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19848_pea-300_problems-on-ages-and-numbers.ppt

• 2. Content 1) Introduction 2) Forming equations 3) Solving the questions by using general equation 4) Solving the questions by using tricks 5) Practice problems 6) Problems on numbers i. Multiple of the ratio ii. Ratio difference iii. Divisible values iv. Change in ratio v. Different timeline
• 3. 1) INTRODUCTION It is easy to solve all these problems by equations but your objective in exam should be solving these problems in the easiest way which saves more than half the time compared to solving by equation. The easiest way in solving these questions will be by picking the right answer among the four options using the ratio or the values given in the question.
• 4. 2) Forming equations Statement Equation A’s age 3 years later (after / hence / down the line) A+3 A’s age 3 years ago A-3 A is 3 years older than B A = B + 3 A is 3 years younger than B A = B - 3 A is 3 times (thrice) as old as B A = 3B A is 3 times older than B (or) A is 3 times older to B A = B + 3B => A = 4B Father was as old as his son at present, at the time of his birth. F - S = S => F = 2S The present age ratio of A and B is 5:6. Four years hence (or after) their age ratio will be 6:7. A/B = 5/6 (A+4) / (B+4) = 6:7.
• 5. 3) Solving the questions by using GENERAL EQUATION Example: The sum of the present ages of a son and his father is 60 years. Six years ago, father's age was five times the age of the son. After 6 years, what will be son's age? S+F = 60 F-6 = 5(S-6) S+6 = ? Eq 2 becomes F-6 = 5S – 30 F = 5S – 24 Substitute this is Eq 1: S + F = 60 S + (5S – 24) = 60 6S = 84 S = 14 S+6 = 20 ∴ The age of the son after 6 years is 20
• 6. 4) Solving the question by using TRICKS Avoid using variables x & y always as there is a chance of going wrong in relating the variables with the persons given. Instead, using the first letter will make the relating easy. For example S can be used as son’s age and F can be used as father’s age.
• 7. Trick 1: Multiple of the ratio Example: Present ages of Kiran and Shyam are in the ratio of 5 : 4 respectively. Three years hence, the ratio of their ages will become 11 : 9 respectively. What is Shyam's present age in years? A. 24 B. 22 C. 26 D. 28
• 8. Now: The age of Kiran and Shyam is in the ratio 5:4. ∴ Shyam’s age should be in the multiple of 4. Only option a and d are having the age of Shyam in the multiple of 4. The answer should be either a)24 or d)28. After 3 years: Kiran’s age – a)24+3=27 or d)28+3=31 The age of Kiran and Shyam will be in the ratio 11:9. ∴ Shyam’s age should be in the multiple of 9. Only a)27 is in the multiple of 9. ∴ Shyam’s present age is a)24.
• 9. Example 1. One year ago, the ratio of Sooraj's and Vimal's age was 6: 7 respectively. Four years hence, this ratio would become 7: 8. How old is Vimal? A.44Years B.43 years C.49 Years D.36 Years
• 10. Trick 2: Ratio difference Example: Alan is younger than Turing by 6 years and their ages are in the respective ratio of 7 : 9, how old is Turing? A. 18 B. 27 C. 35 D. 36
• 11. The age of Alan and Turing is in the ratio 7:9. The age difference between them is 6. Equate the ratio difference and age difference 7:9 2 parts 6 2 parts = 6 1 part = 3 9 parts = 27 ∴ The age of Turing is 27
• 12. Example 2. The ratio between the present ages of P and Q is 6:7. If Q is 4 years old than P, what will be the ratio of the ages of P and Q after 4 years. A)7:9 B)3:8 C)7:8 D)5:8
• 13. Trick 3: Divisible values Example: A person's present age is two-fifth of the age of his mother. After 8 years, he will be one-half of the age of his mother. What is the present age of the mother? A. 62 B. 45 C. 40 D. 56
• 14. Now: P= 2/5 M This indicates that M should be divisible by 5. Only options b) 45 and c) 40 are divisible by 5. After 8 years: M+8= b) 45+8 = 53 or c)40+8 = 48 P+8 = ½(M+8) This indicates that M+8 should be divisible by 2. Only option c)48 is divisible by 2. ∴ Mother’s age is c) 40
• 15. Example 3. Sandeep's age after six years will be three- seventh of his father's age. Ten years ago the ratio of their ages was 1 : 5. What is Sandeep's father's age at present? A. 43 Years B. 60Years C. 50 Years D. 56 Years
• 16. Trick 4: Change in ratio Example: Father is aged three times more than his son Sunil. After 8 years, he would be two and a half times of Sunil's age. After further 8 years, how many times would he be of Sunil's age? A. 2 times B. 3 times C. 4 times D. 5 times
• 17. Now : F:S = 3:1 After 8 years : F:S = 2½:1 After 16 years: ? As the years passes the ratio of the ages will always decrease. So after 16 years the ratio should be < 2½ :1 Only option a) 2 is less than 2½
• 18. Trick 5 : Different timeline Example: Ayesha's father was 38 years of age when she was born while her mother was 36 years old when her brother four years younger to her was born. What is the difference between the ages of her parents? A. 6 Years B. 5 Years C. 7 Years D. 6.5 Years
• 19. Ayesha's Father was 38 years old when she was born F A 38 0 Her Mother was 36 years old when her Brother was born. M B 360 Her Brother is four years younger to her B A 0 4 As these three equations are not in the same timeline, compare the values and make it same. Eq 2 & Eq 3: The common value B is already same. Eq 1 & Eq 3: A=0 & A=4. To make it equal add 4 with eq1. F A 424 ∴ F A M B 42 4 36 0 The difference between F and M is 6.
• 20. Example 5. A father said to his son, "I was as old as you are at the present at the time of your birth". If the father's age is 38 years now, what was the son's age five years back? A.14 Years B.15 Years C.16 Years D.18 Years
• 22. Q1. The total age of A and B is 12 years more than the total age of B and C. C is how many year younger than A? A.12 B.13 C.14 D.15
• 23. Q2.The sum of ages of 5 children born at the intervals of 3 years each is 50 years. What is the age of the youngest child? A.2 B.4 C.6 D.10
• 24. Q3.Ages of two person differ by 16 years. If 6 year ago, the elder one be 3 times as old the younger one, find their present age. A.36, 16 B.30, 14 C.24, 8 D.30, 10
• 25. Q4. Steve is older than Mark by 6 years. If the ratio of their current ages is 7:9, what will be the corresponding new ratio of their ages when Mark is twice as old as he is now? A.7:8 B.4:7 C.3:9 D.1:4
• 27. Some Basic Formulae: (a + b)(a - b) = (a2 - b2) (a + b)2 = (a2 + b2 + 2ab) (a - b)2 = (a2 + b2 - 2ab) (a + b + c)2 = a2 + b2 + c2 + 2(ab + bc + ca) (a3 + b3) = (a + b)(a2 - ab + b2) (a3 - b3) = (a - b)(a2 + ab + b2) (a3 + b3 + c3 - 3abc) = (a + b + c)(a2 + b2 + c2 - ab - bc - ac) When a + b + c = 0, then a3 + b3 + c3 = 3abc.
• 28. A two digit number can be represented as 10x+y where x and y are the two digits. Similarly a three digit number as 100x+10y+z and so on.
• 29. Q1. If one-third of one-fourth of a number is 15, then three-tenth of that number is: A.54 B.45 C.36 D.58
• 30. Q2. The difference between a two-digit number and the number obtained by interchanging the digits is 36. What is the difference between the sum and the difference of the digits of the number if the ratio between the digits of the number is 1 : 2 ? A.8 B.16 C.4 D.12
• 31. Q3. Three times the first of three consecutive odd integers is 3 more than twice the third. The third integer is: A.15 B.14 C.12 D.17
• 32. Q4. A two-digit number is such that the product of the digits is 8. When 18 is added to the number, then the digits are reversed. The number is: A.24 B.12 C.48 D.26
• 33. Q5. In a two-digit, if it is known that its unit's digit exceeds its ten's digit by 2 and that the product of the given number and the sum of its digits is equal to 144, then the number is: A.24 B.26 C.28 D.30 E.32

