Socioeconomic analysis of land degradation. Land degradation- water deficient- Migration-to urban areas, It causes urban plan problems in Mongolia. Many herders come to UB and contribute poverty and unemployed population.
“ NUM-ITC-UNESCO” laboratory f or Remote Sensing/GIS GIS day 18 November, 2009 Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
<ul><li>The l aboratory began in 2003 with the name "Remote sensing study of the environmental monitoring and Geographic Information System" with the Department of Geophysics of the School of Physics & Electronics at National University of Mongolia (NUM). </li></ul><ul><li>It's role includes research, education and technology transfer. From 01 December 2005, the laboratory became the "NUM-ITC-UNESCO" international laboratory of Remote Sensing/GIS near School of Physics & Electronics at NUM. </li></ul>
Activity <ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>For undergraduate students from Ecology, Hydrology, Meteorology, Geophysics. </li></ul><ul><li>For master student studying same as elective and special source. </li></ul><ul><li>For PhD students advanced course and research. </li></ul>
Remote Sensing Society/GIS Laboratory National University of Mongolia PASTURE LAND DEGRADATION SEVERE WINTER CONDITION (ZUD) GLACIER AIR POLLUTION FORESTRY AND FOREST STEPPE FIRE DROUGHT DESERTIFICATION NUM-ITC-UNESCO Remote Sensing Laboratory Land Cover/Use Change Deforestation
Seminars on RS/GIS <ul><li>3 times conference workshops on topics "International land use, land cover change“ </li></ul><ul><li>National workshop on topics "Land exploitations, land cover changes of Mongolia" </li></ul><ul><li>Many other workshops for schedule </li></ul><ul><li>First Astronomical summer school NUM-ITC-UNESCO laboratory 21 July 2008 </li></ul>
Research, international affair <ul><li>"NUM-ITC-UNESCO" laboratory for Remote sensing and GIS is currently doing research on following projects: </li></ul><ul><li>Surveying on snow cover of Mongolia </li></ul><ul><li>Research study on Surface water of Mongolia </li></ul><ul><li>Forest Bio mass and vegetation index </li></ul><ul><li>Research study of sexual forest cover </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetation and land cover study of Mongolia </li></ul><ul><li>Calculation of wheat crops. </li></ul><ul><li>The development and movements of Ulaanbaatar </li></ul>
This laboratory planning to grow next research projects: <ul><li>Natural disaster risk reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Using the GIS application for Natural protection </li></ul><ul><li>To compute air pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Establish the forest information base of Mongolia </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Monitoring of Mongolia </li></ul><ul><li>Crop production monitoring </li></ul>
One of the high priorities is international cooperation, which is an integral part both educational and research. At present we have co-operation with the following foreign universities and organizations: <ul><li>NASA – United States </li></ul><ul><li>University of England </li></ul><ul><li>Ginsburg University of Austria </li></ul><ul><li>ITC, The Netherlands </li></ul><ul><li>Clark University, USA </li></ul><ul><li>Chiba University, Japan </li></ul><ul><li>COFC-GOLD, USA </li></ul><ul><li>ITC the Netherlands </li></ul>
Drought index maps, 2000-2003 1988 1990 2000 2001 2002 2003 Non drought Slight drought Severe drought Legends Lake 1982
Dust and Sand Storm in Northeast Asia Dust from the large expanse of desert across northern China and Mongolia has been subject to much greater study is eastward, out towards the Pacific Ocean.
APPROACH <ul><li>Band _ difference = ch4-ch5 </li></ul><ul><li>by AVHRR/NOAA (1) </li></ul><ul><li>Band _ difference =ch32-ch31 </li></ul><ul><li>by MODIS/TERRA (2) </li></ul><ul><li>Where: Ch4 ： AVHRR-4 (10.3μ ｍ～ 11.3μ ｍ ); </li></ul><ul><li>Ch5 ： AVHRR-5 (11.5μ ｍ～ 12.5μ ｍ ); </li></ul><ul><li>Ch31 ： MODIS-31 (10.780μ ｍ～ 11.280μ ｍ ) </li></ul><ul><li>Ch32 ： MODIS-32 (11.770μ ｍ～ 12.270μ ｍ ) </li></ul>Dust and Sand Storm Each year from March to May, it is observed that the dust and s and storm, which occurred in the Gobi desert of Mongolia
2002.03.18 – 03.21 20 aimag Wind speed > 16m/s: 217 soum > 28m/s: 31 soum Maximum Duration: 68 hours Losses: 3 person 53000 livestock 2.1 billion tugrigs Dust and Sand storm studies using MODIS/TERRA emissive bands
Band diffrence Pre-processing Satellite data Overlaying layers Meteorological data into GIS Dust storm images Visual Interpretation Dust and Sand Storm a) March.6, 2006 by AVHRR/NOAA b) March.6, 2006 by MODIS/TERRA c)March.9, 2006 by AVHRR/NOAA d )March.9, 2006 by MODIS/TERRA
Fire Monitoring Steppe and forest fires kill wildlife and also reduce the area of habitat available. Low humidity, a dry climate, and strong winds in the dry season make Mongolia one of the most fire-prone countries in Asia. 1996 1997
