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Full colostrum references along with doctor's review on bovine colostrum

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Colostrum full

  1. 1. Colostrum Overview(Reference File)By- Chintan
  2. 2. Colostrum Overview1. What is colostrum? Colostrum is the pre-milk liquid that mothers produce at birth. Commonly referred to as "babys firstmilk" and “biologic soup,” colostrum is the leftover mixture of materials present in the mammarygland and ducts at delivery. It slowly becomes mixed with newly secreted milk, yet it differs frommature milk in composition and is not as plentiful. Breasts produce colostrum beginning during pregnancy and continuing through the early days ofbreastfeeding. This special milk is yellow to orange in color and thick and sticky. It is low in fat, and high in carbohydrates, protein, and antibodies to help keep your baby healthy. Colostrum is extremely easy to digest, and is therefore the perfect first food for your baby. It is lowin volume (measurable in teaspoons rather than ounces), but high in concentrated nutrition for thenewborn. It is full of immune-enhancing antibodies, other important immune factors, and essentialgrowth factors to ensure health and vitality for adults and children.Colostrum versus Whole milk(Ref- Feeding and Nutrition, Publ. by Cooperative Extension, Institute of Agricultural and Natural Resources, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Issued May 1990)SpecificationColostrum(1st milking)Whole milk(11th milking)Total solids (%) 23 13Total Protein (%) 14 4Casein (%) 4.8 2.5Immunoglobulins (%) 6 0.09Fat (%) 6.7 4Lactose (%) 2.7 4.9Minerals (%) 1 0.742. What makes Bovine colostrum so beneficial? There are over 90 known components in colostrum. The primary components, divided into twoclasses, are immune factors and growth factors. Colostrum also contains a precise balance ofvitamins, minerals and amino acids. All of these factors work together in perfect synergy torestore and maintain health. Colostrums Immune Factors : Immune Factors in colostrum have been shown to help the body fight off harmful invaders suchas viruses, bacteria, yeast and fungus. Each factor plays a specific role in our bodys defense
  3. 3. against these attackers. In addition, colostrum contains over 20 antibodies to specific pathogensincluding E coli, salmonella, rotavirus, candida, streptococcus, staphylococcus, H pylori, andcryptosporidia. In addition to immunoglobulins, medical studies show that PRP in colostrum also supports anunder active immune system. PRP also helps balance an overactive immune system present inautoimmune diseases.Colostrums’ Growth Factors : Growth Factors help build and restore bone, muscle, nerve tissue, connective tissue, skin and cartilage.These factors have also been shown to help increase lean muscle, help the body burn fat for fuel, andassist in wound healing. Growth factors have also been shown to help slow the signs of aging.Colostrums’ growth factors may: Affect the brains mood regulating chemicals to brighten our moods. (Serotonin &dopamine) Assist in regeneration and improve normal growth of aged or injured muscle, bone,cartilage, skin collagen and nerve tissue. Help burn fat for fuel instead of muscle tissue in times of fasting (diet), and build & retainlean muscle (non-diet). Assist the internal regulation of blood glucose levels and "brain chemicals", supportingalertness and better concentration. Support healing skin when applied topically Repair our bodys precious RNA and DNA. Other Beneficial Components : Vitamins and Minerals are nutrients that are essential for normal metabolism, growth anddevelopment. They act as coenzymes, enabling chemical process to take placethroughout the body. Vitamins and minerals are indispensable for the maintenance ofhealth. Amino Acids are the building blocks of proteins. They are required for growth anddevelopment. Amino acids are divided into essential (not produced by the body) andnonessential (can be produced by the body).Known Components of Bovine Colostrum1. Immune Factors - Immunoglobulins: - Antibodies IgG - Neutralizes toxins and other invaders; including viruses and bacteria IgM - Destroys bacteria, controls antibody response IgD - Antiviral, prevents hemolytic disease in infants IgE - Involved in regulating allergic response IgA - Highly antiviral and antibacterial, prevents infection Secretory IgA (SigA) - Found in mucous membranes, helps protect against infection
  4. 4.  IgA Specific Helper - Stimulates the production of IgA Lactoferrin - Powerful antioxidant, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory Lactoferrin-Fe - Iron chelator Transferrin - Binds and transports iron Glycoproteins: - (Including Protease and Trypsin Inhibitors) Protect components fromdestruction by stomach acids Lactalbumin - Raises brain serotonin levels, improves mood under stress Multimeric a-Lactalbumin - Shown to cause lung cancer cells to create selective suicide(apoptopsis) Cytokines - (Including Interleukins, Interferon Y, Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF), andLymphokines) Antiviral, anti-tumor (stimulates death of some tumors), increase T-cell activity,responsible for regulation and intensity of immune response, stimulate production ofimmunoglobulins Proline-Rich Polypeptide (PRP) - Regulates the activity of the immune system Lysozymes - Help protect body from bacterial infection, topical antibiotic Gamma Globulin - Resists infection B Lactoglobulin - Antibody, protein Complement 3 & 4 (C3 & C4) - Proteins that activate the complement of the immune system Kappa Casein - Glycoprotein that protects against the bacteria that causes stomach ulcers Alpha 2-AP glycoprotein Alpha 1- antitrypsin - Inhibitor of trypsin Alpha 2- macroglobulin - Function as hormonal transporters Orosomucoids - Alpha-1 protein in plasma Prealbumin - Precursor to albumin Albumin - Contains essential amino acids Oligosaccharides - Complex carbohydrates, help prevent lung inflammations and ear infection Non Specific Inhibitors (NSIs) - Factors that inhibit a wide range of respiratory illness2. Growth Factors Epithelial Growth Factor (EGF) - Helps protect and maintain the skin Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) - Enhances wound healing and tissue repair Insulin-like Growth Factor I (IGF-I) - Increases lean muscle mass, helps repair DNA and RNA,anti-aging, may regulate blood-sugar and cholesterol levels Insulin-like Growth Factor II (IGF-II) - Affects how the body uses fat and protein Growth Hormone (GH) - Regulates growth, decreases signs of aging Transforming Growth Factor - a (TGF- a) - Assists in formation and healing of connective tissue,bone and cartilage Transforming Growth Factor - b (TGF - b) - Helps repair tissue, supports growth of the lining ofthe gut. Shown to produce cell destruction in certain human cancers. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor (PDGF) - Stimulates growth of connective tissue, plays a role inwound healing and helps with cell division and neuron survival and regeneration Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) - Stimulates release of follicle-stimulating hormone,gonadotropic substances and treats endometriosis Prolactin - Similar to Growth Hormone Insulin - Responsible for proper metabolism of blood sugar
  5. 5.  Sulfur - An important building block of proteins3. Vitamins and Other Nutrients Vitamin B6 - Produces serotonin, utilization of amino acids Vitamin B12 - Normal development of red blood cells Vitamin E - Antioxidant, supports wound healing and immune function Vitamin A (from carotene) - Resistance to infections, maintains cell integrity Vitamin C - Antioxidant, immune system support Thiamin (Vitamin B1) - Metabolism of carbohydrates, energy Folic Acid - Cell replication and tissue growth Pantothenic Acid - Metabolism of fats, carbohydrates and protein Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) - Energy production, tissue repair, healthy eyes Beta-carotene - Antioxidant Glycoconjugates - Carbohydrates that link to lipids and proteins Glycogen - Converts into glucose when needed by tissues Retinoic Acid - Metabolite of Vitamin A, used in treatment of acne4. Minerals Calcium - Maintains strong, healthy bones, activates enzymes Chromium - Glucose metabolism disorders, body fat reduction Iron - Oxygen transport and storage, energy, immune support Magnesium - Muscle relaxation, assists with psychiatric disorders Phosphorus - Strengthens bones and teeth Potassium - Lowers blood pressure, maintains fluid balance in cells Sodium - Cell membrane integrity, plays important role in nerve function Zinc - Synthesis of DNA and RNA, activates Vitamin A5. Essential Amino Acids Isoleucine - Assists in muscle development & repair, helps regulate blood sugar Leucine - Involved in muscle repair, wound healing and hormone production Histidine - Involved in growth and tissue repair Methionine - Antioxidant, collagen synthesis, helps prevent arterial fat buildup Lysine - Aids in calcium absorption, helps regulate antibody and enzyme production Threonine - Stimulates antibody production Phenylalanine - Assists neurotransmitter function, increases "feel good" chemicals in brain Valine - Regulates energy, aids growth and repair of muscle tissue Tryptophan - Stimulates niacin production, precursor for serotonin6. Nonessential Amino Acids Arginine - Stimulates GH, immune function, promotes wound healing and muscle growth Cystine - An antioxidant involved in collagen synthesis Glutanic Acid - Helps transport potassium to the brain, implicated in neurological conditions
  6. 6.  Alanine - Involved in glucose metabolism Tyrosine - Regulate mood, may improve memory, appetite suppressant Glycine - Helps decrease muscle wasting, aids in glycogen storage Proline - Aids in wound healing and collagen synthesis Aspartic Acid - Helps synthesis of DNA, RNA, Ig and antibodies, involved in energy metabolism Serine - Involved in fat metabolism and muscle growth, noted moisturizer7. Additional Factors Found in Colostrum Beta 2- microglobulin - Components of many cell membranes including leukocytes Enzymes - Induce chemical changes in the body Haemopexin - Iron-binding protein Haptoglobulin - Glycoproteins that aid the recycling of iron Lactoperoxidase - An antioxidant Orotic Acid - Precursor to certain nucleotides Peroxidase - Transfers oxygen to tissues, helps prevent free radical damage Xanthine Oxidase Enzyme - Enzyme involved in conversion of hypoxanthine to xanthine Lactobacillus Acidophilus, Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus Bifidus - Help restore a supportivebacterial environment in the body.3. How Does Colostrum Work? Colostrum is highly beneficial in the unique manner in which it provides the body with itsnumerous immune and growth factors. Most infectious disease-causing organisms enter thebody through the mucous membranes of the intestinal tract. In order to remain healthy, it iscritical that we are able to combat disease-causing organisms, such as bacteria and viruses, aswell as environmental toxins, contaminants and allergens where they attack us. Clinical research by Dr. David Tyrell in England, published in 1981, revealed that a highpercentage of the antibodies and immunoglobulins present in colostrum are believed not to beabsorbed but remain in the intestinal tract where they attack disease causing organisms beforethey can penetrate the body and cause disease. The remainder are absorbed and distributed toassist in our internal defense processes. It is this combination of action that makes colostrum asunique and effective as an oral supplement.4. Bovine Colostrum for New Born When baby is breastfed early and often, breasts will begin producing mature milk around thethird or fourth day after birth. Milk will then increase in volume and will generally begin to appearthinner and whiter (more opaque) in color. In those first few days it is extremely important tobreastfeed newborn at least 8-12 times each 24 hours and more often is even better. Thisallows baby to get all the benefits of the colostrum and also stimulates production of a plentifulsupply of mature milk. Frequent breastfeeding also helps prevent engorgement. Colostrum provides not only perfect nutrition tailored to the needs of the newborn, but also largeamounts of living cells which will defend the baby against many harmful agents. Theconcentration of immune factors is much higher in colostrum than in mature milk.
