Creation of practical guidance for development of a forestry and the projects connected with use of a wood biomass in power (on an example of the Arkhangelsk region) . SURINA ELENA Northern Research Institute of Forestry ( Arkhangelsk )
Northern Research Institute of Forestry ( Arkhangelsk) <ul><ul><li>tel : (8182) 61 79 55 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fax : (8182) 61 25 78 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>www.sevniilh-arh.ru </li></ul></ul>
Main investigations Project: «Establishment of European - Asian Network for the development of strategies to enhance the sustainable use of Sea Buckthorn» (EAN-SEABUCK) FP6 (SSA). <ul><li>Five training seminars under the project in Arkhangelsk in May 2007 are organized and lead; one seminar is organized and held on cultivation of sea - buckthorn berries in Samarkand (Uzbekistan); </li></ul><ul><li>generalization of results of seminars in Arkhangelsk and Samarkand on the basis of the received questionnaires of participants of training modules is lead; </li></ul><ul><li>5 kinds of booklets in five directions of activity of the project in the Chinese, English and Russian languages for distribution among interested persons are published. </li></ul>Project coordinator TTZ – Bremerhave (Germany).
Project: «Northern coniferous forests – tools trough research for the sustainable use of forests in the Barents region» / EU Tacis : EU - Russia Neighbourhood Programme. Project coordinator – Kolari Research station, METLA, Finland. The main objectives: 1) to study age structure and partial spatial features of forest stands of a spruce stands in characteristic types forest types for area of their large - scale disintegration; 2) to study trends of gap - dynamics of old - age spruce forests in scale of a separate forest location; 3) formation of approaches in fores t using , directed on preservation of ecological stability of forests stands, especially at purpose of selective fellings.
Project: «Wood Bark and Peat as Raw Materials for Bioactive Compounds and Specialty Chemicals: from Innovations to Applications» («ForestSpeCs») . FP7. Project coordinator – University of Helsinki, Finland . The ultimate target of the project is to replace certain large - volume, oil based chemical materials with bio-renewable and innovative products based on wood-related residues and humic substances. The aim is to find feasible ways to produce high value added, bioactive compounds such as pharmaceuticals and biological plant protection products, as well as to develop new environmentally benign industrial chemicals and polymers. Furthermore, one of the main targets is to create economically attractive options for the total usage of processed wood and peat residues either as a whole, or after extraction of the main bioactive fractions, for example in soil remediation.
<ul><li>THE CHANGES IN STRUCTURE OF FORESTS AS A RESULT OF MANY FACTORS WHICH ARE CAUSED BY ANTHROPOGENIC INFLUENCE: </li></ul><ul><li>CUTTINGS, FOREST FIRES, POLLUTION SOILS AND THE ATMOSPHERE, ALSO RECREATIONAL LOADINGS. </li></ul><ul><li>FORESTS IN NORTHERN TAIGA IN SPHERE OF THEIR LOW EFFICIENCY ARE VERY SENSITIVE TO INFLUENCE OF THE ANTHROPOGENIC FACTORS. </li></ul>
For territory of the Russian Federation (2008) trend of average annual temperature of air has made near by 0,4° С /10 years (source : technical resume of the estimated report on climate changes and their consequences), and rather possibly speaks increase in greenhouse gases and an aerosol in atmosphere. According to the Press centre Federal Service Rosleshoz for last 20-30 years the maximum increase of temperature in boreal a zone is marked just in the Arkhangelsk region, Karelia, Komi Republic and makes 3-4 С .
