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By Brandon Gregg, CPP
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CPP Study Guide
CPP Study Guide
How to Study the CPP:
 Read over 500 slides, deleting the slides you know the
answer to.
 Use the last 3...
CPP Study Guide
This Powerpoint was made by collecting all the open
source CPP study guides I could find online and then
s...
Control over the entry of
personnel and materials is the
most important countermeasure
to bombs
Control over the entry of
personnel and materials is the
most important countermeasure
to bombs
The emergency plan is tested at
least annually
Data media must be protected in
specially insulated records
containers which protect the
contents against temperatures up
...
The automatic sprinkler
system is ordinarily activated by
the melting of a metal seal and
water then flows through the
sys...
Government and industry share
the responsibility for emergency
and disaster planning
The emergency plan must be
distributed to all personnel with
responsibility for action
A “bomb blanket” is used only by
specifically trained personnel
“Vital Records” are those
necessary to insure the survival
of the business. Vital records
usually constitute no more than ...
Responsibility for a shutdown
should be assigned to persons
familiar with the process
The emergency plan is activated
by the facility manager, the
President, or the CEO
The emergency plan should be
directive in nature
In a fire, the facility must have
“the capability to respond quickly
with well trained personnel to
contain and extinguish...
In a high rise building, partial
evacuation includes the floor
above and the floor below
The most common of all terrorist
tactics is bombing
In dealing with plant fires,
mutual assistance and prior
coordination with the fire
department is essential. The
critical ...
A tidal wave (TSUNAMI) is
caused by underwater
disturbances
A “hurricane warning” is issued
when it is determined that winds
of 74 mph or higher will be
encountered
“Tornadoes” are violent local
storms with whirling winds that
can reach 200 - 400 m.p.h. The
width of a tornado ranges fro...
Tornado watch - tornadoes are
expected to develop
Tornado warning - tornado has
actually been sighted in the
area
Severe thunderstorm - possibility
of frequent lightning and/or
damaging winds of greater than 50
m.p.h., hail and heavy ra...
Heavy snow warning - an
expected snowfall of 4 inches or
more in a 12-hour period or 6
inches or more in a 24-hour
period
Blizzard - the most dangerous
of all winter storms.
Blizzard warning - considerable
snow and winds of 35 m.p.h. or
more are expected.
A severe blizzard warning -
very heavy s...
A large proportion of
energy in a nuclear
explosion is emitted in the
form of light and heat and
is generally referred to ...
The one thing that distinguishes
disasters or major emergencies
from the emergencies plant
personnel deal with each day is...
A community based
emergency control center must
be established to coordinate all
efforts in a major emergency
“Emergency readiness” means
preparation has reached the
point where you are prepared to
react promptly to save life and
pr...
Bomb Threat - a search is made
after every bomb threat call.
The facility manager should
make the decision as to who
shoul...
The decision to evacuate a
building upon the receipt of a
bomb threat should be made by a
senior member of management
Fire loading is the amount of
combustible materials that
occupy its interior spaces
When a bomb threat is received,
the following are notified, in order :
a. Persons responsible for
search and evacuation
b....
A clear zone with a radius of at
least 300 feet should be
established around a suspicious
object including the floors abov...
The purposes of emergency
planning are to:
a. Anticipate the emergency
b. Provide action during the
emergency; and
c. Retu...
In assessing the vulnerability of
individual facilities, major factors
considered are:
a. Environment
b. Indigenous
c. ...
The basic emergency plan
should be made up of three
elements:
1. Authority
2. Types of emergencies
3. Plan execution
The value of an emergency plan is that it:
a. Provides a written record and means of
communicating information throughout ...
Every industrial firm, regardless
of size, should establish an
internal organization that will be
able to protect life and...
The Vital Records Protection Plan should be tested
at least once a year.
The tests of Vital Records Program should verify ...
Strike
The most frequent strike is the
“economic strike”, which must
be preceded by at least 60 days
notice
Strike
The “unfair labor practice strike”
can occur suddenly with little or no
effective planning
Strike
The most important outside
contact will be with local police
Strike
A sound policy with respect to
police arrests would be to not
attempt to influence the police
against initiating pr...
Strike
Documentary surveillance of
workers engaged in legal and
legitimate labor practices such as
legal picketing during ...
Terrorism
Kidnapping is a classic act of
terrorism
Terrorism
For the most effective personal
protection of a possible kidnapping
target, a minimum of two (2)
bodyguards is r...
Terrorism
The payment of ransom or
complying with any criminal
demand, without company
approval, could render the payer
ci...
Terrorism
The best way to determine if a
hostage is alive is with direct
communication
The four legs of fire:
a. Heat
b. Fuel
c. Oxygen, and a
d. Chemical reaction
Several by products
accompany every fire:
a. Smoke
b. Gas
c. Heat
d. Expanded air
Fire Classifications:
Class “A” - Ordinary combustibles (waste
paper, rags, and furniture)
Extinguish with Water or water ...
Water fog is very effective for
Class “A” and “B” fires
A normal fire proceeds through
4 basic stages:
1. Incipient Stage - no smoke at this point
2. Smoldering Stage - smoke beg...
The principal fire sensors are:
 Ionization detector - useful in giving early warning.
 Photoelectric smoke detector - w...
Manual fire alarm stations are of
two types:
 1. Local alarms – alerting personnel in building
 2. Station alarms – sign...
The causes of most fires
are:
Carelessness
Ignorance
Most fires
are electrical in
origin
More fire fatalities are caused
by toxic gases than by the
flames
The major causes of death in a
building fire are:
 a. Toxic gases
 b. Smoke
 c. High temperatures
 d. CO2
 e. Fear an...
Most sprinklers will operate at
temperatures between 130 and
165 F.
Halogenated agents
(1211, 1302)
are non-corrosive chemical agents
used for extinguishing fires in
areas containing compute...
A fire door is for the purpose of
impeding the spread of fire
Automatic fire doors are held
open until there is sufficient
combustion to trigger the door
closing devices
The focus of disaster control
planning is on solutions to major
problems and to prevent a
disaster from becoming a tragedy
The three principles of disaster
control planning are:
a. Coordinated planning;
b. Mutual assistance; and
c. Community res...
In the organizational structure of proprietary firms,
security may provide both line and staff functions
a. When advising ...
When security managers
exercise authority delegated by a
senior executive to whom they
report, such authority is known as
...
Security functions cut across
departmental lines and consist of
involvement into every activity of
the company but should ...
Probably the most common
security management failure is
the inability to delegate
responsibility and the authority
necessa...