  7. 7.  Colostrum actually works as a natural and 100% safe vaccine. It contains large quantities of anantibody called secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) which is a new substance to the newborn.Before the baby was born, Baby received the benefits of another antibody, called IgG, throughyour placenta. IgG worked through the babys circulatory system, but IgA protects the baby inthe places most likely to come under attack from germs, namely the mucous membranes in thethroat, lungs, and intestines. Colostrum has an especially important role to play in the babys gastrointestinal tract. Anewborns intestines are very permeable. Colostrum seals the holes by "painting" thegastrointestinal tract with a barrier which mostly prevents foreign substances from penetratingand possibly sensitizing a baby to foods the mother has eaten. Colostrum also contains high concentrations of leukocytes, protective white cells which candestroy disease-causing bacteria and viruses. The colostrum gradually changes to mature milk during the first two weeks after birth. Duringthis transition, the concentrations of the antibodies in milk decrease, but milk volume greatlyincreases. The disease-fighting properties of human milk do not disappear with the colostrum. Infact, as long as your baby receives milk, Baby will receive immunological protection againstmany different viruses and bacteria.5. Is Bovine Colostrum Safe and Effective in Human? Research has shown that bovine colostrum is easily assimilate by humans and is up to 40 timesricher in immune factors than human colostrum. Also, the research shows that only cows’colostrum contains special glycoproteins and protease inhibitors which are extremely effectiveat protecting the destruction of colostrum’s active components by adult human digestiveenzymes and stomach acids. And bovine colostrum is safe for consumption by humans. According to Dr. Robert Preston withthe International Institute of Nutritional Research, “Colostrum is so safe; it has been prepared bynature as the first food for infants. It would be hard to imagine any nutritional substance morenatural or beneficial.” There have been no contra-indications, side effects or allergies reported through thousands ofyears of human use of bovine colostrum. And this superfood creates no problems for those withlactose intolerance. Yes, only colostrum from dairy cows has been shown to be safe, natural, effective andbiologically transferable for human use. Bovine colostrum is not a drug: It is a safe, natural, non-allergenic food, taken by humans totreat and heal dozens of conditions- plus help create new levels of vitality and well being.
  8. 8.  To insure a pure, unadulterated product (colostrum) cows should be pasture-fed on grass thathas not been treated with pesticide, herbicide, or fungicide. They should not be subjected tocourses of antibiotics, steroids, and growth hormones as are most other dairy cows. Thesesubstances contaminate the colostrum and milk of cows, in addition to posing potential healthrisks to those who ingest the milk or colostrum, render the colostrum less effective. When cows feed on naturally raised pasture, they are exposed to a great variety of naturallyoccurring disease causing organisms, which allows them to develop natural immunity, which isthen passed on in their colostrum. Bovine colostrum contains substances that are effective against many of the differentmicroorganisms that are now resistant to the antibiotics on the market Bovine colostrum is not species specific. That means it can be consumed safely by everymammal, including humans. In particular, the molecular structure of the immune and growthfactors in bovine colostrum is very similar to those found in humans. In a sense, cows areuniversal donors of colostrum.6. Does bovine colostrum have any side effects? Colostrum is a high-protein, low fat and reduced lactose dairy product, as a result lactose-intolerant individuals generally experience no problems and some even report that colostrumhelps with their condition. If you can drink milk without any problem then you can probably takecolostrum. Some individuals may experience a mild gastrointestinal distress or a bloated feeling,which can be avoided by lowering the dose. If this reaction continues however then it is best todiscontinue the colostrum treatment. However, as with all health supplements, it is alwaysadvisable to consult with your doctor in the first instance. Colostrum used naturally contains lowlevels of lactose and during processing these are reduced further7. Health benefits/Application of Bovine colostruma. Bovine Colostrum Studies on Athletic Performance The Journal of Sports Medicine, September, 2006, reports that bovine colostrums helped maledistance cyclists retain more energy following a bout of intensive training. These cyclists whoused bovine colostrums performed at a higher level with fewer signs of fatigue during teststaken after their five days of intensive training. The European Journal of Nutrition, August, 2003, reports an investigation of whetherconcentrated bovine colostrum affected the incidence or duration of self-reported symptoms ofupper respiratory tract infections in adult males. Based on self-reports in a double blind, placebocontrolled study, preliminary evidence was found that concentrated bovine colostrum proteinmay enhance resistance to the development of symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection.
  9. 9.  The Journal of Sports Science, July, 2003 reports a study examining the effects of bovinecolostrum on peak vertical jump power, peak cycle power, alactic anaerobic work capacity,resistance exercise one-repetition maxima, and plasma insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1)concentrations. This randomized, double-blind, placebo, controlled, parallel design study concluded that bovinecolostrum supplementation during training significantly increased peak anaerobic power, buthad no effect on alactic anaerobic work capacity.b. Bovine Colostrums and Distal Colitis The Ailmentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, November, 2002, reports a study designed toexamine the efficacy of colostrum enemas in the treatment of distal colitis during a randomized,double-blind, controlled protocol. Fourteen patients with a mean age of 45 and mild tomoderately severe distal colitis were given colostrum enema or placebo for 4 weeks. Bothgroups also received mesalazine initially or as an increased dosage. After the 4 weeks, thecolostrum group showed a mean reduction in symptoms of -2.9, while the placebo groupshowed a mean response of +0.5. Researchers concluded that bovine colostrums enemashows potential as a novel therapy for left-side d colitis with an additional benefits over using mesala zine alone.c. Bovine Colostrums and Drug-Induced Intestinal Permeability The June, 2001 edition of Clinical Science reports that the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cause gastrointestinal injury. Bovine colostrum is a cheap, readilyavailable source of growth factors, which reduces gastrointestinal injury in rats and mice.Researchers hypothesized that colostrum could reduce the rise in gut permeability caused byNSAIDs in volunteers and patients taking NSAIDs for clinical reasons. Two studies wereperformed, the first on the healthy volunteers, and the second on the NSAIDs patients. In thefirst group, no increased gut permeability was seen when colostrum was co-administered withNSAID indomethacin. Indomethacin alone caused a 3-fold increase in gut permeability. In thesecond group, permeability was not influenced by co-administration of test solutions.Researchers concluded that bovine colostrum may provide a novel approach to the preventionof NSAID induced gastrointestinal damage in humans. Bovine colostrum is rich sources of various growth factors. While the concentration of thegrowth factors present has been incompletely defined, IGF I and II, TGF-β, and epidermalgrowth factor (EGF) have been identified in Bovine colostrum. Since these growth factors arecapable of stimulating growth and repair processes within the gastrointestinal tract (GI), twostudies have been conducted to determine what effect, if any, dietary supplementation mighthave on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced GI inflammation andpermeability. Bovine colostrum utilized in the two trials contained approximately 43 g/L proteincontent (primarily consisting of Ig) and the following growth factor profile (values areapproximations): IGF-I and II 2 mg/L, TGF-β 25 µg/L, and EGF 6 µg/L. The preliminary resultsobtained suggest benefits for persons acutely exposed to NSAIDs; however, BC did not appearto provide any GI benefits among persons chronically utilizing NSAIDs.