Editor's Notes

1. Explanation: Let the age of Sooraj and Vimal, 1 year ago, be 6x and 7xrespectively. Given that, four years hence, this ratio would become 7:8 ⇒(6x+5):(7x+5)=7:8 ⇒8(6x+5)=7(7x+5) ⇒48x+40=49x+35 ⇒x=5 Vimal's present age =7x+1=7×5+1=36
2. Let P age and Q age is 6x years and 7x years. Then 7x - 6x = 4 <=> x = 4 So required ratio will be (6x+4): (7x+4) => 28:32 => 7:8
3. Explanation: Let the age of Sandeep and his father before 10 years be x and 5x respectively. Given that Sandeep's age after six years will be three-seventh of his father's age ⇒x+16=3/7(5x+16) ⇒7x+112=15x+48 ⇒8x=64 ⇒x=8 Sandeep's father's present age =5x+10=5×8+10=50
4. Let son's present age be xx years. Then, (38−x)=x ⇒2x=38 ⇒x=382=19 Son's age 55 years back =19−5=14
5. Ratio difference = 9-7=2 units Age difference = 4 2 units ---------- 4 7 units --------- ? Mark age = 14  years Similarly Steve age = 18 years Mark is twice as old as he is age = 14 +14 =28 At the same time Steve age = 18+14 = 32 New ratio = 7:8
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