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The	
  French	
  government’s	
  view	
  of	
  strategic	
  risks	
  and	
  
the	
  “front	
  of	
  mind”	
  issue	
  
Christophe-­‐Alexandre	
  PAILLARD	
  
Research	
  Director	
  “armaments	
  and	
  defence	
  economics”,	
  IRSEM	
  
Westminster	
  Risk	
  
12th	
  March	
  2015	
  (London)	
  
11/03/15	
  
French	
  ways	
  of	
  thinking	
  strategic	
  risks	
  
2	
  Christophe-­‐Alexandre	
  PAILLARD	
  
•  French	
  strategic	
  thinking	
  forms	
  part	
  of	
  a	
  long	
  tradiPon.	
  
•  The	
  richness	
  of	
  its	
  reflecPon	
  accounts	
  for	
  its	
  influence	
  on	
  the	
  development	
  
of	
   Western	
   strategic	
   thinking.	
   As	
   examples,	
   French	
   theorists	
   have	
  
contributed	
   to	
   beTer	
   research	
   into	
   geopoliPcs	
   (Admiral	
   Raoul	
   Castex),	
  
nuclear	
   strategy	
   (Raymond	
   Aron,	
   General	
   Lucien	
   Poirier,	
   and	
   General	
  
Pierre-­‐Marie	
   Gallois),	
   and,	
   more	
   generally,	
   the	
   nature	
   of	
   acPon	
   in	
  
warPme.	
  
•  One	
   of	
   Raoul	
   Castex'	
   main	
   achievement	
   was	
   the	
   creaPon	
   of	
   the	
   French	
  
Ins$tut	
   des	
   Hautes	
   Études	
   de	
   la	
   Défense	
   Na$onale	
   (IHEDN,	
   InsPtute	
   of	
  
Higher	
   Studies	
   of	
   NaPonal	
   Defence),	
   which	
   aimed	
   to	
   reduce	
   the	
  
intellectual	
  gap	
  between	
  civilian	
  and	
  military	
  officials.	
  
•  A	
  key	
  constraint	
  is	
  now	
  imposed	
  by	
  changes	
  to	
  the	
  internaPonal	
  poliPcal	
  
configuraPon.	
  Although	
  the	
  move	
  towards	
  a	
  mulPpolar	
  world	
  is	
  not	
  yet	
  
complete,	
  it	
  is	
  raising	
  a	
  number	
  of	
  quesPons:	
  how	
  do	
  the	
  emerging	
  powers	
  
define	
  their	
  defence	
  policy?	
  What	
  impact	
  does	
  the	
  financial	
  crisis	
  have	
  on	
  
conflicts	
  and	
  on	
  military	
  capaciPes	
  (and	
  this	
  draws	
  in	
  major	
  quesPons	
  of	
  
internaPonal	
  poliPcal	
  economy)?	
  
11/03/15	
  
Ten	
  main	
  factors	
  taken	
  into	
  consideraPon	
  
to	
  enhance	
  French	
  strategies	
  on	
  defence	
  
3	
  Christophe-­‐Alexandre	
  PAILLARD	
  
1.  Conflicts	
  of	
  tomorrow.	
  
2.  Balance	
  between	
  investments,	
  technologies,	
  costs	
  and	
  the	
  
posiPon	
  of	
  men.	
  
3.  Global	
  governance,	
  mulPpolarity,	
  emerging	
  powers:	
  what	
  kind	
  
of	
  strategy	
  for	
  France	
  and	
  European	
  countries?	
  
4.  Environmental	
  strategy	
  and	
  natural	
  resources	
  (energy	
  security,	
  
raw	
  materials,	
  water	
  supplies,	
  wood,	
  etc.)	
  
5.  Arc	
  of	
  crisis:	
  evoluPons,	
  threats,	
  risks.	
  
6.  Resilience.	
  
7.  PrevenPon.	
  
8.  Come	
  back	
  of	
  European	
  powers.	
  
9.  Defence	
  industrial	
  and	
  technological	
  basis,	
  control	
  of	
  arms’	
  
exports.	
  
