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  2. 2. Everything else can wait but not agriculture • India’s Independence was won in the backdrop of the great Bengal famine of 1942-43. • No wonder, our first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru said early in 1948, everything else can wait but not agriculture. • Since the beginning of the first Five Year Plan in 1950, the country has transformed itself from a ‘begging bowl’ image to one which occupies the first or second position in terms of production and area in several major crops. • India accounts for only about 2.4 % of the world’s geographical area and 4 % of its water resources, but has to support about 17 % of the world’s human population and 15 % of the livestock. • Agriculture is an important sector of the Indian economy, accounting for 14% of the nation’s GDP, about 11% of its exports.
  3. 3. • Gross Domestic Product, agriculture and allied sectors grew at 3.6 per cent during 2011- 12, (released on 31st January 2013) recording an average rate of growth of 3.6 per cent per year during the 11th Plan (2007-12). • Further, as per the advance estimates released by CSO on 7th February, 2013, agriculture and allied sectors are estimated to grow at 1.8 per cent during 2012-13 as against 3.6 per cent during the last year. FOOD LOSS : By a recent estimate the total preventable post-harvest losses of food grains at 10 % of the total production or about 20 Mt, which is equivalent to the total food grains produced in Australia annually. In a country where 20% of the population is undernourished, post- harvest losses of 20 Mt annually is a substantial avoidable waste. The rates of growth of the economy and the agriculture and allied sectors since 2007-08 India’s arable land are moving to real estate plots
  4. 4. 21st Century Beef Club < $1 per day $1-2 per day $2-10 per day >$10 per day 20% of world’s population (2/3rds experience hunger & malnutrition) 27% of world’s population (Most hunger problems solved at $2 threshold) Services Processed Products Livestock products Commodities Dynamics of food demand
  5. 5. Forming consortium Consortium is a partnership between state, non-state actors (private sector) and global scientific research organization Why consortium? Both the public and private sector organizations have their own strength and could complement each other’s efforts in taking research from lab to field with new institutional mechanisms as well as enabling policies. Soil -test based balanced nutrient management, use of improved cultivars, seed treatment, soil and water conservation measures and use of improved machinery. The field of biotechnology and research has to be improved to increase productivity in agriculture. Implementation
  6. 6. Consortium approach Increased crop diversification & improved livelihoods & incomes Department of Agriculture Water shed development department Private companies & research institutes NGOs
  7. 7. Water is the main source for irrigation •Use alternative methods to irrigation such as rain water harvesting and treated waste water. •Enhance water retention in the soil such as residue management, conservation, tillage, bunds, contouring and field leveling. •Formers can be advised to use less water consuming crops. •Inter linking of Ganga and Cauvery is the best plan to tackle water crisis in agriculture as well as water distribution to public Agriculture is more rely on Water. Due to climate change the water crisis occurs and affects agriculture. Most of the agricultural wells are now dried. Water crisis Measures to be taken
  8. 8. Reliability of nutrients through productivity Availability of nutrients is the significant factor for agricultural productivity. The increasing productivity can be achieved through soil testing. This testing should be conducted for every farms by the department of agriculture and should suggest the farmers about the suitability of crops based on the soil condition . Why nutrients? Necessity of testing?
  9. 9. SRI Technique • SRI ( System of Rice Intensification) is a cultivation practice for Rice that is taken up in a different and more biologically enriched environment for growth. • Yields are increased by 50 – 100% or more, with a reduction in plant populations (by 80 – 90%), less water (by 25-50%), without using new 'improved' varieties (all varieties respond to the methods) or using chemical fertilizers (just adding compost to the soil), with usually lowered costs of production, and thus considerably increased net economic returns per hectare. KEY FEATURES OF SRI • Transplant young seedlings • Reduce plant population • Maintain aerated soil conditions • Provide as much organic matter as possible to the soil • Actively aerate the soil • Re-emphasize biology • Rediscover the potentials of synergy and symbiosis
  10. 10. References • Ministry of Food and Civil Supplies, Government of India. • Central Statistics Office (CSO). • Department of Agriculture. • Indian council for Agricultural research.