“Span of control” is a
management term which refers
to the number of personnel over
which one can effectively
supervise
The largest single item of
expense in the security
operation is the cost of the
security personnel
The number of security personnel
required to cover a single post
around the clock on three eight-
hour shifts is 4-1/2 to ...
“Chain of command” is a
management term which refers
to the path along which
authority flows
Well-trained, well-supervised
security personnel may be the
best possible protection
available to a company
The accounting department of
a company is the most
vulnerable to major loss due
to crime
“Unity of command” is a
management concept which
means that an employee should
have only one immediate
superior to whom th...
The security manager should have
the necessary authority to carry out
responsibilities. To accomplish this,
the security m...
The “Theory X” management
theory holds that the average
employee has little ambition,
dislikes work and must be
coerced, c...
The “Theory Y” management
theory holds that the average
employee does not dislike
work, is self-directed, is
creative and ...
Theory X and Theory Y
were developed by
Douglas McGregor
Those in management who believe
the behavioral assumption of
“Theory X” take an autocratic
approach to get work done.
Wher...
The three main theories of
organizational behavior are:
a. Autocratic theory
b. Custodial theory
c. Supportive theory
The “autocratic theory” holds that
management is all-powerful and
employees are obligated to
follow orders without question
The “custodial theory” holds
that the aim of the company is
to make the employee happy and
contented through economic
bene...
The “supportive theory” holds
that through good leadership,
management will provide a
climate where employees will
take on...
“Herzberg’s theory” is a
management theory which holds
that motivation comes from work
achievement satisfaction and
not fr...
“Theory Z” is a recent
management style used
effectively by the Japanese.
This theory emphasizes
humanized working conditi...
“Management by objectives”
also known as “MBO” was
introduced by Peter Drucker. In
this approach, both subordinate
and sup...
A “budget” is a plan stated in
financial terms. It sets forth in
dollars the necessary
allocation of funds to achieve
the ...
“Risk analysis” is a
management method used to
minimize risks through
application of security
measures commensurate with
t...
The major resource required for
a risk analysis is
manpower
The most important
management skill
is the ability to
communicate effectively
Written communication
is the best means to
communicate
The primary objective in
implementing a protection
program within an organization
should be to motivate every
employee to ...
Both private security and public
law have, as their primary
mission, the prevention of
crime and protection of
persons and...
“Economic crime” is defined as the
illicit behavior having as its object
the unjust enrichment of the
perpetrator at the e...
Private security relies upon both
commercial security services and
government agencies for
intelligence gathering and cris...
Private security frequently avoids
or bypasses police with regard to
white collar or economic crime
Business crime is most
effectively attacked through
sound management controls.
The emphasis on loss prevention
rather than...
About 95% to 99%
of activated alarms
are “false”
The main deterrent value of a
burglar alarm system is that the
alarm signal enunciated locally or
transmitted to a central...
Employee theft
was the most frequently
investigated crime by
private security
As a general rule, local law
enforcement has very little effect
on many crimes against
business. Exceptions are
burglaries...
Frequently cited measures for
improving private security are:
a. More or better training
b. Mandated training
c. Improved ...
Two problems in police and
security relationships which seem
to have the greatest intensity of
feelings are:
a. Secondary ...
The two major components of
economic crime are white collar
and ordinary crime
80% of computer security
incidents result from insider
attacks by dishonest and
disgruntled employees
Only 1% of computer security
incidents annually are attributed
to “hackers”
The practice of preventing
unauthorized persons from
gaining intelligence information
by analyzing electromagnetic
emanati...
In the year 2000, expenditures
for private security industry will
be $104 billion while public law
enforcement expenditure...
Employment in private security is
projected to grow at 2.3% per
annum to 2000 while law
enforcement growth will be one
per...
The term “narcotic” in its medical
meaning refers to opium and
opium derivatives or synthetic
substitutes
“Drug dependence” is a condition
resulting from repeated use
whereby the user must
administer progressively larger
doses t...
“Physical dependence” refers to an
alteration of the normal functions
of the body that necessitates the
continued presence...
The poppy
(papaver somnifferum)
is the main source of the
non-synthetic narcotics
Examples of synthetic narcotics,
which are produced entirely
within the laboratory, are
meperidine and methadone
Depressants have a potential for
both physical and psychological
dependence. Some examples :
a. Chloral Hydrate
b. Barbitu...
When “depressant” drugs are
used to obtain a “high” they are
usually taken in conjunction with
another drug, such as alcoh...
“Stimulants” are drugs which
may produce a temporary
sense of exhilaration,
superabundant energy and
hyperactivity includi...
The two most prevalent
stimulants are nicotine and
caffeine, both accepted in our
culture
The most potent stimulant of
natural origin is cocaine which is
extracted from the leaves of the
coca plant
Excessive doses of cocaine may
cause seizures and death. There
is no “safe” dose of cocaine
“Marijuana” refers to cannabis
plant parts and extracts that
produce somatic or psychic
changes in humans
The hemp plant grows wild
throughout most of the tropic and
temperate regions of the world
“Hallucinogenic” drugs distort the
perception of objective reality.
Examples are:
a. LSD
b. Mescaline and peyote
c. Phency...
Long after hallucinogens are
eliminated from the body, users
may experience “flashbacks”
DOM, DOB, JDA, MDMA, DET
and MDA are hallucinogens which
are synthesized in the laboratory
Another source of hallucinogens
(psilocybin and psilocyn) is
psilocybe mushrooms
“Designer” drugs are analogues of
controlled substances with
slight variations in their chemical
structure so as not to be...
A “drug” is a substance which,
because of its chemical make-up,
alters the mood, perception or
consciousness of the user. ...
The most abused “drug” is alcohol
and the most used “drug”
also alcohol
“Tolerance” is a body condition
wherein ever-increasing
amounts of a drug are needed to
gain the desired effect
The street name for
PCP
is
“angel dust”
The person most likely to
become an alcoholic is a white
male over 40 who is living alone
The following behavioral characteristics are
associated with substance abuse:
a. Abrupt changes in attendance, quality of ...
Internal Accounting - Audit
 To insure correctness and accuracy of
accounting records
 Not to detect theft and fraud
 M...
External Audit
Valuable because the persons
conducting the audit do not
know your business / company
Financial Aspects
“CL” - Current Liability
“L/T” - Long term Liability
Payroll
 Biggest problem is “Ghosting”
 Paying people that don’t exist
 Can use “Pay-out” to detect Ghosting
 manually...