10.  Links	
  between	
  armed	
  forces	
  and	
  country.	
  
	
  
See:	
  hTp://www.defense.gouv.fr/english/portail-­‐defense	
  	
  
11/03/15	
  
A	
  view	
  on	
  the	
  elaboraPon	
  of	
  defence	
  
strategies	
  inside	
  the	
  French	
  MOD	
  
4	
  Christophe-­‐Alexandre	
  PAILLARD	
  
The	
  decision-­‐making	
  process	
  of	
  can	
  be	
  
divided	
  into	
  four	
  steps:	
  	
  
 To	
  elaborate	
  trends	
  allowing	
  possible	
  
scenarios	
  on	
  geopoliIcal,	
  operaIonal,	
  
industrial	
  and	
  capabiliIes	
  tools.	
  	
  
 To	
  elaborate	
  a	
  global	
  strategy	
  for	
  the	
  
MOD	
  classifying	
  scenarios	
  	
  and	
  giving	
  
orientaIons	
  to	
  the	
  future	
  defence	
  
policy.	
  
 To	
  contribute	
  to	
  the	
  definiPon	
  of	
  the	
  
new	
  defence	
  policy	
  to	
  master	
  
credible	
  strategic	
  visions	
  and	
  to	
  
create	
  the	
  future	
  models	
  of	
  army,	
  
capabiliIes,	
  forces,	
  operaIons,	
  etc.	
  
 To	
  elaborate	
  the	
  new	
  French	
  military	
  
planning	
  law	
  (LPM)	
  allowing	
  the	
  
Treasury	
  to	
  finance	
  the	
  new	
  
ambiIons	
  described	
  in	
  the	
  French	
  
White	
  Paper	
  on	
  Defence	
  and	
  
NaPonal	
  Security	
  (LBDSN)	
  
And	
  two	
  acIviIes	
  to	
  reinforce:	
  	
  
 To	
  follow	
  and	
  to	
  assess	
  the	
  
credibility	
  of	
  the	
  new	
  defence	
  
strategy.	
  
 To	
  update	
  the	
  defence	
  policy.	
  
R3.	
  To	
  operate	
  
forces	
  
R1.	
  	
  
CapabiliPes	
  
R2.	
  To	
  prepare	
  
forces	
  
R4.	
  To	
  master	
  
key	
  
technologies	
  
R5.	
  To	
  define	
  
arms’	
  export	
  
policies	
  
R6.	
  To	
  define	
  
policies	
  taking	
  
past	
  
experiences	
  
into	
  account	
  
Process	
  through	
  core	
  professions	
  
Interdepartmental	
  
Documents	
  on	
  
external	
  
orientaPons:	
  
President,	
  
Parliament,	
  	
  and	
  
interdepartment
al	
  works:	
  from	
  
the	
  SGDSN/
Foreign	
  Office/
Home	
  Office	
  
ContribuPons	
  
from	
  the	
  MOD	
  to	
  
the	
  LBDSN	
  
ContribuPons	
  
from	
  the	
  MOD	
  to	
  
other	
  documents	
  
News	
  /	
  NaPonal	
  and	
  
internaPonal	
  events	
  
Use	
  of	
  resources	
  
Changes	
  in	
  the	
  
environment	
  of	
  the	
  
MOD	
  (ex:	
  defence	
  
industries)	
  
D2.	
  .	
  To	
  master	
  
resources	
  
D3.	
  	
  To	
  	
  run	
  the	
  
ministry	
  
D7.	
  To	
  take	
  into	
  
account	
  
internaPonal	
  
factors	
  on	
  the	
  MOD	
  
Key	
  facts	
  and	
  	
  
lessons	
  taken	
  
from	
  pracPcal	
  
experiences	
  of	
  
the	
  defence	
  policy	
  
LPM	
  
LBDSN	
  
LPM	
  
LBDSN	
  
LPM	
  
LBDSN	
  
D4.	
  To	
  modernize	
  
and	
  transform	
  the	
  
ministry	
  
TransformaPon:	
  a	
  
work	
  in	
  progress	
  
D1.	
  ElaboraPon	
  of	
  the	
  French	
  defence	
  policy	
  (including	
  trends	
  and	
  risk	
  analysis)	
  
D1.3	
  DefiniPon	
  of	
  a	
  new	
  
defence	
  and	
  naPonal	
  
security	
  policy	
  
D1.4	
  ElaboraPon	
  of	
  the	
  
military	
  planning	
  law	
  (LPM)	
  