Scheme spruce decline in the interfluve area between Northern Dvina and Pinega rivers How we can use a spruce drying (dried) wood??? Also having a problem with the wood wastes Forest divisions : 1 – Arkhangelskoye 2 – Bereznikovskoye 3 – Velskoye 4 – Verhnetoemskoye 5 – Vilegodskoye 6 – Emezkoye 7 – Kargopolskoye 8 – Karpogorskoye 9 – Konoshskoye 10 – Kotlasskoye 11 – Krasnoborskoye 12 – Leshukonskoye 13 – Mezenskoye 14 – Nyandomskoye 15 – Onezskoye 16 – Plesetskoye 17 – Severodvinkoye 18 – Ustyanskoye 19 – Holmogorskoye 20 – Shenkurskoye 23 – Yarenskoye 25 – Solovetskoye 26 – Vyiskoye 27 – Pinezskoye 28 – Surskoye 29 – Priozernoye 30 – Obozerskoye 31 – Puksoozerskoye 32 – Kenozerskyi National Park 33 – Vodlozerskyi National Park 34 – Pinezskyi State Reserve – intensive spruce decline ; – slow spruce decline
At present drying of spruce forest stands on the territory of the Arkhangelsk region is a large-scale problem. This problem is the most critical on the territory of forestry units located in the region between the Northern Dvina and Pinega rivers. Today it is not possible to name unambiguously the main reason for drying spruce forests in such large scales. Many possible reasons and versions of spruce stands degradation, their drying and damage. Drying of spruce forests has a negative impact on forest revenue to be collected from the territories exposed to such natural phenomenon. It is necessary to mention the historical fact that drying of spruce forests was regularly observed on the territory of the Arkhangelsk region before. However the current available data related to the problem is insufficient for the reliable prediction of further scenario of spruce stands drying and possibility of its recurrence within the time and space.
201 0 balance of forests (Arkhangelsk region) - 2.6 mln. ton C 2000 + 0.05 mln. ton C Source or Sink?
<ul><li>Tasks: Performance of the given work will allow assistance to a sustainable development boreal forests by for realization of researches and the actions connected with them concerning forest ecosystems, a forestry and the wood industry, and also in assistance to transfer of corresponding new ideas, to acceptance of new methods of planning of forest using and the social organisation with a view of preservation and steady management boreal forests. One of important lines of activity on maintenance of power safety of region is involving in fuel balance of local kinds of power resources, including a wood waste and fire wood. Available resources of fuel wood are sufficient for satisfaction them both the population, and the boiler-houses working on a wood waste. </li></ul>
Thus, differences were found between characteristics of spruce decline: Speed. Progressive decrease. In general, at least several years elapse between the first onset of symptoms and death. More often it is 10 - 15 years or so. Mature cohort . The fact that declines affect a mature cohort in a population is an important feature that is often overlooked. Decline diseases affect trees that place the greatest demand on a site, the dominant and codominant trees. Symptoms. A key point is that these are nonspecific, very general symptoms. They are certainly not diagnostic. Dieback is usually more pronounced in hardwoods than in conifers, but branch dieback is not unusual in conifers. Cause . Decline diseases are caused by interaction of abiotic and biotic factors in three groups: Predisposing factors : Long-term. Often climate, site, age, genetic predisposition. May not lead to obvious problems, but predispose trees to: Inciting factors: Short-term. Things like defoliation, frost damage, drought. If not for the predisposing factors, trees would recover quickly, but predisposed tree go into decline and are vulnerable to: Contributing factors: Opportunistic fungi and insects like bark beetles. They finish off the tree, but normally wouldn't do so unless the tree was declining.
<ul><li>Expected within the limits of strategy on adaptation </li></ul><ul><li>of forest ecosystems the information: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Influence of climatic changes on forests and a forestry. </li></ul><ul><li>2. The mechanisms of adaptation developed in forest sector to changes. </li></ul><ul><li>3. The measures of softening of climatic changes developed in forest sector. </li></ul><ul><li>4. The data for the reporting on greenhouse gas of forests. </li></ul><ul><li>5. The regional forest program, power and climatic strategy, national strategy of adaptation to climatic changes. </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose of researches is representation creation about a role of forest sector in the conditions of a changing climate. </li></ul><ul><li>Research projects in following directions: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Adaptation of woods in Barents-region in the conditions of climate change. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Adaptation to a local climate of pathogenic kinds of the mushrooms dated for pine and fur-tree forests, and also their distribution. </li></ul><ul><li>3. The estimation and management of risks of the damages caused by insects-wreckers in the conditions of changing environment. </li></ul><ul><li>4. The climatic policy in forest sector. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Dynamics of carbon in forest ecosystems in the conditions of changing environment. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Cultivation and preparation of forests in the conditions of climate change. </li></ul>