Challenges diaci2

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  • Splošno o balkanu in jelovo bukovih gozdovih
  • Challenges diaci2

    1. 1. Close-to-Nature Forestry: linking ecological, economical and social values by Jurij Diaci Biotechnical Faculty University of Ljubljana, Slovenia Department for Forestry and Renewable Forest Resources
    2. 3. <ul><li>Jurij Diaci </li></ul>Close-to-nature forestry: linking ecological, economical and social values University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty Department for Forestry and Renewable Forest Resources Slovenia 1. Origins of close-to-nature forestry (CTN) 2. Natural processes and CTN 3. How does CTN silviculture operate? 4. Economic aspects of CTN 5. Social aspects of CTN 6. Conclusions
    3. 4. Landslides and erosion in Japan and intensive reforestations 1. Origins of close-to-nature silviculture
    4. 5. Degraded landscapes across the Alps with erosion etc.
    5. 6. Afforestation on Karst (Slovenia) in 1895
    6. 7. Joseph Ressel: started afforestation s on Karst, also inventor of ships propeller
    7. 8. - huge natural interconnected forest - high species diversity due to glacial refugia - many umbrella species (e.g. bear, lynx, wolf, peregrine falcon) - many old-growth forests
    8. 9. Selection mixed silver fir beech forests on Zlatibor (Srbija) Selection forests as a tradition within whole Dinaric Mountains
    9. 10. F. de Liocourt : De l’amenagement des sapinières. Bulletin trimestriel, Société forestière de Franche-Comté et Belfort, juillet 1898, pp. 396 – 409. Henry Biolley (1858 -1939) Adolphe Gurnaud (1825 -1896) Source: J-Ph. Schütz ?
    10. 11. Source: GG Sl. Gradec
    11. 12. <ul><li>until WW II. the silvicultural systems in Slovenia were: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>clear-cut system in the Alps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>selection system the Dinaric region and in some private forest (silver fir) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>large scale uniform shelterwood for beech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>coppicing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>in 1948 clear-cut system was prohibited and selection system was introduced to all forests -> partially unsatisfactory results, especially with beech </li></ul><ul><li>in 50’ irregular shelterwood was introduced (CH) </li></ul><ul><li>in 60’ “free style” silvicultural system ( P rof. Mlinšek) </li></ul>Slovenia – Development of forestry
    12. 13. <ul><li>Geographical position of forest reserves (  ) and old-growth forest ( * ) in Slovenia (Mlinšek et al. 1980) </li></ul>2. Natural processes and CTN silviculture
    13. 14. Right: primeval forest Ravna gora (SI) in 2001: wind throw gap from 1983 Left: s mall-scale gap disturbance in primeval forest Rajhenav (SI) in 1998
    14. 15. M ajor disturbance pattern is endogenous small scale disturbance (< 1000 m2) with sporadic windthrow . Light remains sparse!!! 2. Natural processes and CTN silviculture Old-growth Trdinov vrh (SI) - 1999
    15. 16. <ul><li>E vidence of large scale wind disturbance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>records in old forest chronicles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>last decades : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vivian, Wiebke in 1990 (120 m. m3) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lothar in 1999 (180 m. m3) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slovakia 2004 - 60 x 10 km (2.5 m. m3) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>only partly ecosystem specific </li></ul></ul>2. Natural processes and CTN silviculture
    16. 17. Clear-cut management in Oregon (USA) : erosion & site degradation, water management, wildlife, social functions
    17. 18. C lear-cut forest in the Olympic Peninsula, Washington. If you were driving, you’d probably not notice the clearing at all! And that, my friend, is the pictorial definition of a façade. Landscape “make-up”
    18. 20. evenaged forest State owned selection forests in the Dinaric region 3. How does CTN silviculture operate? selection forest
    19. 21. The regeneration is introduced under slightly opened canopies Irregular shelterwood system
    20. 22. The regeneration is introduced under slightly opened canopies Formation and gradual extension of gaps Irregular shelterwood system
    21. 23. 1960' - development of &quot;free style&quot; silvicultural system by 1968 - the trilogy of Slovenian nature-based silvicultural systems was completed and published
    22. 24. S c hematic presentation of the “ free style ” silvicultural system: (A) gradual conversion of spruce plantation to mixed uneven-aged forest, (B) transformation of large-scale regeneration to uneven-sized forest , (C) conversion of coppices (with standards) to regular forest INITIAL CONDITION AFTER 30 YEARS AFTER 60 YEARS
    23. 25. Successful transformation of spruce plantation in Pohorje
    24. 26. “ Free style” system in silver fir – beech forests
    25. 27. Dauerwald – CC forest on a steep slope in Swiss Jura. Regular felling every 10 years. Non-managed stand for the last 50 years, than heavier felling in 1999.
    26. 28. Sycamore maple of excellent quality in a CC forest. Tree as a goal and means of production. Felling age is defined individually. Norway spruce of excellent quality in CC forest Lenzburg, CH.