D1.6	
  to	
  update	
  
defence	
  analysis	
  
D1.5	
  To	
  follow	
  and	
  
update	
  defence	
  
policies	
  
D1.2	
  To	
  organize	
  
global	
  risk	
  analysis	
  in	
  
the	
  MOD	
  
Strategic,	
  operaPonal,	
  
industrial,	
  economic	
  or	
  
scienPfic	
  trends	
   LBDSN	
   LPM	
  
D1.1	
  To	
  organize	
  
working	
  groups	
  
and	
  global	
  works	
  
on	
  trends	
  and	
  
analysis	
  (role	
  of	
  
the	
  IRSEM)	
  
Social	
  and	
  economic	
  trends	
  (my	
  
posiIon)	
  
GeopoliIcal	
  trends	
  
OperaIonal	
  trends	
  
CapabiliIes	
  trends	
  
Technological	
  and	
  scienIfic	
  trends	
  
Trends	
  on	
  structures	
  and	
  
organisaIons	
  
11/03/15	
  
Official	
  documents	
  on	
  defence	
  strategy	
  
5	
  Christophe-­‐Alexandre	
  PAILLARD	
  
	
  
	
  
•  hTp://www.livreblancdefenseetsecurite.gouv.fr/	
  	
  
•  hTp://www.defense.gouv.fr/portail-­‐defense/enjeux2/poliPque-­‐de-­‐defense/la-­‐loi-­‐
de-­‐programmaPon-­‐militaire-­‐lpm-­‐2014-­‐2019/la-­‐loi-­‐de-­‐programmaPon-­‐militaire-­‐
lpm-­‐2014-­‐2019	
  	
  
11/03/15	
  
Departments	
  of	
  the	
  French	
  Mod	
  working	
  
on	
  trends	
  and	
  risk	
  analysis	
  
6	
  Christophe-­‐Alexandre	
  PAILLARD	
  
DGRIS
(Strategic and international relation general directorate)
SGA
(General Secretariat
for Administration)
DGA
(General Delegation
for Armaments)
EMA
Minister &
Cabinet Chief of Staff
CEMA
DRHMD
Human Resources
DAF
Financial resources
DAJ
Legal department
Etc.
DRM
Armies
CICDE
DEMS
IRSEM
Etc.
11/03/15	
  
What	
  IRSEM	
  is	
  doing	
  on	
  risk	
  analysis	
  and	
  to	
  
enhance	
  defence	
  strategies	
  
7	
  Christophe-­‐Alexandre	
  PAILLARD	
  
•  The	
   Ins$tut	
   de	
   Recherche	
   Stratégique	
   de	
   l’Ecole	
   Militaire	
   (IRSEM)	
   is	
   a	
  
French	
  research	
  centre	
  with	
  the	
  status	
  of	
  naPonal	
  service	
  aTached	
  to	
  the	
  
DGRIS.	
  Its	
  goal	
  is	
  to	
  support	
  and	
  promote	
  research	
  in	
  the	
  area	
  of	
  defence	
  
and	
  security.	
  
•  Its	
   producPon	
   is	
   focused	
   on	
   internaPonal	
   defence	
   and	
   security.	
   It	
   is	
  
openly	
  accessible	
  worldwide.	
  PublicaPons	
  cover	
  Armament	
  and	
  Defence	
  
economics,	
  Defence	
  studies,	
  Strategic	
  studies,	
  and	
  Defence	
  and	
  Society.	
  
•  The	
  IRSEM	
  provides	
  academic	
  and	
  financial	
  support	
  to	
  young	
  researchers,	
  
following	
  doctoral	
  and	
  post-­‐doctoral	
  studies.	
  
•  The	
  IRSEM	
  results	
  from	
  the	
  reform	
  process	
  that	
  began	
  with	
  the	
  creaPon	
  of	
  
the	
   French	
   Higher	
   Council	
   for	
   Strategic	
   Training	
   and	
   Research	
   (Conseil	
  
Supérieur	
  de	
  la	
  Forma$onet	
  de	
  la	
  Recherche	
  Stratégique	
  -­‐	
  CSFRS).	
  It	
  works	
  
through	
   the	
   French	
   Consistency	
   CommiTee	
   for	
   Strategic	
   Research	
   and	
  
ForecasPng	
   (Comité	
   De	
   Cohérence	
   de	
   la	
   Recherche	
   Stratégique	
   et	
   de	
   la	
  
Prospec$ve	
  -­‐	
  CCRP)	
  and	
  is	
  responsible	
  at	
  the	
  French	
  Ministry	
  of	
  Defence	
  
for	
   steering	
   and	
   facilitaPng	
   the	
   approach	
   to	
   forecasPng	
   and	
   strategic	
  
research.	
  See:	
  hTp://www.defense.gouv.fr/irsem	
  	
  
11/03/15	
  
Defence	
  economics:	
  what	
  kind	
  of	
  analysis?	
  
