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Food security cansa december2013_ram


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Food security cansa december2013_ram

  1. 1. South Asia Parliamentarians & Policy maker at work AGRICULTURE: ADDRESSING FOOD SECURITY IN THE REGION December 17, 2013
  2. 2.  Agriculture plays a central role in South Asian economies,     lives, and livelihoods. Climate change will have significant impacts on agricultural production in the region International community act with utmost urgency to reduce global emissions and hence lessen the impacts that will be seen Climate change policies must be developed at national, regional, and global levels to address the serious near-term threats Steps must be taken to protect lives and livelihoods dependent on that production, through both adaptation efforts and approaches to address loss and damage Context…
  3. 3.  The average size of holdings in Bangladesh is only 0.5 hectares,     and small farms account for 96% of operational holdings. In India, about 81% of holdings are less than 2 hectares in size, with an average size of 1.4 hectares. The majority of India’s poor (some 70%) are found in rural areas; in Sri Lanka the rural poor account for 95% of the country’s poor. The average size of holdings in Sri Lanka is 0.8 hectares. The average size of holdings in Nepal is 0.8 hectares, with nearly half less than 0.5 hectare; 93% of holdings in the country are operated by small farmers. Agriculture’s role in South Asian economies
  4. 4. Continued…  The average size of Pakistani landholding is 3.0 hectares, with 58% of farms less than 2 hectares in size. However, less than half of rural households own agricultural land.  The average farm size in Bhutan is a little over 1 hectare; women own 70% of the land.  In Afghanistan, 68 % of households own some kind of livestock. For most Afghan farmers, animals are the only source for power for cultivation and transport.
  5. 5. Country % labor force in agriculture % population living in rural areas Agricultural GDP (as % of total GDP) Afghanistan 59.4% Over 75 % 29.9% Bangladesh 44 % 80% (57% landless) 18.6% (fisheries 4.4% of GDP) 92.8 % 85 % 18.7% India 54 % 69% 17.7% (fisheries 1.1% of GDP) Nepal 92.9 % 92.9% 36.5% Maldives 17.8 % (30% in fisheries) 57.4% 3.1% (fisheries 15% of GDP) Pakistan 38.6 % 63% 21.2% Sri Lanka 43 % 80% 12.8% (fisheries 1.7% of GDP) Workforce engaged in agriculture… Bhutan
  6. 6. Impacts on agriculture  Effect on agriculture will vary according to locality, but models      project a 15-30 % decline in the productivity of most cereals and rice across the region. With 2-4 C° temperature increase rice yields are expected to decline by 0,75 tons/ha. The overall crop yields are expected to decrease up to 30% in the region by mid-21 century. Negative impacts are expected in the arid zones and flood affected areas, where agriculture is already at the edge of climate tolerance limits. Irrigation demand for agriculture in arid and semi-arid regions is likely to increase by 10% for temperature increase by 1%. A great amount of uncertainty still characterizes what is known about climate impacts on agriculture.
  7. 7. Other allied sector…  It is still difficult predict exact magnitudes and impacts of, extreme high      temperatures, extreme rainfall, increased seasonality Increased salinity in coastal areas as a result of rising seas and reduced discharge of major rivers; weakening ecosystems; Rainfall patterns will change. As the atmosphere holds more moisture, heavy rain events will increase. Distribution of rainfall over the year will likely change. It is clear that livestock and fisheries will also suffer significant impacts. Raising livestock and catching fish will also be challenged by a new climate. Pastures are expected to decrease in quality, with increased temperatures forcing the grasses to become more fibrous and less nutritious.
  8. 8.  Food and nutrition security impacts on yields will result in price increases for the most important agricultural crops  higher feed prices will result in higher meat prices; and  calorie availability will decline relative to 2000 levels throughout the developing world.  Migration  Extreme events regularly cause migration and forced displacement of people from homes and communities.  Crop losses and failures due to extreme events and slow onset temperature rise will lead to additional displacements.  Sea level rise and inundation of low-lying regions will cause further migration of agricultural producers.  Increased migration and displacement of agricultural producers has implications for national food security  Consequences of climate impacts
  9. 9. Consequences of climate impacts  Transformational changes  As extreme heat events increase in frequency and water supplies diminish, major staple crops such as wheat, rice, and maize may no longer be suitable for huge growing areas in the South Asia region
  10. 10. The question of mitigation  Agriculture globally is responsible for 12-14% of greenhouse gas emissions, directly from the use of fertilizers, rice cultivation, and animal husbandry.  Another 17% or so of emissions are due to deforestation and other land-use change, much of which is land clearance for agricultural production.  Addressing climate change requires that emissions reductions in the agriculture sector must be undertaken.  But by whom, and where?  And how should the need to produce food and provide livelihoods be factored into decisions on who is responsible for agricultural mitigation?
  11. 11. Policy recommendations Addressing climate impacts, loss and damage in agriculture  An international mechanism are needed to address loss and damage and slow onset impacts on agriculture  Significantly raise the level of investment in sustainable agriculture and food systems  Agriculture adaptation “technologies” to be developed and shared in the region  SAARC should demand sufficient funding of the adaptation window of the Green Climate Fund
  12. 12. Collective investments for food security  Agriculture as central sector in NAPAs and NAPs and adaptation planning processes, clear priorities can focus donor resources, climate finance, and national spending.  Develop and implement research agenda on climateresilient practices in South Asia, focusing on agroecological approaches  Enhance collaboration and data sharing between agrometeorological stations and support development of a regional early warning system for extreme climate events.  Establish robust emergency food reserves and a financing capacity that can deliver rapid humanitarian responses to vulnerable populations threatened by food crises.
  13. 13.  Prioritize addressing impacts on poorest, most vulnerable and marginalized       communities, including smallholders and the landless. National planning that is informed by bottom-up vulnerability assessment in order to create an enabling environment for adaptation. Increase investment in ecological agriculture and farmer-to-farmer exchanges of knowledge Invest in communities’ ability to shape, create, and respond to change by building adaptive capacity, including through providing support for community-based adaptation strategies Identify livelihood diversification options Manage climate risks and reduce vulnerabilities in the agriculture sector Protective safety nets for most vulnerable to protect from climate shocks and to increase food security National: sound adaptation and mitigation policies
  14. 14. Thanks!