Internal Cash
Best way to handle is using two
people at all times to handle
cash situations
Payables
Money owed to vendors
Receivables
Money owed by customers
General Management
Line Executives are those who
are delegated chain of
command authority to
accomplish specific objectiv...
General Management
The security manager, in
exercising authority delegated
by the senior executive to
whom the security m...
General Management
Chain of Command is the path
along which authority flows
General Management
 Span of Control - the number of personnel which
one individual can effectively control
 1 supervisor...
General Management
Unity of Command - means
that an employee should be
under the direct control of only
one immediate sup...
General Management
The most common
management weakness is the
failure to properly delegate
responsibility and the authori...
Organizational Chart
Horizontal plane - indicates the
divisions of areas of responsibility
Vertical plane - defines the ...
General Management
Organizational structure
should be flexible to be most
effective
Behavioral Theories
 Dr. Abraham Maslow developed a five-step
process which describes man’s behavior in terms of
the need...
Behavioral Theories
 Frederick Herzberg’s “Motivation-Hygene
Theory” - defined two independent categories of
needs - hyge...
Security’s Role
Security provides protection
services for the organization.
The protective service of
prevention is a pri...
Key Resources
 Human resources - identification of staffing needs
and selection, training, leading, and directing, and
re...
Budgeting and Planning
 A budget, a plan in financial terms, is an essential
element of management planning and control.
...
Budgeting and Planning
 If the contribution of an operating function cannot
be quantified or cannot be shown to result in...
Budgeting and Planning
Zero based budgeting requires
that the benefits from an activity
be weighed against the benefits t...
Budgeting and Planning
 Budgeting approaches can be bottom up and top
down or top down and bottom up.
 Top down and bott...
Budgeting and Planning
Line item budgets - each item is listed
by separate line
Program budgets - funds are allocated
by...
Budgeting and Planning
Budget costs are classified under one
of three categories:
 Salary expenses -
 Sundry expenses -...
Budgeting and Planning
A budget is also an instrument which
records work programs in terms of
appropriations needed to pu...
Budgeting and Planning
Carry budget out in three dimensions:
The operation/project must unfold as
planned
The operation...
Budgeting and Planning
Budgets are normally
prepared annually or
biannually
Planning
Planning is an activity concerned
with proposals for the future, an
evaluation of those proposals, and
methods f...
Management
Management is the activity
which plans, organizes and
controls activities in an
organization
M.B.O.
Management by objective
(MBO) is a systematic way of
achieving agreed to goals set
ahead of time.
Risk Assessment
 The possibility and probability of a risk resulting in
loss depends on the risk itself and the
preventat...
Risk Assessment
Methods for handling a risk;
Accept
Eliminate
Reduce
Transfer (insurance)
Risk Management
 Crime and incident analysis is one of the first
tools to be applied to the assessment of risks
in order ...
Risk Management
PML stands for:
 Possible Maximum Loss - max loss sustained if a
given target is totally destroyed or re...
Risk Management
Five principal crime risk
management methods:
Risk Avoidance
Risk Reduction
Risk Spreading
Risk Trans...
Risk Management
Two basic types of protection
against crime are:
Fidelity and Surety Bonds
Burglary, robbery and theft ...
Communications
The art of effective
communication is the most
important skill for successful h.
When a job is done poorl...
Discipline
Means Learning
A.S.I.S. Ethics
 Perform professional duties
 observe the precepts of truthfulness, honesty and
integrity
 be faithful ...
CPO / LPO
 Crime Prevention Officer (CPO)
 a public servant with police powers
 Loss Prevention Officer (LPO)
 private...
CPTED
Crime prevention through
environmental design (CPTED)
advocates that the proper
design and effective use of the
bui...
Environmental Security
 Environmental Security (E/S) is an urban
planning and design process which integrates
crime preve...
Defensible Space by Oscar Newman
 Territoriality - attitude of maintaining perceived
boundaries. Outsider quietly recogni...
Security Survey
The cost of protection is measured
in:
Protection in depth
Delay time
Internal Theft
The greatest ongoing
threat to business.
Internal Losses
Pilferage - stealing in small
quantities over a long period of time
Embezzlement - taking
money/property...
Employee Theft
Two major causes of employee
theft are:
personal problems
environment (inadequate
socialization)
Resear...
Theft Triangle
 Consists of three elements:
 Motivation, and
 Opportunity, and
 Rationalization
 Loss prevention tech...
Security Tools
Deter criminal attack
Detect attacks that occur
Delay attack to allow time for
response by authorities
...
Crime Analysis
Data Collection
Analysis
Dissemination
Feedback
Safety and Loss Prevention
Unsafe acts cause 85% of
all accidents
Unsafe conditions cause
the remaining 15%
Safety and Loss Prevention
Incident - is anything from
serious injury to a breakdown in
quality control.
Accident - is a...
Management
 Matrix management uses assets over a wide
spectrum of activity by forming ad hoc teams to
work on shorter ter...
Liaison
 A linking up or connecting of parts of a whole in
order to bring about proper coordination of
activities.
Liaison
 Private security occasionally assists in law
enforcement investigations.
 Providing u/c operators, surv equip, ...
Liaison
10 % to 30 % of all calls for
police service were for alarms
95% to 99% are false
Liaison
By the year 2000, the ratio of
private security personnel to
public police will be three to
one respectively.
Economic Crime
Financially motivated crime
with a direct impact on the
economy
Economic Crime
Indirect costs of economic
crime include:
Effects on business;
Effects on government; and
Effect on the...
Economic Crime
Liability is the largest
indirect cost of economic
crimes for the past 20 years
Substance Abuse
Narcotics - effects
Generally, there is no loss
of motor coordination or
slurred speech.
Substance Abuse
The poppy, cultivated in
many countries around the
world, is the main source of
non-synthetic narcotics
Substance Abuse
 Morphine
 One of the most effective drugs known for
the relief of pain.
 Codeine
 It is by far the mo...
Substance Abuse
 Thebaine
 the principal alkaloid in a species of poppy
which has been grown experimentally in the
U.S.
...
Substance Abuse
Etorphine and Diprenorphine
made from Thebaine
Etorphine is more than a
thousand times as potent as
mor...
Substance Abuse
Hydromorphone
Highly marketable with a
potency two to eight times as
great as morphine.
Substance Abuse
Meperidine (Pethidine)
Probably the most widely
used drug for the relief of
moderate to severe pain
Substance Abuse
Narcotic Antagonists
A class of compounds
developed to block and reverse
the effects of narcotics
Substance Abuse
Chloral Hydrate
The oldest of sleep inducing
drugs
liquid with a slightly acrid odor
and a bitter, caus...