8	
  Christophe-­‐Alexandre	
  PAILLARD	
  
To	
  use	
  informaPon	
  To	
  obtain	
  informaPon	
  
Offensive	
  
Defensive	
  
Influence
and
visibility
To monitor
strategic
trends and
studies
Economic
security
Prospective
and
strategies
Deepening	
  knowledge	
  
Alert	
  
AcPon	
  
ProtecPon	
  
Information/Training
11/03/15	
  
Key	
  strategic	
  issues:	
  food	
  for	
  thought?	
  
9	
  Christophe-­‐Alexandre	
  PAILLARD	
  
•  AnP-­‐missile	
  
•  Cyber	
  
•  Key	
  
technologies	
  
•  Strategic	
  
materials	
  
•  DITB	
  	
  
Socio-­‐economic	
  
trends	
  
on	
  defence	
  
Defence	
  policy	
  
Technological	
  and	
  
industrial	
  trends	
  
•  General	
  
strategy	
  
•  Military	
  
strategy	
  
•  Intelligence	
  
•  NGO	
  
•  Gender	
  
•  Economic	
  and	
  
financial	
  crisis	
  
•  Environment	
  
•  UAVs	
  
•  Ethic	
  
•  Foreign	
  military	
  
strategies	
  
11/03/15	
  
Outside	
  the	
  MOD,	
  the	
  example	
  of	
  France	
  
Stratégie	
  
10	
  Christophe-­‐Alexandre	
  PAILLARD	
  
•  France	
   Stratégie	
   assists	
   the	
   government	
   in	
   determining	
   the	
   main	
  
direcPons	
  for	
  the	
  future	
  of	
  the	
  NaPon	
  and	
  the	
  medium	
  and	
  long	
  term	
  
objecPves	
   for	
   its	
   economic,	
   social,	
   cultural	
   and	
   environmental	
  
development.	
   It	
   contributes,	
   moreover,	
   to	
   the	
   preparaPon	
   of	
  
governmental	
  reforms.	
  
•  France	
  Stratégie	
  works	
  on	
  the	
  four	
  following	
  subjects:	
  economics	
  and	
  
finance;	
   sustainable	
   development;	
   social	
   affairs;	
   labour	
   and	
  
employment.	
  
•  France	
   Stratégie	
   works	
   in	
   coordinaPon	
   with	
   a	
   network	
   of	
   eight	
  
organisaPons,	
  specializing	
  each	
  on	
  a	
  specific	
  topic	
  such	
  as	
  the	
  CEPII,	
  
research	
  centre	
  in	
  internaPonal	
  economics.	
  
See:	
  hTp://blog.en.strategie.gouv.fr/	
  	
  

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French view of strategic risks London March 2015 Westminster Risks

