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Breastfeeding ppt


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Breastfeeding ppt

  1. 1. Breastfeeding vs artificial feeding &Types of milk and their use
  2. 2. Breastfeeding Breastfeeding is the feeding of an infant or young child with breast milk directly from female human breasts (i.e., via lactation) rather than using infant formula from a baby bottle or other container. Babies have a sucking reflex that enables them to suck and swallow milk. Experts recommend that children be breastfed within one hour of birth, exclusively breastfed for the first 6 months, and then breastfed until age two.
  3. 3. Benefits of Breastfeeding to Infants Immunity  During breastfeeding, approximately 0.25-0.5 grams per day of secretory IgA antibodies pass to the baby via the milk. This is one of the most important features of colostrum.  Main target for these antibodies are probably microorganisms in the baby's intestine.  There is some uptake of IgA to the rest of the body, but this amount is relatively small.  Also, breast milk contains several anti-infective factors such as bile salt stimulated lipase (protecting against amoebic infections) and lactoferrin (which binds to iron and inhibits the growth of intestinal bacteria).
  4. 4. Infections  Among the studies showing that non-breastfed infants have a higher risk of infection than breastfed infants are:  In a 1993 University of Texas Medical Branch study, a longer period of breastfeeding was associated with a shorter duration of some middle ear infections (otitis media with effusion) in the first two years of life.  A 2004 case-control study found that breastfeeding reduced the risk of acquiring urinary tract infections in infants up to seven months of age, with the protection strongest immediately after birth.  The 2007 review for AHRQ found that breastfeeding reduced the risk of acute otitis media, non-specific gastroenteritis, and severe lower respiratory tract infections.
  5. 5. Sudden infant death syndrome  Non-breastfed babies have worse arousal from sleep at 2–3 months.  This coincides with the peak incidence of sudden infant death syndrome.  A study conducted at the University of Münster found that not breastfeeding doubled the risk of sudden infant death syndrome in children up to the age of 1.
  6. 6. Diabetes Infants exclusively breastfed have less chance of developing diabetes mellitus type 1 than peers with a shorter duration of breastfeeding and an earlier exposure to cow milk and solid foods. Breastfeeding also appears to protect against diabetes mellitus type 2, at least in part due to its effects on the child's weight.
  7. 7. Mental health  Breastfeeding for more than 6 months is an independent predictor of better mental health through childhood and adolescence.  The more months children were breastfed the less likely they were to suffer from depression, delinquent behavior, attention issues and other psychological problems. Breastfeeding also improves cognitive development.  The beneficial effects seem to stem in large part from the unique composition of human milk which, compared to formula milk, has been shown to lead to improved motor and cognitive development in pre-term babies as well.
  8. 8. Allergic diseases (atopy)  In children who are at risk for developing allergic diseases (defined as at least one parent or sibling having atopy), atopic syndrome can be prevented or delayed through exclusive breastfeeding for four months, though these benefits may not be present after four months of age. However, the key factor may be the age at which non-breastmilk is introduced rather than duration of breastfeeding.  Atopic dermatitis, the most common form of eczema, can be reduced through exclusive breastfeeding beyond 12 weeks in individuals with a family history of atopy, but when breastfeeding beyond 12 weeks is combined with other foods incidents of eczema rise irrespective of family history.
  9. 9. Benefits of Breastfeeding to Mothers Bonding  Skin-to-skin contact (also called kangaroo care) of mother and baby stimulates breast feeding behavior in the baby. Newborn infants who are immediately placed on their mother’s skin have a natural instinct to latch on to the breast and start nursing, typically within one hour of being born. It is thought that immediate skin-to-skin contact provides a form of imprinting that makes subsequent feeding significantly easier.  The World Health Organization reports that in addition to more successful breastfeeding, skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn baby immediately after delivery also reduces crying, improves mother to infant interaction, and keeps baby warm.  Hormones released during breastfeeding help to strengthen the maternal bond.
  10. 10. Hormone release  Breastfeeding releases oxytocin and prolactin, hormones that relax the mother and make her feel more nurturing toward her baby. This hormone release can help to enable sleep even where a mother may otherwise be having difficulty sleeping.  Breastfeeding soon after giving birth increases the mother's oxytocin levels, making her uterus contract more quickly and reducing bleeding.  Pitocin, a synthetic hormone used to make the uterus contract during and after labour, is structurally modelled on oxytocin.
  11. 11. Weight loss As the fat accumulated during pregnancy is used to produce milk, extended breastfeeding—at least 6 months—can help mothers lose weight. However, weight loss is highly variable among lactating women; monitoring the diet and increasing the amount/intensity of exercise are more reliable ways of losing weight. The 2007 review for the AHRQ found "The effect of breastfeeding in mothers on return-to-pre-pregnancy weight was negligible, and the effect of breastfeeding on postpartum weight loss was unclear.