  10. 10.  In an initial study conducted in rats, supplementation with Bovine colostrum resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in the amount of GI damage caused by indomethacin. A milk solution usedas a placebo was not effective. As a result of the positive outcome, a study on the effects ofBovine colostrum on NSAID-induced intestinal permeability in humans was conducted. A milkwhey solution with similar protein content but lacking growth factors was used as a placebo.Prior to commencing the studies, the Bovine colostrum preparation was tested against theplacebo to determine whether either an effect on intestinal permeability had. The five days ofsupplementation did not have an effect on baseline intestinal permeability values in persons nottaking NSAIDs. In the first study, seven males, following an initial baseline permeability assessment,supplemented their diets with 125 mL Bovine colostrum or whey placebo three times daily forseven days. Indomethacin was introduced on days 3-7. After completing this arm of the trial, atwo-week washout period was followed by a second arm of the trial in which participantsreceiving the active intervention were switched to the placebo, while those receiving the placeboreceived active treatment. Permeability increased approximately threefold in response toindomethacin in the participants taking the whey placebo while no significant increase inintestinal permeability was observed when the Bovine colostrum preparation was co-administered with indomethacin. In the second study, 15 persons taking NSAIDs (ibuprofen, piroxicam, voltarol, or naproxen) forat least one year were randomized to receive either 125 mL Bovine colostrum or placebo threetimes daily for seven days with a two-week washout period between study arms. Baselinepermeability assessments were lower in these persons than in volunteers in the previous trial(who were not taking NSAIDs chronically). No significant effect of either the active or placebotreatment was observed. Consistent with results of the first study, short-term treatment with NSAIDs has previously beenshown to increase intestinal permeability. However, conflicting reports on the impact of chroniclong-term use of NSAIDs on intestinal permeability exist. Struthers et al, consistent withprevious observations, have reported low intestinal permeability with long-term NSAID use,while Sigthorsson et al reported an approximate two-fold increase. Currently no explanationexists for these disparate observations. While short-term doses of NSAIDs appear toconsistently increase intestinal permeability, it is possible that long-term use of NSAIDs resultsin an adaptation response by the small intestine, at least in certain individuals. Irrespective ofthe explanation, BC appear to hold promise as a dietary addition in persons beginning NSAIDs,but not for persons chronically taking NSAIDs while being free of adverse GI effects.d. Bovine Colostrum and Gastrointestinal health Review of irritable bowel syndrome, including ulcerative colitis and Crohns disease, and itsetiology, including infective agents such as Shigella and Campylobacter. Infections of the gut aredifficult to treat because no antimicrobial therapy is available that is effective against Clostridiaspores. Only bovine colostrum has proven clinical efficacy in eradicating intestinal pathogens, suchas rotavirus, and may help control the infections seen in chronic disorders such as irritable bowel
  11. 11. syndrome due to the number of biologically active components in colostrum. The growth factors incolostrum help heal intestinal erosions and ulcerations. It also contains anti-inflammatory factorsand is nutrient rich. Colostrum may be used alone or in combination with other anti-inflammatoryand/or immune substances.Ref- Borody TJ, Surace R, Warren E. Tunnel vision in the bowel. Center for Digestive Diseases (2001) Factors in colostrum which promote the development of the GI tract in newborn infants also helpprotect against such diseases as Crohn’s disease, colitis, necrotizing enterocolitis and diarrhea.Ref- Carver JD, Barness LA. Trophic factors for the gastrointestinal tract. Clinical Perinatology 23(2):265-285 (1996). In an in vitro experimental study, colostrum stimulated intestinal cell growth and reestablished ahealthy epithelial layer following injury. In an in vivo experimental study, colostrum powder wasalso shown to reduce gastric injury.Ref- Gastrointestinal Inflammation and Repair Group, Imperial College, London (2003). NSAIDs given to animals have much the same effect as they do in humans, namely, increasedintestinal permeability, increased enteric bacteria levels, villous loss, and loss of enteric protein andalbumin. Supplementation with bovine colostrum reduced the increase in intestinal permeability,the enteric bacteria overgrowth, the loss of proteins, and villous damage.Ref- Kim JW, Jeon WK, Yun JW, Park DI, Cho YK, Sung IK, Sohn CI, Kim BI, Yeom JS, Park HS, Kim EJ, Shin MS. Protective effects of bovinecolostrum on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug induced intestinal damage in rats. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 14(1):103-107 (2005). Mammalian colostrum offers passive protection against a variety of microbial pathogens.Preparations from immune milk and colostrum have proven effective in the prevention of variousgastroenteric infections without the risk of transferring disease from mother to infant.Ref- Lilius EM, Marnila P. The role of colostral antibodies in prevention of microbial infections. Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases14(3):295-300(2001). The proteins found in colostrum can promote the growth of beneficial bacteria such as Lactobacilliand Bifidobacteria in the gut.Ref- Lonnerdal B. Nutritional and physiologic significance of human milk proteins. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 77(6):1537S-1543S (2003). Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs are effective against arthritis but cause gastrointestinalinjury. Taking colostrum prior to NSAIDs reduced gastric injury by up to 60%.Ref- Playford RJ, Floyd DN, Macdonald CE, Calnan DP, Adenekan RO, Johnson W, Goodlad RA, Marchbank T. Bovine colostrum is a health foodsupplement which prevents NSAID induced gut damage. Gut 44(5):653-658 (1999). Colostrum or peptides derived from it are useful for the treatment of a wide variety ofgastrointestinal conditions, including inflammatory bowel disease, NSAID-induced gut injury, andchemotherapy-induced mucositis.Ref- Playford RJ, MacDonald CE, Johnson WS. Colostrum and milk-derived peptide growth factors for the treatment of gastrointestinaldisorders. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 72(1):5-14 (2000). A bovine colostrum IgG concentrate specific against C. difficile resists digestion in the GI tract andretains its toxin-A binding abiliity and neutralizing activity is retained.Ref- Warny M, Fatimi A, Bostwick EF, Laine DC, Lebel F, LaMont JT, Pothoulakis C, Kelly CP. Bovine immunoglobulin concentrate-clostridium difficileretains C difficile toxin neutralising activity after passage through the human stomach and small intestine. Gut 44(2):212-217 (1999).