  • 1. The  French  government’s  view  of  strategic  risks  and   the  “front  of  mind”  issue   Christophe-­‐Alexandre  PAILLARD   Research  Director  “armaments  and  defence  economics”,  IRSEM   Westminster  Risk   12th  March  2015  (London)  
  • 2. 11/03/15   French  ways  of  thinking  strategic  risks   2  Christophe-­‐Alexandre  PAILLARD   •  French  strategic  thinking  forms  part  of  a  long  tradiPon.   •  The  richness  of  its  reflecPon  accounts  for  its  influence  on  the  development   of   Western   strategic   thinking.   As   examples,   French   theorists   have   contributed   to   beTer   research   into   geopoliPcs   (Admiral   Raoul   Castex),   nuclear   strategy   (Raymond   Aron,   General   Lucien   Poirier,   and   General   Pierre-­‐Marie   Gallois),   and,   more   generally,   the   nature   of   acPon   in   warPme.   •  One   of   Raoul   Castex'   main   achievement   was   the   creaPon   of   the   French   Ins$tut   des   Hautes   Études   de   la   Défense   Na$onale   (IHEDN,   InsPtute   of   Higher   Studies   of   NaPonal   Defence),   which   aimed   to   reduce   the   intellectual  gap  between  civilian  and  military  officials.   •  A  key  constraint  is  now  imposed  by  changes  to  the  internaPonal  poliPcal   configuraPon.  Although  the  move  towards  a  mulPpolar  world  is  not  yet   complete,  it  is  raising  a  number  of  quesPons:  how  do  the  emerging  powers   define  their  defence  policy?  What  impact  does  the  financial  crisis  have  on   conflicts  and  on  military  capaciPes  (and  this  draws  in  major  quesPons  of   internaPonal  poliPcal  economy)?  
  • 3. 11/03/15   Ten  main  factors  taken  into  consideraPon   to  enhance  French  strategies  on  defence   3  Christophe-­‐Alexandre  PAILLARD   1.  Conflicts  of  tomorrow.   2.  Balance  between  investments,  technologies,  costs  and  the   posiPon  of  men.   3.  Global  governance,  mulPpolarity,  emerging  powers:  what  kind   of  strategy  for  France  and  European  countries?   4.  Environmental  strategy  and  natural  resources  (energy  security,   raw  materials,  water  supplies,  wood,  etc.)   5.  Arc  of  crisis:  evoluPons,  threats,  risks.   6.  Resilience.   7.  PrevenPon.   8.  Come  back  of  European  powers.   9.  Defence  industrial  and  technological  basis,  control  of  arms’   exports.   10.  Links  between  armed  forces  and  country.     See:  hTp://www.defense.gouv.fr/english/portail-­‐defense    
  • 4. 11/03/15   A  view  on  the  elaboraPon  of  defence   strategies  inside  the  French  MOD   4  Christophe-­‐Alexandre  PAILLARD   The  decision-­‐making  process  of  can  be   divided  into  four  steps:      To  elaborate  trends  allowing  possible   scenarios  on  geopoliIcal,  operaIonal,   industrial  and  capabiliIes  tools.      To  elaborate  a  global  strategy  for  the   MOD  classifying  scenarios    and  giving   orientaIons  to  the  future  defence   policy.    To  contribute  to  the  definiPon  of  the   new  defence  policy  to  master   credible  strategic  visions  and  to   create  the  future  models  of  army,   capabiliIes,  forces,  operaIons,  etc.    To  elaborate  the  new  French  military   planning  law  (LPM)  allowing  the   Treasury  to  finance  the  new   ambiIons  described  in  the  French   White  Paper  on  Defence  and   NaPonal  Security  (LBDSN)   And  two  acIviIes  to  reinforce:      To  follow  and  to  assess  the   credibility  of  the  new  defence   strategy.    To  update  the  defence  policy.   R3.  To  operate   forces   R1.     CapabiliPes   R2.  To  prepare   forces   R4.  To  master   key   technologies   R5.  To  define   arms’  export   policies   R6.  To  define   policies  taking   past   experiences   into  account   Process  through  core  professions   Interdepartmental   Documents  on   external   orientaPons:   President,   Parliament,    and   interdepartment al  works:  from   the  SGDSN/ Foreign  Office/ Home  Office   ContribuPons   from  the  MOD  to   the  LBDSN   ContribuPons   from  the  MOD  to   other  documents   News  /  NaPonal  and   internaPonal  events   Use  of  resources   Changes  in  the   environment  of  the   MOD  (ex:  defence   industries)   D2.  .  To  master   resources   D3.    To    run  the   ministry   D7.  To  take  into   account   internaPonal   factors  on  the  MOD   Key  facts  and     lessons  taken   from  pracPcal   experiences  of   the  defence  policy   LPM   LBDSN   LPM   LBDSN   LPM   LBDSN   D4.  To  modernize   and  transform  the   ministry   TransformaPon:  a   work  in  progress   D1.  ElaboraPon  of  the  French  defence  policy  (including  trends  and  risk  analysis)   D1.3  DefiniPon  of  a  new   defence  and  naPonal   security  policy   D1.4  ElaboraPon  of  the   military  planning  law  (LPM)   D1.6  to  update   defence  analysis   D1.5  To  follow  and   update  defence   policies   D1.2  To  organize   global  risk  analysis  in   the  MOD   Strategic,  operaPonal,   industrial,  economic  or   scienPfic  trends   LBDSN   LPM   D1.1  To  organize   working  groups   and  global  works   on  trends  and   analysis  (role  of   the  IRSEM)   Social  and  economic  trends  (my   posiIon)   GeopoliIcal  trends   OperaIonal  trends   CapabiliIes  trends   Technological  and  scienIfic  trends   Trends  on  structures  and   organisaIons  