  12. 12. Gestational changes  Dramatic changes occur in a pregnant woman’s metabolism and body composition as she accommodates the demands of providing for the nutritional needs of the growing fetus, and metabolizing for two.  In anticipation of lactation, the mother accumulates some stores of visceral fat, but most of it is stored as subcutaneous fat in the thighs, arms, buttocks, and breasts. This shift in fat content leads to increased Insulin production, insulin resistance, and circulating lipid levels in the mother.  Studies have indicated that gestational weight gain (GWG) may contribute to complications during labor and delivery and it is the most reliable factor in predicting postpartum weight retention (PPWR). In general, the more weight that women put on during pregnancy, the more weight that they retain afterward.
  13. 13. Long-term health effects  For breastfeeding women, long-term health benefits include:  Less risk of breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and endometrial cancer.  A 2009 study indicated that lactation for at least 24 months is associated with a 23% lower risk of coronary heart disease.  Although the 2007 review for the AHRQ found "no relationship between a history of lactation and the risk of osteoporosis", mothers who breastfeed longer than eight months benefit from bone re-mineralisation.  Breastfeeding diabetic mothers require less insulin.  Reduced risk of metabolic syndrome  Reduced risk of post-partum bleeding.  women who breast fed for a longer duration have a lower risk for contracting rheumatoid arthritis than women who breast fed for a shorter duration or who had never breast fed.
  14. 14. Milk Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals. Primary source of nutrition for young mammals before they are able to digest other types of food. It also contains many other nutrients.
  15. 15. Breast milk  Breastmilk is the best source of nutrients for infant to meet his needs for growth and development.  It contains many valuable ingredients, such as antibodies, living immune cells and enzymes.  It helps baby to build up immunity, and reduce the chances of having diarrhea, chest infection and hospital admissions.  It contains substances, which cannot be obtained from infant formula, that help both the digestion and absorption of nutrients.
  16. 16. Comparison of human milk with cow’s & buffalo’s milk(values per 100g) Nutrient Human milk Cow’s milk Buffalo’s milk Water(g) 88 87.5 81 Energy (kcal) 65 67 117 Protein(g) 1.1 3.2 4.3 Carbohydrate(g) 7.4 4.4 5 Fat(g) 3.4 4.1 6.5 Calcium(mg) 28 120 210 Phosphorus(mg) 11 90 130 Iron(mg) - 0.2 0.2 Carotene(mcg) 137 174 160 Thiamine(mcg) 0.02 0.05 0.04 Riboflavin(mcg) 0.02 0.19 0.1 Vitamin C(mg) 3 2 1 Caseinogen/ Lactalbumin 1:2 3:1 - ratio Source: National Institute of Nutrition ICMR, Hyderabad
  17. 17. TYPES OF BREAST MILK  Colostrum or Early Milk  Transitional Milk  Fore milk  Hind milk
  18. 18. COLOSTRUM During the first two or three days after delivery thick and yellowish fluid is secreted from the mammary gland.  This differs from the regular milk and is called colostrum.  It is secreted in small quantity of about 10-40 ml.  it is rich in protein.  The total fat content of colostrum is less than mature milk. Concentration of arachiodonic acid and docosa hexaenoic acid (DHA) as percent of total fatty acids is higher in colostrum than mature milk.
  19. 19. COMPOSITION OF COLOSTRUM NUTRIENT AMOUNT Energy, kcal 58 Fat, g 2.9 Calcium, mg 31 Phosphorus, mg 14 Iron, mg 0.09 Protein, g 2.7 Lactose, g 5.3 Carotene, IU 186 Vitamin A, IU 296
  20. 20. Colostrum - immunization to the infant colostrum contains  Interferon like substance which possesses strong antiviral activity.  B12 binding protein which inhibits growth of E- Coli and other bacteria.  It also contains antibodies against viral diaseses such as small pox, polio, measles and influenza.  Enzymes like lysozyme, peroxidase and xanthine oxidase that promotes cell maturation  protective substances and enhances the development and maturation of the baby’s gastrointestinal tract.  Colostrum help’s a baby to pass his or her first stool.
  21. 21.  TRANSITION MILK During the next two weeks, the milk increases in quantity and changes in appearance and composition is called transition milk. The immunoglobin and protein content decreases while the fat and sugar content increases. Exclusive breast feeding of colostrum and transition milk minimizes infection related to neonatal death. The composition of milk changes even during the length of a single feed to exactly suit the need of a particular baby.
