 120 charecters and at the each time.It can display 80 charecters. The block numbers will be entred with adress N. The block numbers are freely selectable. Structure of CNC part program
  12. 12. Structure of CNC part program
  13. 13. Preperatory functions (Or) G codes These codes are assosiated with the axis movement of the machine. The G code starts from zero and end upto 96.Normally the G codes will define path of the tool.
  14. 14. M- codes (Miscellaneous functions) These codes are concerned with the operation of the machine tool. Following are some of the important M-codes used in the part programming.
  15. 15. CNC milling is a specific form of computer numerical controlled (CNC) machining. Milling itself is a machining process similar to both drilling and cutting, and able to achieve many of the operations performed by cutting and drilling machines. Like drilling, milling uses a rotating cylindrical cutting tool. However, the cutter in a milling machine is able to move along multiple axes, and can create a variety of shapes, slots and holes. In addition, the work-piece is often moved across the milling tool in different directions, unlike the single axis motion of a drill. CNC milling devices are the most widely used type of CNC machine. Typically, they are grouped by the number of axes on which they operate, which are labeled with various letters. X and Y designate horizontal movement of the work-piece (forward-and-back and side-to-side on a flat plane). Z represents vertical, or up-and-down, movement, while W represents diagonal movement across a vertical plane. Most machines offer from 3 to 5 axes, providing performance along at least the X, Y and Z axes. Advanced machines, such as 5-axis milling centers, require CAM programming for optimal performance due to the incredibly complex geometries involved in the machining process. These devices are extremely useful because they are able to produce shapes that would be nearly impossible using manual tooling methods. Most CNC milling machines also integrate a device for pumping cutting fluid to the cutting tool during machining.
  16. 16. Example of CNC Milling program
  17. 17. HOW IT WORKS ? During CNC milling the computer translates the design into instructions on how the drill needs to move to create the shape. Typically, the drill can move up down, or tilt at an angle, and the table moves the part laterally. For complex parts, the part may need to be rotated at some point in the milling process. Because the process is run by a computer, high resolutions, and greater throughput are possible.
  18. 18. Materials used for CNC Milling Tools  Aluminum Carbon Steel  Stainless Steel  Titanium  Brass  Copper  Fiberglass  Magnesium  Plastic  Plasticized Woods  Foam
  19. 19. CNC TURNING CNC Turning is manufacturing process in which a round(cylindrical) material is held in a chuck and rotated while a tool is fed to the piece to remove material to create the desired shape. CNC lathes or turning centers have tooling mounted on a turret which is computer-controlled. CNC’s with “live” tooling
  20. 20. Example for CNC Turning program Program O 1005 [BILLET X32 Z60 G21 G98 G28 U0 W0 M06 T03 M03 S1200 G00 X32 Z1 G01 X5 F45 Z0 X10 Z-10 Z-15 G02 Z-25 R10 F25 G01 Z-30 F45 G03 X25 Z-37 R10 F25 G01 X25 Z-37 R10 F25 G01 Z-42 F45 X30 Z-45 Z-52 G28 U0 W0 M05 M02
  21. 21. How it works ?  Designed mainly for machining shaft-type workpieces supported by chuck and heavy-duty tailstock center  On four-axis machines, two opposed turrets, mounted on separate cross-slides  One above and one below center line of work  Balance cutting forces so extremely heavy cuts can be taken on workpiece
  22. 22. Turning Center Equipments  Steady rest ◦ Allow facing and threading on end of shafts  Follower rest ◦ Used to support long, thin shafts  Bar-feeding mechanism ◦ Permits machining of shafts and parts from bar stock smaller than spindle through-hole  Production part loader ◦ Can complete part changeover when individual precut shafts machined
  23. 23.  Reduced lead time  Elimination of operator errors  Less Operator activity  Less Labor Cost  Longer Tool Life  Elimination of special Jigs and Fixtures  Flexibility in changes of product design  Reduced inspection  Reduced Scrap  Accurate costing and scheduling

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This presentation is prepared as per syllabus of "COMMUNICATION ANALYSIS AND SKILL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM (CASP)" prescribed by BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION, KARNATAKA for 5th sem diploma all branches. This pptx is prepared by lots of information in websites,Textbooks(Author B A Srinivas and M R Manjunath),And guidance of our lecturers Srinath V- B.E,FIE & M D Dayanand- B.E . SET Polytechnic, Melukote

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