Substance Abuse
Benzodiazepines
Depressants which relieve
anxiety, tension and muscle
spasms as well as producing
sedati...
Substance Abuse
Stimulants
Of all abused drugs,
stimulants are the most
powerfully reinforcing.
Substance Abuse
Stimulants
The two most prevalent
stimulants are nicotine in
tobacco and caffeine.
Substance Abuse
Cocaine
The most potent stimulant
of natural origin.
Designated as a narcotic in
the US CSA
Substance Abuse
 Khat
 Compulsive use may result in manic behavior
with grandiose delusions or in a paranoid type
of ill...
Substance Abuse
Alcohol
The most used and abused
recreational drug. Physical
dependence can occur if
alcohol is taken re...
Drug Screening
 Enzyme Multiplied Immunoassay Technique
(EMIT) screens
 easy to administer and relatively inexpensive
 ...
Drug Screening
 To avoid liability in the screening process:
 Notify all to be tested of the screening process.
 Get co...
Drug Screening
 To avoid liability in the screening process:
 Insure a positive identification and chain of custody
for ...
A confidential informant is one
who furnishes information on the
expectation that his/her identity
will not be disclosed
Questions are the principal
tools of interviewing
In interviewing, leading or
suggestive questions which tend
to influence the answers given by
a subject should be avoided
...
When interviewing, the most
efficient means of resolving an
issue is to have the questions
converge on it by progressing
f...
The place of an interview should
be well-lighted, adequately
ventilated, comfortably furnished
with a minimum of distracti...
All admissions or confessions
must be voluntary
An “interview” is the questioning of a
person who has or is believed to have
information of official interest to the
inves...
As a general rule, the investigator
does not take notes during the
interrogation in order to keep from
disrupting the inte...
The most positive means of
identifying people is the
science of fingerprints
To a large measure, the
success of a polygraph
examination depends upon the
professional capabilities of the
investigator
“Control Questions” are used in
polygraph examinations to
determine whether the person is
a suitable subject for the
polyg...
In crime scene searches, the
first thing for the investigator to
do is provide for any needed
medical attention and protec...
Types of crime scene searches
are:
a. Circle search
b. Strip search
c. Grid search
d. Zone or sector search
The most important rule in
crime scene photography is to
photograph all evidence or
possible evidence before
anything is m...
With regard to the collection of
evidence, “Chain of custody” is
a chronological written record
of those individuals who h...
A “Questioned Document” is a
document whose genuineness
is questioned, normally because
of origin, authenticity, age or
ci...
An “exemplar” is a document
requested by the investigator
which duplicates the text of a
questioned document and is
known ...
There is no specific format for
the taking of notes required
during an investigation
Written statements used in
recording investigative facts
are primarily of the following
types:
a. Affidavit
b. Question/an...
There are many qualifications to
be a good undercover investigator
such as:
a. Willingness to do the job
b. Self-confidenc...
Probably the most important
aspect of an undercover operation
is a credible cover or background
story used by the undercov...
Knowing when and how to close
an undercover operation is as
important as knowing how to start
and proceed
The three most frequently used
investigative techniques are:
a. Informants
b. Surveillance
c. Undercover
There are two major types of
surveillance:
a. Physical
b. Technical
Surveillance is defined generally
as the secretive and continuos
observation of persons, places
and things to obtain infor...
One of the most important
qualifications of the person
selected to conduct a physical
surveillance is to be able to
blend ...
One of the most important rules
of physical surveillance is:
“DON’T LOOK THE SUBJECT
IN THE EYE”
As a general rule, sensitive
investigative reports, such as
undercover reports, should be
disseminated on a:
“need-to-know...
The primary type of evidence to
be collected at a crime scene is
that which is relevant
A knowledge of basic accounting
terms is necessary in white-collar
investigations. Two important
terms are:
a. “Accounts p...
One of the most common errors
made in the interrogation of a
subject in a larceny case is failure
to ask if he/she stole t...
An “open-ended” question affords
the interviewee opportunity to reply
in a narrative fashion
A “closed-ended” question
res...
A friendly approach is
considered to be the most
productive in interviews
Many experts feel that the
reason a person steals the first
time is because the
“opportunity” was present
Searching motor vehicles for
contraband poses special
problems. One area often
overlooked is the “hub caps” of
a vehicle.
Counterfeiting of checks and
other documents has increased
primarily because of
sophistication of color-copying
machines
An oral confession, as well as
one which is not signed, still
has legal value
Proprietary Resources
 1. It is better to staff a proprietary
investigative unit with personnel who have
acquired prior i...
Proprietary Resources
 3. The two most important expensive items in
the budget of an investigations unit are:
 Personnel...
Evidence
 In obtaining known specimens of hair from victim
and/or suspect, submit at least 50 hairs from
various areas of...
Evidence
 Charred documents should be placed on top of
loose cotton in a box and delivered to the
laboratory in person
Interviews and Interrogations
 The techniques most commonly used during an
interrogation are:
 Sympathetic
 Logic and r...
Interviews and Interrogations
 Two main approaches used in interrogations:
 Indirect approach
 exploratory in nature
 ...
Devices to detect deception
 Polygraph
 records changes in respiration, blood pressure,
pulse and skin’s sensitivity to ...
Devices to detect deception
 Voice analyzer
 does not require body attachment
 Records sub-audible tremors in speech on...
Surveillance
 A surveillance can be either covert or overt
 Two basic forms of surveillance
 Physical - done by humans
...
Claims Investigations
 Interviews in claims investigations should result in
obtaining statements
 A claims report serves...
Embezzlement
 One of the most effective counter-measures
against embezzlement is a disciplined
environment with appropria...
Fraud
 The most difficult type of fraud to deal with is the
fraudulent accident/injury claim, because no
preventive measu...
Espionage
 The unethical practice of one company to learn
the secrets of their competitors
Explosions
 An explosion is defined as a sudden, violent and
noisy eruption, outburst or discharge by materials
acted upo...
Explosions
 Three basic rates of explosions are:
 Flash fire
 Explosions
 Detonations
 multiple or compounded explosi...
Explosions
 Two general types of substances with detonation
capabilities:
 Low explosives - Black powder, nitrocellulose...
Sabotage Investigation
 Any willful act designed to hinder or obstruct the
purposes for which a company operates.
 It is...
Theft investigation
 An effective “loss control program” will do much to
prevent internal theft.
Undercover Investigation
 Placement technique: The method to place the
agent in the undercover role. The job must cover
t...