  12. 12.  Bovine colostrum has higher amounts of immunoglobulins, growth factors, cytokines andnucleosides than mature milk. It is also rich in oligosaccharides, antimicrobials, and immune-regulating factors. Research indicates that colostrum can have a beneficial effect on improvingbody composition, athletic performance, diarrhea (particularly in people with immune deficiency),gastrointestinal disturbances, and infectious diseases.Ref- Kelly GS. Bovine colostrums: a review of clinical uses. Alternative Medical Review 8(4):378-394 (2003). Polyamines, including spermidine, spermine and putrescine, are highly regulated polycationsinvolved in cell growth and differentiation. They play an important role in the maturation of thenewborn’s intestine. They are present in all mammalian milk and colostrum.Ref- Löser C. Polyamines in human and animal milk. British Journal of Nutrition 84(Suppl 1):S55-8 (2000). Nucleosides, nucleotides and nucleobases are all present in colostrum and milk. They act asregulators in the body. Nucleotides affect immune responses in infants. Nucleotides andnucleosides contribute to iron absorption in the gut and influence saturation and elongation rates infatty acid synthesis. Ribonucleosides modulate cell proliferation and apoptosis (cell death).Ref- Schlimme E, Martin D, Meisel H. Nucleosides and nucleotides: natural bioactive substances in milk and colostrum. British Journal ofNutrition 84(Suppl 1):S59-S68 (2000).e. Bovine Colostrum and Respiratory Health In dealing with something as elusive as the common cold or as invasive as influenza, the bestoffense is a good defense. Coupling a nutritious diet with a program of exercise and routinesupplementation with high quality bovine colostrum is the best possible defense. As we age, ourimmune system loses its ability to regulate itself and to respond to a challenge efficiently. Thisoccurs primarily because the thymus, a glandular structure in the upper chest that is considered theseat of the immune system, begins to shrink after puberty and almost disappears by the time weare 50-60 years old. T-lymphocytes (T-cells) are generated from stem cells in the bone marrow andmature in the thymus. Some of these cells, called Killer T-lymphocytes, generate cell-mediatedresponses and directly destroy abnormal cells that have specific sites on their surface that arerecognized by the Killer T- lymphocytes. Helper/Suppressor T-lymphocytes, a second type of cell,regulate the immune system by controlling the strength and quality of every immune response. Ithas been shown that the thymus can be restored to normal function by the growth factors incolostrum. In addition, colostrum contains specific hormones that regulate the functions of thethymus and other substances that help to keep the immune system under control and poised torespond to possible infections before they become establishedRef-1. Nord J, et al; Treatment with bovine hyperimmune colostrum of cryptosporidial diarrhea in AIDS patients, AIDS 1990; 4(6):581-4.2. Rum p JA, et al; Treatment of diarrhea in hum an immunodeficiency virus infected patients with immunoglobulins from bovine colostrum ,Clin Investig 1992; 70(7):588-94.3. Kirkpatrick, CH; Activities and characteristics of transfer factors; Biotherapy 1996; 9(1-3): 13-16.4. Kirkpatrick, CH; Transfer factors: identification of conserved sequences in transfer factor molecules; Mol. Med. 2000 Apr.; 6(4): 332-41.5. Lawrence, HS, Borkowsk y, W, Transfer factor - current status and future prospects; Biotherap y 1996; 9(1-3):1-5.6. Lonnerdal B, I yer S; Lactoferrin: molecular structure and biological function, Ann Rev Nutrition 1995; 13:93-110.7. Brock J; Lactoferrin: a multifunctional immune regulatory protein. Immunol Today 1995; 16(9):417-19.8. Kussendrager KD, van Hooijdonk AC; Lactoperoxidase: physico-chemical properties, occurrence, mechanism of action and applications,Brit J Nutr 2000; 84(Suppl 1):S19-25.