  • 5. 11/03/15   Official  documents  on  defence  strategy   5  Christophe-­‐Alexandre  PAILLARD       •  hTp://www.livreblancdefenseetsecurite.gouv.fr/     •  hTp://www.defense.gouv.fr/portail-­‐defense/enjeux2/poliPque-­‐de-­‐defense/la-­‐loi-­‐ de-­‐programmaPon-­‐militaire-­‐lpm-­‐2014-­‐2019/la-­‐loi-­‐de-­‐programmaPon-­‐militaire-­‐ lpm-­‐2014-­‐2019    
  • 6. 11/03/15   Departments  of  the  French  Mod  working   on  trends  and  risk  analysis   6  Christophe-­‐Alexandre  PAILLARD   DGRIS (Strategic and international relation general directorate) SGA (General Secretariat for Administration) DGA (General Delegation for Armaments) EMA Minister & Cabinet Chief of Staff CEMA DRHMD Human Resources DAF Financial resources DAJ Legal department Etc. DRM Armies CICDE DEMS IRSEM Etc.
  • 7. 11/03/15   What  IRSEM  is  doing  on  risk  analysis  and  to   enhance  defence  strategies   7  Christophe-­‐Alexandre  PAILLARD   •  The   Ins$tut   de   Recherche   Stratégique   de   l’Ecole   Militaire   (IRSEM)   is   a   French  research  centre  with  the  status  of  naPonal  service  aTached  to  the   DGRIS.  Its  goal  is  to  support  and  promote  research  in  the  area  of  defence   and  security.   •  Its   producPon   is   focused   on   internaPonal   defence   and   security.   It   is   openly  accessible  worldwide.  PublicaPons  cover  Armament  and  Defence   economics,  Defence  studies,  Strategic  studies,  and  Defence  and  Society.   •  The  IRSEM  provides  academic  and  financial  support  to  young  researchers,   following  doctoral  and  post-­‐doctoral  studies.   •  The  IRSEM  results  from  the  reform  process  that  began  with  the  creaPon  of   the   French   Higher   Council   for   Strategic   Training   and   Research   (Conseil   Supérieur  de  la  Forma$onet  de  la  Recherche  Stratégique  -­‐  CSFRS).  It  works   through   the   French   Consistency   CommiTee   for   Strategic   Research   and   ForecasPng   (Comité   De   Cohérence   de   la   Recherche   Stratégique   et   de   la   Prospec$ve  -­‐  CCRP)  and  is  responsible  at  the  French  Ministry  of  Defence   for   steering   and   facilitaPng   the   approach   to   forecasPng   and   strategic   research.  See:  hTp://www.defense.gouv.fr/irsem    
  • 8. 11/03/15   Defence  economics:  what  kind  of  analysis?   8  Christophe-­‐Alexandre  PAILLARD   To  use  informaPon  To  obtain  informaPon   Offensive   Defensive   Influence and visibility To monitor strategic trends and studies Economic security Prospective and strategies Deepening  knowledge   Alert   AcPon   ProtecPon   Information/Training
  • 9. 11/03/15   Key  strategic  issues:  food  for  thought?   9  Christophe-­‐Alexandre  PAILLARD   •  AnP-­‐missile   •  Cyber   •  Key   technologies   •  Strategic   materials   •  DITB     Socio-­‐economic   trends   on  defence   Defence  policy   Technological  and   industrial  trends   •  General   strategy   •  Military   strategy   •  Intelligence   •  NGO   •  Gender   •  Economic  and   financial  crisis   •  Environment   •  UAVs   •  Ethic   •  Foreign  military   strategies  
  • 10. 11/03/15   Outside  the  MOD,  the  example  of  France   Stratégie   10  Christophe-­‐Alexandre  PAILLARD   •  France   Stratégie   assists   the   government   in   determining   the   main   direcPons  for  the  future  of  the  NaPon  and  the  medium  and  long  term   objecPves   for   its   economic,   social,   cultural   and   environmental   development.   It   contributes,   moreover,   to   the   preparaPon   of   governmental  reforms.   •  France  Stratégie  works  on  the  four  following  subjects:  economics  and   finance;   sustainable   development;   social   affairs;   labour   and   employment.   •  France   Stratégie   works   in   coordinaPon   with   a   network   of   eight   organisaPons,  specializing  each  on  a  specific  topic  such  as  the  CEPII,   research  centre  in  internaPonal  economics.   See:  hTp://blog.en.strategie.gouv.fr/