Undercover Investigation
 Costs: Include the nominal wage paid to the
agent(s), the payroll taxes, and the fee paid to th...
The basis for any industrial
espionage prevention program is
protection of information
There are many kinds of
information which a company
would like to keep in a
confidential status but not all
such informati...
One definition of “trade secret” is “information
including formula, pattern, compilation, program,
device, method, techniq...
“Proprietary information” is
information of value owned by or
entrusted to a company which
relates to the operations of th...
A “trade secret” is part of a
company’s proprietary information
but not all propriety information
necessarily fits the def...
Generally “trade secrets” are given
a higher degree of legal protection
than other proprietary information
There are three basic
requirements of a “trade secret”
a. Must be of competitive
advantage
b. Must be secret
c. Must be us...
Information must meet the following requirements
to fit the definition required of a “trade secret”
a. Must be specificall...
Unless the owner of a trade secret
can furnish proof of diligent care
in the protection of a trade secret,
such trade secr...
Patent laws provide that an
inventor who first develops a new
machine, manufacturing process,
composition or matter, plan ...
“Inadvertent disclosure”
probably is the chief reason for
loss of information about
sensitive operations
One method important in
protection of sensitive information
is installing an effective
“awareness program” to assure
all e...
Another important protective
device is the use of
“nondisclosure
agreements”(employee patent and
secrecy agreements) from
...
A “non-competitive agreement”
is agreement on part of employee
upon leaving employment of one
company that the employee wi...
A telephone instrument may
also be utilized as a listening
device
In an electronic
countermeasure survey, note
that light switches and
electrical outlets are favorite
places to install lis...
Most loss of proprietary information
occurs because of negligence
One very important protective
measure used to safeguard
sensitive data is to disclose
such only in a need-to-know
basis
through industrial espionage
methods or other methods of
outside theft accounts for a smaller
loss than through negligence...
One of the biggest problems in
designing a proprietary
information protection program is
caused by the large amount of
vit...
Employees are the greatest
vulnerability in a proprietary
information protection program.
Accordingly, an employee
awarene...
Definitions
Proprietary Information
Information over which the
possessor asserts ownership and
which is related to the a...
Definitions
Patent
A government grant conveying
and securing the exclusive right to
make, use, and sell an invention
for...
Trade Secret
A trade Secret is a process or device
for continuous use in the operation of
the business
For trade secret ...
Trade Secret
Trade Secret information is
entitled by law to more
protection than other kinds
of proprietary information
Trade Secret
The following are not trade
secrets:
Salary information
Rank surveys
Customer usage evaluation
Profitabi...
Trade Secret / Patent
A trade secret remains secret as
long as it continues to meet
trade secret tests but the
exclusive ...
Trade Secret / Patent
 Since anyone can purchase a patent, there are
not industrial espionage targets in a patented
inven...
Proprietary Information
 Two approaches used to deal with P.I.:
 “Property Concept”
 regards the information as having ...
Proprietary Information
There are 3 broad threats to
proprietary information:
 It can be lost through inadvertent disclo...
Competitive Intelligence Gathering
The most important function of
competitive intelligence gathering is
to alert senior m...
Competitive Intelligence Gathering
A rich source of information is in
the information provided to
government regulators
...
Industrial Espionage
Industrial espionage is the theft of
information by legal or illegal means.
It is more dangerous tha...
Protection Programs
 The vulnerability assessment is conducted
from the perspective of the competitor and
considers:
 Wh...
Eavesdropping Tactics &
Equipment
 “Wiretapping” - is the interception of
communication over a wire w/o participants
cons...
Eavesdropping Tactics &
Equipment
 Eavesdropping is a psychological
traumaticEmployee experience for the victim.
 It is ...
Wired microphones
 Carbon microphone
 commonly used in a standard telephone handset
 Crystal microphone
 generates a s...
Wired microphones
 Spike microphone
 installed in a hole in the common wall
(not fully through)
 Dynamic microphone
 m...
Wired microphones
 Pneumatic cavity device
 has a specially designed small cavity which picks up
surface vibrations. (Gl...
Wired microphones
 Omnidirectional microphone
 used in conferences. Picks up sound from many
directions around the room
...
Wireless microphones
 A radio frequency (RF) device. Consists of:
A microphone
A transmitter
A power supply
An antenn...
Light transformation
 1. Infrared light wave transmissions use light
waves invisible to the human eye. Sound waves
are co...
Light transformation
 2. Laser (Light Amplification by Stimulated
Emission of Radiation) transmission of sound does
not r...
Light transformation
 3. Fiber optic laser transmission uses a
communications grade glass fiber, filled with laser
light,...
Electromagnetic radiation
 Detectable electromagnetic energy is
generated by electronic information processing
devices. D...
Telephone eavesdropping
Digital systems - originally thought
to be secure:
 Digit stream can be recorded and converted t...
The Eavesdropping Threat
 Risk for the electronic eavesdropper is low:
 electronic eavesdropping is easily committed
 c...
Miscellaneous
Plenum
space above a dropped ceiling
Variable Path Encryption (VPE)
 is particularly useful to secure ce...
Miscellaneous
Time domain reflectometry
an electronic picture of the
telephone line at a given time which
is compared to...
Miscellaneous
Audio masking
generation of noise at the
perimeter of the secure area to
cover or mask conversation. Music...
In implementing an asset
protection program, one primary
objective should be to motivate all
employees to become part of t...
All asset protection programs
should provide for adequate
feedback on the part of
participants
Although the chief executive in
charge of asset protection should
have knowledge of security
procedures and techniques, it...
The three basic security
processes are:
a. Information
b. Physical
c. Personnel
Of the three basic security
processes, personnel security
is considered to be the most
critical
The basic elements of the personnel security process are:
a. Protects the organization against undesirable persons
through...
In screening an applicant for a
potential position, the most
expensive technique should be
conducted last. For example,
an...
Some deception practices to be on
the lookout for on applications
during the screening process prior to
hiring are:
a. Use...
The concept of “security
awareness” is primarily a state of
mind. It is not the same as either
training or education but i...
One well known honesty test is the
“Reid Report”. This is a written
honesty test designed to reveal a
person’s trustworthi...
A popular psychological test used
by employees in personnel
screening procedures is the
Minnesota Multiphasic
Personality ...
The two major tools used in
employee selection procedures
are:
a. The application
b. The interview
but necessary in the personnel security
process. The major purposes of this type
of investigation are:
a. To verify inform...
The theft triangle sides consist of:
a. Motive
b. Desire
c. Opportunity
As a general rule, the questions relating to
the following should not be asked of
applicants during the screening process ...