In Mongolia, that word is Zud –a combination of blizzard and bitter cold, preceded by drought. Heavy snow falls caused adverse grazing conditions for livestock SEVERE WINTER CONDITION The ground can become frozen so hard that animals cannot graze and water cannot be easily extracted. Pasture land is used for winter season
Glaciers MODIS Snow Index Figure 3. Map is showing areas having snow cover during the period June-Aug 2006, i.e. classified by time LANDSAT
Glacier changes in Western mountain Landsat data GLACIER 1990-09-07 2002-07-14 1992-06-25
Between 1990 and 2005 60,000 ha of forest have been lost; Causes -Incorrect policies -infrastructure support for sustainable logging regimes -Increasing domestic demand for fuel wood and timber - Recent rapid deforestation is primarily due to fire, improper commercial and illegal logging inadequate enforcement of forest rules and regulations - Grazing and browsing of young trees by livestock, and insect infestations Deforest
Tree Mapping Plot diameter height Stand attributes (NDVI, DBH, height) species Local area Regional Continental The ability of regression models to represent the relationship between biomass and NDVI across local, regional and continental scale Estimation on biomass Forestry
0 tonnes/ha 70 tonnes/ha 140 tonnes/ha 210 tonnes/ha 280 tonnes/ha 350tonnes/ha 2003 2004 Change forest biomass of the study area between years 2000 -2004 N52 o , E98 o N48 o , E102 o 2005 2006 2007
spectral channel number component number Measured satellite sensor response for a pixel in spectral band i Spectral response of mixture component,j,for spectral band i Proportion of mixture component, j ,for a pixel The error term for spectral band i Technique to apply linear mixture models component 3 component 1 1 pixel component 2 Outline of Methodology
0 tonnes/ha 60 tonnes/ha 120 tonnes/ha 180 tonnes/ha 240 tonnes/ha 300tonnes/ha VEGETATION NDVI 11-20 August 2006 VEGETATION Forest biomass 11-20 August 2006 Low High N60 o , E80 o N40 o , E120 o Regional area
Onggi river basin The lenght is 437km, site is 175 square km The Ongi river starts f ro m Khangai Range then acrossed 3 kinds of areas which are Mountain & Wooded area, steering plain area, gobi desert area. Geographical location: 47°10 'N - 44°00'N 101°20'E - 105°00'E Mining
Approximally 60 thousand people and over one million livestock who one living around Ongi river one getting defective of drink water and pasture because of Ongi river and Ulaan lake’s evaporation. During Mongolia’ s transition to a free market, socio-economic factors such as poverty and profit-seeking mining exploitation of the environment have contributed to its deterioration, and consequently, the loss in regional biodiversity, land degradation and vulnerability.
Mining activity comprises 55 % of total industrial output Mining commodity gold copper flour spar coal construction material other Mining number 1990 3 1 5 * * 4 2000 127 1 15 * * 2 License number 400 4 58 82 120 52
Example: Mining activities Big scaled mining in Central part of Mongolia. Need land reclamation.
Example: Mining activities Hand level mining contributes to land degradation, Increased small to large-scale mining, as well as illicit activity resulting in exploitation of the country’s mineral resources.
Change of vegetation using MSAVI2 index between years 1998-2006 in the study area 0.175456 0.099066 0.022675 0.251847 0.328237 0.404628 0.481018 0.557409 0.633800 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
Introduction Onggi river and Ulaan lake , 1963 year Map of topography М1:10000 0
Mongolian GER simply means "home." GER used by nomads Nomads civilization It is made of a wooden framework covered by large pieces of felt. A decorative cloth covering laid over the felt. Ger districts are characterized by high unemployment and poverty rates and have little or no water, sewer, or waste collection facilities or services contributing to increasing land erosion, and air and water pollution
Ger area 1990 Ger area 2005 Air pollution in Ulaanbaatar city Ulaanbatar city 1990 Ulaanbatar city 200 5
<ul><li>Poor mining legislation and lack of appropriate regulation of mineral production. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the most significant dangers of unsustainable development is land degradation due to expanding mining processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Limited research projects that focus on monitoring the environmental impacts of mining on land degradation and water contamination issues, and how these impacts are linked to human health . </li></ul>Discussion
Discussion and Conclusion Contribution to plan for the future by making more educated decisions in the ecological issues such as mining, firefighting, forestry and biodiversity Mongolia’s climate change seems to be caused by combination of both human impacts and naturally occurring environmental changes Necessary of modeling of socio-economic factors and land Cover/use change using Remote Sensing/GIS We conclude that environmental issues such as pasture grazing, drought desertification dust storm contribute to land degradation and it will be presumably continue to increase in the future.