  13. 13. 9. Gopal PK, Gill HS; Oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates in bovine milk and colostrum , Brit J Nutr 2000; 84(Suppl 1):S69-74.f. Bovine Colostrum and Metabolic Diseases Both Types I and II diabetes have an associated genetic component through which individualsappear to be predisposed. Diabetics also have low levels of IGF-1 in their circulation. Dailysupplementation of the diet of the diabetic patient with high quality first milking bovine colostrum willprovide a functional source for the restoration of diminished levels of IGF-1, resulting in increasedutilization of available glucose. This becomes extremely important for the Type I diabetic to assureeffective and controlled utilization of available glucose once is/her insulin levels are restored. In theType II diabetic, where sufficient insulin is available, it has been shown experimentally thatrestoration of reduced IGF-1 levels results in an enhancement of glucose utilization with acorresponding diminution of glucose levels in the blood and urine.Ref-10. Spagnoli A, Chiarelli F, Vorwerk P, Boscherini B, Rosenfeld RG; Evaluation of the com ponents of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) andIGF binding protein (IGFBP) system in adolescents with t ype 1 diabetes and persistent m icroalbum inuria: relationship with increasedexcretion of IGFBP - 3 18 kD N-term inal fragm ent, Clin Endocrinol 1999; 51(5): 587-96.11. Thom as F; Increased weight gain, nitrogen retention and muscle protein synthesis following treatm ent of diabetic rats with IGF-1,Biochem J 1991; 276(3): 547-54.12. Skotiner V; Anabolic and tissue repair functions of recom binant insulinlike growth factors, Acta Pediat Scand 1990; 376: S63-6.13. Steijns JM, van Hooijdonk AC; Occurrence, structure, biochem ical properties and technological characteristics of lactoferrin, Brit J Nutr2000; 84(Suppl 1):S11-7.g. Bovine Colostrum and Autoimmune Diseases Diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis, among others, arecomplex clinical conditions with variable outcomes. All of the these diseases represent an immunesystem that is out of control and could be restored and regulated through routine dietarysupplementation with a high quality first milking colostrum. As indicated above (see RespiratoryDiseases), as we age, our immune system loses its ability to regulate itself efficiently, primarilybecause the thymus begins to shrink after puberty and essentially disappears by the time we are50-60 years old.59,60,61 Scientific studies have shown that the thymus can be restored to normalfunction by IGF-1 the levels of which diminish in the circulation with age. In addition, colostrumcontains a) specific hormones, the alpha and beta chains of thymosin, that are known to regulatethe functions of the thymus; and b) proline-rich peptide (PRP), a/k/a thymulin, that has been shownto keep the immune system under control. It is also well documented that IGF-1 and the associatedSuperfamily of proteins found in colostrum operate in concert with growth hormone in theregeneration and repair of damaged cells.75 Routine dietary supplementation with high qualitybovine colostrum is, therefore, desirable for individuals afflicted with autoimmune diseases in orderto assure that sufficient levels of IGF-1 and growth hormone are continuously available in thecirculation. In addition, since IGF-1 is responsible for directing the conversion of glucose toglycogen and glycogen is a primary metabolic energy resource, such dietary supplementation couldalso help such individuals overcome the associated lethargy normally experienced with suchdiseases.Ref-
  14. 14. 14. Nord J, et al; Treatment with bovine hyperimmune colostrum of cryptosporidial diarrhea in AIDS patients, AIDS 1990; 4(6):581-4.15. Rum p JA, et al; Treatment of diarrhea in hum an immunodeficiency virus infected patients with immunoglobulins from bovine colostrum,Clin Investig 1992; 70(7):588-94.16. Kirkpatrick, CH; Activities and characteristics of transfer factors; Biotherapy 1996; 9(1-3): 13-16.17. Kirkpatrick, CH; Transfer factors: identification of conserved sequences in transfer factor m olecules; Mol. Med. 2000 Apr.; 6(4): 332-41.18. Lawrence, HS, Borkowsk y, W ; Transfer factor - current status and future prospects; Biotherap y 1996; 9(1-3):1-5.h. Bovine Colostrum References1. In a study by Antonio et al, he and his team examined the effect of 8 weeks of bovinecolostrum supplementation on body composition and exercise performance in active menand women. There were two groups: a placebo/whey protein group and a bovine colostrumgroup. The bovine colostrum group experienced a greater significant increase in lean bodymass than the whey protein group. From this study the scientists recommend that 8 weeksor more of 20 grams of bovine colostrum will enhance lean muscle hypertrophy which willfurther lead to increases in strength and power. This should be especially important andsignificant for athletes or anyone interested in advanced human performance andhypertrophy.2. In a study by Mero et al their purpose was to examine the effects of bovine colostrumsupplementation on serum insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I), amino acids, and salivaimmunoglobulin concentrations during a strength and speed training period. In this study 9male subjects were all either advanced sprinters or jumpers. All of them underwent 3different conditions each lasting a period of 8 days but with a 13 day period betweenconditions to eliminate factors from the previous condition. The three conditions wereidentical in regards to the sprint and strength training with the only notable differenceamongst them being the type of drink/supplement consumed during the training period.These conditions included a whey protein supplement, a low level bovine colostrumsupplement, and a high level bovine supplement containing 5 times the amount of colostrumas the low level group. The results from this study showed a positive correlation betweenIGF-I and levels of bovine colostrum. In other words high levels of bovine colostrumproduced the greatest increases in IGF-I. Also the low level bovine colostrum supplementincreased levels of IGF-F to a greater degree than the whey protein group. Finally, if bovinecolostrum can have such positive influence on IFG-I the authors reasonably speculated thatthis supplement may have a tremendous effect on athletes due to the anabolic and musclebuilding effects of IGF-I.3. One of the more recent studies regarding bovine colostrum supplementation was againconducted by Mero and his team of nutritional scientists. In this study the main goal was todetermine the effect of bovine colostrum on serum amino acid concentrations as well asstrength measurements. There were two conditions in which 12 active male subjectsunderwent both treatments but with 1 month between each protocol. The two conditionsinvolved subjects ingesting either a 20 gram bovine colostrum supplement or a 20 gramplacebo/maltodextrin supplement. Measurements were taken before and after eachtreatment to determine changes in amino acid concentrations and levels of strength. Theresults from this study clearly showed that bovine colostrum produced significant increasesin essential amino acid concentrations within the muscles compared to no increases in theplacebo group. However there were no differences in strength in either group. The authors