    27. 29. <ul><li>Jurij Diaci </li></ul>Close-to-nature forestry: linking ecological, economical and social values University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty Department for Forestry and Renewable Forest Resources Slovenia 1. Origins of close-to-nature forestry (CTN) 2. Natural processes and CTN 3. How does CTN silviculture operate? 4. Economic aspects of CTN 5. Social aspects of CTN 6. Conclusions
    28. 30. <ul><li>CTN forestry as slow food forestry or organic forestry (higher price?) </li></ul><ul><li>certification (FSC) </li></ul><ul><li>ProSilva – CTN is economically very efficient! </li></ul><ul><li>if you make calculations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>compare whole production cycle and more </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>don’t use interest rates (if you use them you have to start from primeval forest) </li></ul></ul>4. Economic aspects of CTN
    29. 31. <ul><li>1) indirect influences on management success </li></ul><ul><li>- take into account some ecological issues (sustained site productivity; lower risks; future tax reductions for low ecological footprint and ecosystem services) </li></ul>4. Economic aspects of CTN
    30. 32. <ul><li>1) indirect influences on management success </li></ul><ul><li>- take into account some ecological issues (sustained site productivity; lower risks; future tax reductions for low ecological footprint and ecosystem services) </li></ul><ul><li>2) direct influences on management success </li></ul><ul><li>- less thinning and planting (use natural forces, tending by continuous cover , eg. quality of beech , thinner branches , natural regeneration ) </li></ul><ul><li>- mixture (grow valuable trees) auction; not every large diameter tree is valuable; but all high priced trees were large diameter trees; harvest them individually </li></ul><ul><li>- quality (apply thinning and pruning) </li></ul>4. Economic aspects of CTN
    31. 33. <ul><li>education is done mostly by retaining appropriate canopy cover (indirect tending) harvesting of adult trees is the most important instrument of forest tending </li></ul>
    32. 35. <ul><li>natural regeneration: knowledge on regeneration and gap ecology => mixture, quality and quantity of regeneration </li></ul>
    33. 36. CTN silviculture is about being lazy in a clever way
    34. 37. <ul><li>1) indirect influences on management success </li></ul><ul><li>- take into account some ecological issues (sustained site productivity; lower risks; future tax reductions for low ecological footprint and ecosystem services) </li></ul><ul><li>2) direct influences on management success </li></ul><ul><li>- less thinning and planting (use natural forces, tending by continuous cover , eg. quality of beech , thinner branches , natural regeneration ) </li></ul><ul><li>- mixture (grow valuable trees) auction; not every large diameter tree is valuable; but all high priced trees were large diameter trees; harvest them individually </li></ul><ul><li>- quality (apply thinning and pruning) </li></ul>4. Economic aspects of CTN
    35. 39. Wood grows on wood; price 1805 EUR; Hessen (D).
    36. 40. <ul><li>1) indirect influences on management success </li></ul><ul><li>- take into account some ecological issues (sustained site productivity; lower risks; future tax reductions for low ecological footprint and ecosystem services) </li></ul><ul><li>2) direct influences on management success </li></ul><ul><li>- less thinning and planting (use natural forces, tending by continuous cover , eg. quality of beech , thinner branches , natural regeneration ) </li></ul><ul><li>- mixture (grow valuable trees) auction; not every large diameter tree is valuable; but all high priced trees were large diameter trees; harvest them individually </li></ul><ul><li>- quality (apply thinning and pruning) </li></ul><ul><li>FACIT: more profitable in CE conditions (less tending and risks, individuality) </li></ul>4. Economic aspects of CTN
    37. 41. LEGEND: crop tree competitor source: WSL
    38. 43. <ul><li>1) indirect influences on management success </li></ul><ul><li>2) direct influences on management success </li></ul><ul><li>FACIT: more profitable in CE conditions (l ower costs, risks, individuality) – prof. Knoke </li></ul>4. Economic aspects of CTN
    39. 45. <ul><li>Alternatives for urban and recreational forests: </li></ul><ul><li>- non-intervention </li></ul><ul><li>- conventional management </li></ul><ul><li>- adapted CTN </li></ul>5. Social aspects of CTN
    40. 46. Ljubljana urban forests in Mostec (results of non-interevntion)
    41. 47. Czech national park Šumava
    42. 48. natural regeneration of pedunculate oak in large scale shelterwood small clear cut in Norway spruce plantation Conventional forest management
    43. 49. CTN silviculture as option near large urban areas in state or municipality owned urban forests
    44. 51. <ul><li>origins of CTN: environmental crisis & existing CC practices </li></ul><ul><li>adapt CTN practices to natural conditions (disturbance) </li></ul><ul><li>CTN has small ecological footprint </li></ul><ul><li>economic aspects: more profitable (less tending and risks, individuality) + social effects </li></ul><ul><li>myth > new age movement or neo nature protection> alternative > necessity = CTN </li></ul>6. Conclusions

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