Approximately 10% of the
completed applications will have
falsifications serious enough for
management review before
makin...
The most important information
gathering tool in a background
investigation is the completed
application form
As a general rule, no application
more than 90 days old should be
considered without a re-interview
of the applicant
The principal behind integrity
tests is that an individual who
has developed strong attitudes
towards honesty is less like...
Employment gaps of more than
one month must be explained
The job description for a position
must include accurate
specifications and genuine skill
requirements which are described...
Purpose and Function
 Personnel Security’s primary purpose is to insure
that a firm hires employees best suited to assist...
Purpose and Function
 Vulnerability to losses caused by employees is
measured in part by the character of the
employees, ...
The Job Description
 Accurate job specifications increase objectivity in
making selection decisions and reduce the
likeli...
The Application
 There are virtually no restrictions on what can
be asked of an individual once an offer of
employment ha...
Education
 Approximately 5 % of all professional applicants
falsify some aspect of their educational
background.
Interview
 A personal interview of each applicant should be
conducted by an trained interviewer
Background Investigation
 Should be completed prior to allowing the
applicant to commence employment
 The most important...
Background Investigation
 At least five consecutive immediately preceding
years of employment are verified
 Personal con...
Psychological Testing
 A process whereby a subject’s reaction to a future
situation is predicted by an analysis of his/he...
Psychological Testing
 Types of psychological tests
 Skills and Aptitude tests
 for office, clerical, production and se...
Psychological Testing
 Integrity tests can be “clear purpose” tests which ask
direct questions or “veiled purpose” tests ...
Psychological Testing
 Integrity tests can be:
 pre-employment tests which measure the applicant’s
attitude toward count...
Miscellaneous Matters
 Military service should be confirmed by having the
applicant submit a copy of the service record
f...
The Bill of Rights
is the
first ten amendments
to the
Constitution of the U.S.
First amendment
provides
for freedom of speech, religion,
press, assembly and to petition
the government
Second amendment
provides the right to
keep arms (weapons)
Forth amendment
prohibits
unreasonable searches and
seizures and also sets out the
requirement that a warrant be
supported...
Fifth amendment
prohibits
double jeopardy, compulsory
self incrimination, and
deprivation of life, liberty or
property wit...
Sixth amendment provides that
the accused have a speedy
public trial, know the charges
against him, confront
witnesses aga...
Seventh amendment
provides
the right to trial by jury
Eighth amendment
prohibits
excessive bail, excessive fines
and
cruel and unusual punishment
“Miranda warning” must be given
before “custodial” interrogation. The
suspect is advised:
a. You have the right to remain ...
Generally, Miranda warnings
need not be given by security
officers
The crime of “robbery” is the
unlawful taking of property from
the immediate possession of
another by force or the threat ...
“Larceny” is the unlawful taking
of property from the possession
of another with the intent of
depriving the owner of it
p...
“Vicarious liability” is the legal
concept which holds the employer,
as well as the employee, liable if
the “wrong” was co...
Vicarious Liability
 An employer may avoid liability for the
tortious acts of another if the hiring contract is
such that...
Vicarious Liability
 But, the employer may be held liable for the acts of
an independent contractor when:
 The work cont...
“Respondeat superior” is the legal
rule that an employer is responsible
for the action or lack of action of an
employee ta...
Basic Aspects
Respondeat Superior:
The right of control and not
necessarily the exercise of
that right is the test of th...
Note the difference between a
“crime” and a “tort”.
A crime is a violation of the
government’s penal laws;
whereas a tort ...
A
crime can also be a tort
examples:
battery
trespass
assault
Most crimes are of two primary
types;
a. The federal definition of a
“felony” is: a crime
punishable by imprisonment for
a...
“Corpus delicti” is a legal term for
the “body of the crime” or the
elements of the crime which must
be proved.
It does no...
Treason is the only crime
specifically mentioned in the U.S.
Constitution
The criminal code of the United
States is found in Title 18
There are no Federal common
law crimes
Essential elements of the crime of negligence:
a. A duty owed by the defendant to the
injured party
b. A violation of that...
A fidelity bond is insurance on a
person covering that person’s
dishonesty
“Strict liability” refers to the legal
concept that one may be held
responsible for some acts without
the necessity to pro...
“Compensatory damages”
are
actual damages
directly
related to the amount of the loss
“Punitive damages” are
designed to punish the defendant
and to deter him, and others,
from a repetition of the wrongful
act
Generally,
searches by security officers
are not subject to constitutional
regulation under the 4th
Amendment
In judging whether certain
conduct is negligent, the law
uses the standard of
reasonableness. The
“reasonable person” is o...
“Deadly force”,
as a general rule, should be used
by law enforcement officers as a
last resort and then only when
the life...
An “express contract” is one
which is clear, definite, direct,
and spelled out by explicit words
An “implied contract” is one
which is not spelled out clearly
by explicit words, but is
interpreted by analyzing
surroundi...
“Entrapment” is a defense in
which the defendant alleges that
he was induced by government
officers or agents to commit a
...
Statements made by subjects
being interrogated must be
“voluntary”
The concept of the grand jury
originated in England
An “indemnity bond” is an
insurance contract designed to
reimburse an individual or
organization for possible
losses of a ...
A “citizen’s arrest” is an arrest
by a private person, rather than
by a public law enforcement
officer. This authority ori...
A law enforcement officer may
arrest for a felony based solely
on “probable cause”.
A private security officer may
arrest for a felony based in
“probable cause”, but there is no
margin for error; otherwise,...
The “plain view” doctrine holds
that if police, in the course of
lawful duty, recognize a plainly
visible item as evidence...
Probable Cause is that
combination of facts and
circumstances which would
warrant a person of reasonable
caution and prude...
The Supreme Court of Terry v.
Ohio authorized “stop and frisk”
technique without probable cause
where an experienced offic...
The undercover agent must know
the law regarding “entrapment.”
“Entrapment” is defined as the acts
of officers of the gove...
Under no circumstances will an
undercover agent be permitted to
engage in “malum in se” crime
such as murder, burglary, ra...
The Fair Credit Reporting Act,
among other things, requires
written notice to the applicant
prior to an investigation by a...
As a general rule, it is
permissible to ask about possible
“convictions” but not “arrests” on
the employment questionnaire
Basic Aspects
Civil law is the statutory and
common law in which private
rights and remedies are found.
Of the 50 titles ...
Basic Aspects
 Express Contract is an actual agreement of the
parties, the terms of which are openly uttered or
declared ...