  22. 22. FOREMILK- The milk that comes at the start of a feed is called foremilk. Foremilk which is watery has a low level of fat and is high in lactose sugar, protein, vitamins, minerals and water. It satisfies the baby thirst. HIND MILK: Hind milk which comes later in a feed is richer in fat, it satisfies the baby’s hunger and supplies more energy than foremilk. Babies who are fed fore and hind milk sleep well and grow healthy.
  24. 24. Carbohydrates High amount of lactose facilitates absorption of magnesium, calcium, amino acid and nitrogen retention Galactose formation of myelin which is essential for normal nerve function Galacto lipids promote rapid brain growth
  25. 25. Protein Whey Energy source (lactalbumin predominant protein) Casein Energy source ( low content relative to cow’s milk) ; carrier of Ca, Fe,Zn Cu andPhosphate Lactalbumin amino acid pattern that provides more essential amino acids lactalbumin forms a soft flocculent curd
  26. 26. Conti.. Rich in sulfur containing amino acid For brain development High tryptophan to neutral amino acids ratio controls brain serotonin synthesis contains binding proteins Increase absorption of thyroxine, corticosterol, vitamin D, folate and B12.
  27. 27. Lipids  Essential fatty acids 6 % EPA / DHA  High carnitine content oxidation and transport of essential fatty acid MINERALS  Minerals are largely protein bound  Calcium phosphorus ratio Enhance bioavailability 2:1
  28. 28. Vitamins  Vitamin A, C and E  Water soluble Vitamin D  Low in vitamin K  B1 and Vitamin C More then cow’s milk Protects from rickets Need K supplement Completely absorb
  29. 29. HORMONE AND GROWTH FACTOR BENEFITS Rich source of hormones like thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxine, parathyroid hormone, corticosteroids, calcitonin, erythropoietin, oxytocin, growth hormone releasing factor, insulin and prolactin Enhance growth and modulators
  30. 30. Components of Breast Milk IMMUNOLOGICAL BENEFITS Immunoglobulins (IgA ,IgM, IgE, EgD) Protective against bacterial and virus infections Bifidus Factors Promotes formation of healthy bacterial colonization in infant’s lower GI Lactoferrin Iron binding protein that reduces the availability of iron to bacteria in the GIT Lacto peroxidase Destroys bacteria Lysozyme Kills bacteria by destroying the cell wall
  31. 31. Enzymes like amylase, lipoprotein lipase, oxidases, lactoperxidases and leucocyte mycloperoxidase Increases digestibility and also act as defense against microbes. Macrophages Destroy bacteria by phagocytosis, synthesizes lactoferin and lyzozyme Interferon Interferes with viral replication in host cells Lymphocytes Synthesizes IgA Antistaphylococcus factor Inhibits the growth of staphylococcal bacteria
  32. 32. Artificial feeding
  33. 33. Reasons and benefits of formula feeding  The mother's health: The mother is infected with HIV or has active tuberculosis. She is malnourished, extremely ill or has had certain kinds of breast surgery. She is taking any kind of drug that could harm the baby, or drinks unsafe levels of alcohol.  The baby is unable to breastfeed: The child has a birth defect or inborn error of metabolism such as galactosemia that makes breastfeeding difficult or impossible.  The baby is considered at risk for malnutrition: In certain circumstances infants may be at risk for malnutrition, such as due to iron deficiency, vitamin deficiencies (e.g. vitamin D which may be less present in breast milk than needed at high latitudes where there is less sun exposure), or inadequate nutrition during transition to solid foods.
  34. 34.  Personal preferences, beliefs, and experiences: The mother may dislike breast-feeding or think it inconvenient. In addition, breastfeeding can be difficult for victims of rape or sexual abuse; for example, it may be a trigger for post traumatic stress disorder.  Absence of the mother: The child is adopted, orphaned, abandoned, or in the sole custody of a man. The mother is separated from her child by being in prison or a mental hospital. The mother has left the child in the care of another person for an extended period of time, such as while traveling or working abroad.  Food allergies: The mother eats foods that may provoke an allergic reaction in the infant.