  15. 15. theorized that the lack of increases in strength, specifically in the bovine colostrum conditionmay be due to the 2 week duration of the study which is relatively short to induce significantgains in strength.4. In a study by Buckley et al (62) they examined the effects of bovine colostrum on peakvertical jump power, peak cycle power, alactic anaerobic work capacity, resistance exerciseone-repetition maximum (1-RM), and plasma insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I)concentrations. This was an 8 week study composed of 51 males subjects divided into twogroups: a placebo/whey protein group and a bovine colostrum group. Peak vertical jump andpeak anaerobic cycle power both significantly improved in the bovine colostrum group whencompared to the whey group. However, alactic anaerobic work capacity and resistanceexercise one-repetition max changed equally in both groups. Thus the authors noted thatbovine colostrum supplementation worked equally as well as traditional whey proteinpowder for certain factors and was superior in eliciting changes in other factors such asanaerobic power. Simply put, bovine colostrum supplementation during training significantlyincreased peak anaerobic power and vertical jump, but had no effect on alactic anaerobicwork capacity, 1RM, or plasma IGF-I when compared to the control/whey protein group.5. Although many studies have examined human subjects in a laboratory setting, few havedealt solely with athletic subjects on the playing field especially at the higher level. Hofmanet al did just this. He examined the effect of 8 weeks of supplementation with bovinecolostrum on body composition and exercise performance (5 x 10-m sprint, vertical jump,shuttle-run test, and suicide test) in elite field hockey players. Seventeen female and 18male elite field hockey players, including players from the Dutch national team, receivedeither 60g of colostrum or whey protein daily. The sprint test improved significantly in thecolostrum group versus the placebo/whey group while there was also a slight increase in thevertical jump performance test for the bovine colostrum group. However, there was nosignificant change in body composition or endurance between the two groups. Therefore itwas concluded by the authors of this study that bovine colostrum supplementation maycause significant improvements in anaerobic power output and explosive capabilities in eliteathletes.6. Although most studies have found bovine colostrum to be of great aid to power and strengthathletes little has been found or studied in regards to long term endurance performance.Coombes et al decided to clarify this issue by conducting his own study in which bovinecolostrum was tested on endurance cyclists. In this study there were 42 competitive cyclistswho were randomly divided into three groups and required to consume either 20g a day ofbovine colostrum + 40g whey protein concentrate, 60g of bovine colostrum, or 60g of wheyprotein/placebo group. It appears that either of the bovine colostrum protocols elicitedsignificant gains over the placebo/whey protein group. In other words, the cyclists improvedtheir two hour time trials by reducing their time by 2-3 minutes over the placebo group. Ofinteresting note is that the group which combined 20 grams of bovine colostrum with wheyprotein experienced superior outcomes over the group that consumed 60 gram of onlybovine colostrum. Their times were on the average of 30 seconds faster than the 60 gramsbovine colostrum group. Thus it can be surmised that bovine colostrum combined with highquality whey protein elicits the greatest gains in human performance.
  16. 16. 7. Of similar interest to endurance athletes is a study by Shing et al in which he investigatedthe influence of low dose bovine colostrum supplementation on exercise performance incyclists over a 10 week period that also included 5 days of high intensity training. Therewere two groups: a bovine colostrum group which consumed 10 grams a day or aplacebo/whey protein group. High intensity training was not performed until seven weeksinto the endurance program as a means to further improve the cyclists time trials. Theresults before high intensity training during the first seven weeks showed no change.However, as soon as the five day period of high intensity training was added there was asignificant change between the two groups. The benefits of the bovine colostrum groupalthough complex and highly scientific were: a 1.9±2.2% improvement from baseline in timetrail performances, a 2.3±6.0% overall increase in time trial intensity (%VO2max), andmaintenance of time trial heart rate (2.5±3.7%). In addition, bovine colostrumsupplementation prevented a decrease in ventilatory threshold following the high intensityperiod of training (4.6±4.6%). Simply put, these numbers illustrate how the athletes wereable to improve endurance time trials by slightly altering their physiological makeup withproper supplementation of bovine colostrum and training. It also appears that bovinecolostrum enhanced the ventilatory system and cardiopulmonary processes by helping themwork more efficiently.i. Summary and Recommendation Although there are a relatively few number of research studies performed on bovine colostrum all ofthem show empirical evidence of aiding athletic performance. It appears that strength and muscle massincreases are the most evident results of bovine colostrum supplementation. Some of the other notedbenefits associated with bovine colostrum supplementation include: increased IGF-1 levels, increasedhormone levels, increased peak anaerobic power and vertical jump, reduced endurance times, andenhanced ventilatory system and cardiopulmonary processes by helping individuals work moreefficiently. It should be noted that bovine colostrums powerful effect on increasing IGF-1 levels is soprominent that the NCAA has banned its supplementation for its athletes. Therefore collegiate athletesshould avoid using this product. However, professional athletes may find it highly advantageous to theirperformance.Ref-1. Gopal PK, Gill HS. Oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates in bovine milk and colostrum. Br J Nutr. 2000; 84: S69-S74.2. Kelly, G. Bovine Colostrum: A Review of Clinical Uses. Alternative Medicine Review. 2003: Volume 8, Number 4. 378-394.3. Antonio J, Sanders MS, Van Gammeren D. The effects of bovine colostrum supplementation on body composition and exercise performance in active men andwomen. Nutrition. 2001 Mar; 17(3): 243-7.4. Mero A, Miikkulainen H, Riski J, Pakkanen R, Aalto J, and Takala T. Effects of bovine colostrum supplementation on serum IGF-I, IgG, hormone, and saliva IgAduring training. Journal of Applied Physiology: EXERCISE AND MUSCLE. October 1997. Vol.83, No. 4, 1144-1151.5. Mero A, Nykanen T, Keinanen O, Knuutinen J, Lahti K, Alen M, Rasi S, Leppaluoto J. Protein metabolism and strength performance after bovine colostrumsupplementation. Amino Acids. 2005 May; 28(3): 327-35.6. Baechle, T., Earle, R., Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning. National Strength and Conditioning Association. 2000.7. Buckley JD, Brinkworth GD, Abbott MJ. Effect of bovine colostrum on anaerobic exercise performance and plasma insulin-like growth factor I. J Sports Sci. 2003Jul; 21(7): 577-88.