Basic Aspects
Price is the dollar value stated
in the contract.
Reasonable value is the dollar
value of goods and/or ser...
Basic Aspects
In the transportation of goods,
recovery of damages may be
estopped by a “time bar” clause
in the shipping ...
Basic Aspects
 The concept of tort liability operates to:
 Compensate a victim for his loss
 Act as a deterrent for fut...
Basic Aspects
The basic elements of
intentional tort liability are:
An act or omission
Which brought about the intended...
Basic Aspects
 Examples of intentional torts:
 Battery
 Assault
 False imprisonment
 Trespass to land or to chattels ...
Basic Aspects
 Generally, proprietary security officers are
servants, whereas contract security personnel
are employees o...
“Stare Decisis”
The Law of Precedence
Felony
Federal statutes provide for five
classes of felonies ranging is
punishment from imprisonment
for a term exceeding...
Misdemeanor
Three classes of
misdemeanors:
 Class A - One year or less but more than 6
months
 Class B - Six months or ...
Infraction
Federal statutes provide for one
class of infraction for which the
penalty ranges from 5 days or
less imprison...
“Mala in se”
Those crimes which are bad in
themselves, ie...
Murder
Rape
All Common Law crimes were
mala in se.
“Mala prohibita”
Those acts which are
considered “offenses” by the
passage of statutes. Generally
no criminal intent is r...
Corpus delicti
 The body of the crime. The combination of the
elements which provide proof of the crime is the
corpus del...
Law of Causation
 There must be a cause and effect relationship
between the act of the accused and the resulting
harm. Th...
“Motive”
Motive is not an essential
part of a crime; it is not part
of the corpus delicti.
Most crimes require the
combination of an act and an
intent, which must be
simultaneous.
“Negligence” differs from
“recklessness,” in that in
recklessness, conduct is
governed by the actual state of
mind of the...
“Alibi”
The alibi defense is one of
physical impossibility. The
testimony of an alibi witness
must cover the entire time ...
“Mistake of Fact”
 The “Mistake of Fact” defense is used when
one commits a violation of the law in good
faith with a rea...
Laws of Arrest
 The basic elements which constitute an arrest
are:
 A purpose or intention to effect the arrest
 An act...
Laws of Arrest
The mere words “you are
under arrest:” will not
satisfy the seizure or
detention element of
arrest.
Laws of Arrest
A warrant is an order for the
arrest of a person.
A summons directs the
defendant to appear before a
cour...
Laws of Arrest
When a private citizen acts in aid
of a known law enforcement officer,
the citizen has the same rights and...
Laws of Arrest
 Generally, private citizens may arrest any
person who has committed an offense in their
presence or for a...
Search and Seizure
 The “Exclusionary Rule” excludes evidence,
otherwise admissible, obtained by methods
which violate Co...
The “Tainted Fruit of the Poisonous
Tree” doctrine is that any and all
evidence obtained as a result of an
unreasonable se...
4th Amendment
 The 4th Amendment does not specifically
authorize a search without a warrant. We
have legal searches witho...
Searches
 A private security officer has only the search
authority of a private citizen.
 The Fourth Amendment does not ...
Confession / Admission
 A confession is a statement in which a person
acknowledges guilt of a crime.
 An admission is a ...
Confession / Admission
The fundamental test
regarding the use of
confessions and
admissions is the “free and
voluntary” t...
Federal Bureau of
Investigation (DOJ)
 Investigative Jurisdiction over Federal criminal
violations and concurrent jurisdi...
Federal Bureau of
Investigation (DOJ)
National Center for the Analysis of
Violent Crime;
Violent Criminal Apprehension
P...
U.S. Marshall’s Service
(DOJ)
 Operational priorities include:
 Physical security for Federal courts
 Custodian of Fede...
Immigration and Naturalization
Service (DOJ)
 Responsible for administering U.S.
Immigration and Naturalization laws.
 R...
U.S. Secret Service
(Treasury Department)
Responsible for the protection of
the President, Vice-President and
their famil...
Customs Service
(Treasury Department)
Enforces customs-related
laws and regulations
Collect import duties.
Internal Revenue Service
(Treasury Department)
Administers and enforces Federal
tax laws.
Special intelligence division
...
B.A.T. F.
(Treasury Department)
 Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearm
 Administration and enforcement of U.S.
gun and ...
Defense Investigative Service
(Department of Defense)
Administers the Defense
Industrial Security
Program.
F.E.M.A.
Federal Emergency
Management Agency
An independent agency
Primary responsibility of dealing
with disaster plan...
F.E.M.A.
The Director of FEMA reports
to the President and works
closely with the National
Security Council, Cabinet, and...
Coast Guard
(Department of Transportation)
Security and safety of ports.
Investigations of marine-related
accidents, cas...
Federal Aviation Administration
(Department of Transportation)
Issue and enforcement of rules
and regulations for air com...
Federal Highway Administration
(Department of Transportation)
Regulatory jurisdiction over
safety and performance of
comm...
Federal Highway Administration
(Department of Transportation)
Highway Safety Act
Interstate Commerce Act
Explosive and ...
U.S. Army Corp of Engineers
Flood control planning
should be coordinated with
the U.S. Corp of Engineers.
“NOAA”
Progressive situation reports of
floods are available from the
National Oceanic and
Atmosphere Administration
(NOA...
National Weather Service
 The NWS begins issuing hurricane advisories
as soon as there are indications a hurricane is
for...
Bureau of Vital Statistics
Records of births,
marriages and deaths
The Age Discrimination in
Employment Act of 1967
Prohibits discrimination
against applicants or
employees over 40 years o...
Equal Pay Act of 1963
 Requires that employees receive equal pay
for equal work, requiring equal skill, effort and
respon...
The National Labor Relations
Act
 Known as the “Wagner Act”
 The basic test of an unfair labor practice is
whether it re...
The National Labor Relations
Act
 Management representatives may not attend a union
meeting.
 Undercover operations are ...
The National Labor Relations
Act
Advise security personnel that
their actions will be considered
“employer actions”.
The National Labor Relations
Act
 When an employee reasonably believes that an
interview may lead to or result in discipl...
The National Labor Relations
Act
Management is not required
to advise an employee of this
right of representation or to
“...
The National Labor Relations
Act
The NLRA specifically
provides that guards and
non-guard employees
cannot be members of ...
The Labor Management
Relations Act
Known as the Taft-Hartley Act
Forbids unions from:
Coercing an employer to pay for
w...
Labor Management Reporting
and Disclosure Act
 Known as the Landrum-Griffin Act
 Established safeguards and restrictions...