  35. 35.  Societal structure: Breastfeeding may be forbidden at the mother's job, school, place of worship or in other public places, or the mother may feel that breastfeeding in these places or around other people is immodest, unsanitary, or inappropriate.  Social pressures: Family members, such as mother's husband, friends or other members of society may encourage the use of infant formula. For example, they may believe that breastfeeding will decrease the mother's energy, health, or attractiveness.  Lack of training: The mother is not trained sufficiently to breastfeed without pain and to produce enough milk.  Lactation insufficiency: The mother is unable to produce sufficient milk
  36. 36.  Financial pressures: Maternity leave is unpaid, insufficient, or lacking. The mother's employment interferes with breastfeeding.  Fear of exposure to environmental contaminants: Certain environmental pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls, can bio accumulate in the food chain and may be found in humans including mothers' breast milk.  Lack of other sources of breast milk:  Lack of wet nurses  Lack of milk banks
  37. 37. Formula feeding  Infant formula is a manufactured food designed and marketed for feeding to babies and infants under 12 months of age, usually prepared for bottle-feeding or cup-feeding from powder (mixed with water) or liquid (with or without additional water).
  38. 38.  The composition of infant formula is designed to be roughly based on a human mother's milk at approximately one to three months postpartum, although there are significant differences in the nutrient content of these products.  The most commonly used infant formulas contain purified cow's milk whey and casein as a protein source, a blend of vegetable oils as a fat source, lactose as a carbohydrate source, a vitamin-mineral mix, and other ingredients depending on the manufacturer.
  39. 39. Formula milk  Cows milk is diluted to provide a concentration of protein similar to human milk  This lead to the formation of a softer more flocculent curd that can be more easily digested by infant’s enzymes  Advantage of diluted milk to creating a calcium concentration more near to human milk but reduces calorie concentration  During the first 2 weeks about 15 g sugar is added to the formula milk thereafter 30 g is sufficient.
  40. 40. Standard infant formula  Standard infant formula have cow’s milk as a base. In making infant formula first remove the milk fat and replace it with vegetable oil. Fortified with all essential vitamins and minerals. Available with or without added iron. Several brands of infant formula now contain three fatty acids that are prevalent in human milk: arachidonic acid(ARA), eicosapentaenoic(EPA) acid and docosahexaenoic acid(DHA). Studies show that supplemental ARA & EPA may benefit infant’s visual function and cognitive development.
  41. 41. Soy- based formula Soy is the source of protein. To compensate for the inferior digestibility of soy protein, soy formula contain more protein than formula based on cow’s milk. Lactose free and iron fortified. Corn syrup and sucrose are the carbohydrate sources.
  42. 42. Other type of formula Special formula are available for infant who are allergic to both cow’s milk and soy protein, those who are premature and rare defects in metabolic pathways. Theses special formulas often have their protein content modified in either its digestibility or its amino acid composition. Many special formula contain medium-chain triglycerides as the major fat source.
  43. 43. Some other advantages of formula feeding includes:  Formula feeding gives the mother greater flexibility with her schedule. The father and other caretakers can easily step in, give a bottle, and establish their own bonding routines.  It is easy to tell how much the baby is getting.  Babies digest formula slower than breast milk. As a result, formula-fed babies typically go longer between feedings during the day and especially the night.
  44. 44.  Convenience.  Flexibility.  Because formula is less digestible than breast milk, formula-fed babies usually need to eat less often than do breastfed babies.
  45. 45. Disadvatage of formula feeding  Use of infant formula has been cited for numerous increased health risks.  Infants fed on formula are at increased risk for acute otitis media, gastroenteritis, severe lower respiratory tract infections, atopic dermatitis, asthma, obesity, type 1 and 2 diabetes, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), eczema, necrotizing enterocolitis and autism when compared to infants who are breastfed.
  46. 46.  Some studies have found an association between infant formula and lower cognitive development, including iron supplementation in baby formula being linked to lowered I.Q. and other neurodevelopmental delays.  In addition, mothers who forego breastfeeding in favour of formula feeding are reported more likely to develop certain types of cancer.  Lack of antibodies. None of the antibodies found in breast milk are found in manufactured formula, which means that formula doesn't provide the baby with the added protection against infection and illness that breast milk does.  Expense. Formula can be costly.
  47. 47. • Possibility of producing gas and constipation. Formula-fed babies may have more gas and firmer bowel movements than breastfed babies. • Can't match the complexity of breast milk. Manufactured formulas have yet to duplicate the complexity of breast milk, which changes as the baby's needs change. • Babies often cannot digest formula as easily as breast milk, so it could give cause gas and other gastric irritations. • Because it takes babies longer to digest formula, it has just enough time to ferment -- making for some really stinky diaper changes.
  48. 48. RISKS OF ARTIFICIAL FEEDING  Interferes with bonding.  More diarrhoea & respiratory infections.  Malnutrition; vitamin A deficiency.  Mother may become pregnant sooner.  More allergy & milk intolerance.  Increased risk of chronic diseases.  Over feeding may take place.  Lower scores on intelligence scale.  Increased risk of anaemia, ovarian cancer & breast cancer.