  17. 17. 8. What Doctors say about Colostrum?1. “Probiotics and Colostrum” by Dr. Albert Snow“Many people take Probiotics without realizing that it is essential to also take colostrum along withit. Probiotics and colostrum truly go hand in hand. This article will explain why it is so essential to take thetwo together. If you are looking to relieve issues like colitis or chronic diarrhea, don’t skimp on taking thetwo together. The key to taking these is in knowing which ones to take for the individual & their uniqueneeds. Taking the wrong ones can at best do nothing & at worst- make you sick. Just one example is if theperson taking either one of these is lactose intolerant. Also there is often times the need to take differentones at different stages of the treatment. It can get complicated.The fact is that probiotics are useless without colostrum. They will just go “in one door and out theother.” Why spend your money on probiotics if they will just be immediately leaving your system? Thereason why colostrum is so essential is that it allows the probiotics to stick to the inner surface of the GItissue. This process enables the probiotics to remain permanently in your gut, instead of quickly justleaving your body.Of course, if you take antibiotics at any point during your life, this will kill off the friendly bacteria regardlessof whether you have taken it with colostrum or not. In this case, you will need to repeat the cycle overagain from the start and begin a new course of probiotics with colostrum. Different antibiotics requiredifferent probiotics to replace the specific strains that were killed off.When you were first breastfed, this developed the mucosal lining in your body. This lining is so powerfulthat it can last a person’s whole life if he or she doesn’t take antibiotics. Of course, if you were neverbreastfed, you will need to take colostrum and probiotics to get this necessary ingredient into yoursystem. When people are fed soy formulas, they are put at a major disadvantage as far as their health isconcerned.The fact is that colostrum helps to repair a wide variety of gastrointestinal issues. Oftentimes people takeprobiotics for issues like chronic diarrhea treatment or colitis cures and then is disappointed that thissupplementation doesn’t work. When that is the case, the sufferer needs to remember how essential it isto take the correct colostrum-with the correct probiotic.”Ref- “We are so excited about the results we are having from the colostrum. Here are four wonderfulhealing results we have to share with you. There are a lot more that will be using this colostrum. Thistruly is a wonderful product for those who are fighting to regain health and wholeness. Please sharethese healing testimonies with others who need healing.One young 12 year old boy in California was suffering from a severe case of mucosa colitis and losingweight. He was literally dying. His doctor was planning surgery to remove his colon. His father calledme and asked what could be done naturally. I recommended that he start taking double doses ofcolostrum. After 5 days, the bleeding from the rectum ceased, and within 7 days he began to havenormal bowel movements. From that point on he has gained 32 pounds of weight. His parents weremost delighted to see the change.”
  18. 18. By- Michael McCann, ND. McCann Wellness Center Cottage Grove, Minnesota.3. “Scientists have long known about the increased resistance of breast-fed babies to certain infections,particularly to intestinal disorders. However, because of changing cultural values, many post-warmothers didn’t breast-feed their babies, and now many of these grown-up babies are dealing withprevalent and difficult-to-treat immune-compromised conditions. Part of this problem is due to thebreakdown of the environment and the nutrient-deficient food we eat. Furthermore, many older peoplehave fragile immune systems due to a multiplicity of factors, including stress, illness, viruses, diseases,toxin-laden food and polluted air. Colostrum may well be one of the most important immune systemnutrients to come along in the last 50 years, since more and more illnesses and disease conditions arelinked to a suppressed or compromised immune system.”By- James Wilson, DC, ND, PhD4. “[Colostrums] oral administration, low cost when compared to other current experimental biologicresponse modulators, and the absence of side effects are remarkable... To us, as clinicians, the mostvaluable aspect of this new therapeutic alternative is its almost miraculous effect on painrelief...something humanity has always longed for.”By- Alejandro Nitsch, MD, Guatemala5. “Bovine colostrum rebuilds the immune system, destroys viruses, bacteria... and fungi, accelerateshealing of all body tissue, helps lose weight, burn fat, increase bone and lean muscle mass, and slowsdown and even reverses aging. Colostrum plays a therapeutic role in AIDS, cancer, heart disease,diabetes, autoimmune diseases, allergies, herpes, bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections, gingivitis,colds, the flu, and much more. Colostrum has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, andprovides many vitamins, minerals, enzymes, and amino acids”By- Daniel G. Clark, MD6. “I have a number of patients who are arthritic, and bovine colostrum dispensed for the treatment ofrheumatoid and osteoarthritis has provided them with amazingly good results. One small-boned elderlygentleman who was terribly overweight did suffer in total agony from rheumatoid arthritis. He couldhardly walk. I put him on colostrum, about a bottle of 120 capsules per week, and he soon reached thepoint where he could walk without pain even though he did not lose the weight.I used bovine colostrum for the arthritic treatment of my 56 year-old mother. Her left knee exhibited alot of inflammation as the result of having been damaged in a prior automobile accident. I had tried anumber of different therapies such as shark cartilage and MSM without success, but when I added thebovine colostrum she was pain free in three days. She now takes it religiously.In Mexico, my staff and I do a lot of work with cancer, and two-thirds of my cancer patients are takingcolostrum. About half of my patients are poverty-stricken, and I stretch my resources to help them bydispensing colostrum to them at little or no cost. For those who can afford it, I typically have them takefive or more 480 milligram capsules a day – that’s over 2000 mg. Colostrum really does seem to makea beneficial difference for my cancer patients. They have more energy, and it keeps down some oftheir infections as a complication of the illness.
  19. 19. I am giving colostrum to hepatitis C patients. One of these people living in Northern California whofound it impossible to come to Mexico consulted me by telephone. His situation was really seriousbecause he had a hepatitis C viral load of 8 million. I put together a protocol for him of bovinecolostrum, calcium orotate, reduced glutathione and protease enzymes. Within two months, this patientreturned for laboratory testing and discovered that his hepatitis viral load had plummeted to 100. Sincethe patient did not take treatment with anything else, this is convincing proof to me that bovinecolostrum works synergistically in a combined nutritional protocol. I’ve gone on to successfully treatmany more cases of hepatitis C.”By- Stephen Hynes, ND, Dr. Hynes runs a clinic in Ciudad Acuna, MexicoRef- More Information on Colostrum, Refer-1.
  20. 20. PresentingFor the First Time in India India’s First Probiotic Brand with High Quality Bovine Colostrum Most Beneficial Probiotic Bacteria Available with Vitamin E Most Delicious American Ice Cream Flavor“Gastrointestinal Immunity Booster”