Labor Management Reporting
and Disclosure Act
 A “Hot Cargo” agreement is defined as one
where the employer agrees to cea...
Strikes
 Economic Strike - The most frequent type
 takes place where there is a vote to stop work
because a satisfactory...
Strikes
The Unfair Labor Practice Strike
 When strikers strike to force discontinuance of an alleged
violation by an emp...
Strikes
Three phases of security
involvement during strikes:
Pre-strike planning stage
Strike operation plan phase
Pos...
Strikes
The main goals of the
security force during labor
disturbances should be:
 To lessen potential for violence
 To...
Strikes
The security strike operations
plan is a comprehensive
statement of all policies,
procedures and activities to be...
Strikes
The security strike operations
plan
 The plan should be made available to each security
supervisor and higher ma...
Strikes
 The chief weapon of the strikers is the ability
to discourage people from entering plant
premises and to prevent...
Strikes
 “Lockout” - is the refusal of management to
allow members of the bargaining unit on the
premises. A “lockout” ma...
Occupational Safety and
Health Act (OSHA)
 The Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety
and Health Act (29 USC 651-678) was
s...
Occupational Safety and
Health Act (OSHA)
 The statute states that every employee “affecting
Firearm” is subject to the p...
Occupational Safety and
Health Act (OSHA)
 The general purpose of OSHA is to provide safe
and healthful Firearm condition...
Occupational Safety and
Health Act (OSHA)
 OSHA Form #200 - a log and summary of
occupational injuries and illness.
 OSH...
Occupational Safety and
Health Act (OSHA)
 An “injury” results from a single incident. A one
time chemical exposure is an...
Occupational Safety and
Health Act (OSHA)
 Records on all work-related deaths, injuries, and
illnesses must be current an...
Occupational Safety and
Health Act (OSHA)
 If an on-the-job accident results in the death of an
employee or the hospitali...
Occupational Safety and
Health Act (OSHA)
 In Marshall vs. Barlow, the Supreme Court held
that officials of OSHA cannot i...
Occupational Safety and
Health Act (OSHA)
 It is not necessary for OSHA inspectors to show
“probable cause” to obtain a w...
Occupational Safety and
Health Act (OSHA)
When they find conditions of
“imminent danger”,
compliance officers may
REQUEST...
Occupational Safety and
Health Act (OSHA)
Most citations allege violations
of specific safety and health
standards or of ...
ASIS CPP Study Flash Cards and Quiz
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ASIS CPP Study Flash Cards and Quiz

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Unofficial CPP study guide for the CPP exam. Enjoy!

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ASIS CPP Study Flash Cards and Quiz

  1. 1. By Brandon Gregg, CPP Add me on Linkedin! Brandon Gregg Linkedin CPP Study Guide
  2. 2. CPP Study Guide How to Study the CPP:  Read over 500 slides, deleting the slides you know the answer to.  Use the last 300 practice quizzes to test yourself.  Purchase or find “The Complete Guide of the CPP Exam”, it reads like a book of answers, no filler, fluff or 20 ASIS books to read.  Make more slides if needed  Repeat  Take CPP Test, good luck!  Send me an email when you pass 
  3. 3. CPP Study Guide This Powerpoint was made by collecting all the open source CPP study guides I could find online and then some. If you have your own slides, please send me a copy so I may add to the slides. Thanks again for everyone that helped put this together!
  4. 4. Control over the entry of personnel and materials is the most important countermeasure to bombs
  5. 5. Control over the entry of personnel and materials is the most important countermeasure to bombs
  6. 6. The emergency plan is tested at least annually
  7. 7. Data media must be protected in specially insulated records containers which protect the contents against temperatures up to 150 F and 80% humidity
  8. 8. The automatic sprinkler system is ordinarily activated by the melting of a metal seal and water then flows through the system when the head valves are released
  9. 9. Government and industry share the responsibility for emergency and disaster planning
  10. 10. The emergency plan must be distributed to all personnel with responsibility for action
  11. 11. A “bomb blanket” is used only by specifically trained personnel
  12. 12. “Vital Records” are those necessary to insure the survival of the business. Vital records usually constitute no more than 2 percent of a corporation’s records
  13. 13. Responsibility for a shutdown should be assigned to persons familiar with the process
  14. 14. The emergency plan is activated by the facility manager, the President, or the CEO
  15. 15. The emergency plan should be directive in nature
  16. 16. In a fire, the facility must have “the capability to respond quickly with well trained personnel to contain and extinguish the fire”.
  17. 17. In a high rise building, partial evacuation includes the floor above and the floor below
  18. 18. The most common of all terrorist tactics is bombing
  19. 19. In dealing with plant fires, mutual assistance and prior coordination with the fire department is essential. The critical element is the ability to respond quickly with well trained personnel to contain and extinguish the fire
  20. 20. A tidal wave (TSUNAMI) is caused by underwater disturbances
  21. 21. A “hurricane warning” is issued when it is determined that winds of 74 mph or higher will be encountered
  22. 22. “Tornadoes” are violent local storms with whirling winds that can reach 200 - 400 m.p.h. The width of a tornado ranges from 200 yards to one mile and travels 5-30 miles along the ground at speeds of 30-70 m.p.h.
  23. 23. Tornado watch - tornadoes are expected to develop Tornado warning - tornado has actually been sighted in the area
  24. 24. Severe thunderstorm - possibility of frequent lightning and/or damaging winds of greater than 50 m.p.h., hail and heavy rain. Severe thunderstorm watch - possibility of tornadoes, thunderstorms, frequent lightning, hail and winds greater than 75 m.p.h.
  25. 25. Heavy snow warning - an expected snowfall of 4 inches or more in a 12-hour period or 6 inches or more in a 24-hour period
  26. 26. Blizzard - the most dangerous of all winter storms.
  27. 27. Blizzard warning - considerable snow and winds of 35 m.p.h. or more are expected. A severe blizzard warning - very heavy snowfall is expected with winds of at least 45 m.p.h. and temperatures of 10 degrees or lower.
  28. 28. A large proportion of energy in a nuclear explosion is emitted in the form of light and heat and is generally referred to as Thermal radiation
  29. 29. The one thing that distinguishes disasters or major emergencies from the emergencies plant personnel deal with each day is the need for coordinated emergency operations
  30. 30. A community based emergency control center must be established to coordinate all efforts in a major emergency
  31. 31. “Emergency readiness” means preparation has reached the point where you are prepared to react promptly to save life and protect property if the plant is threatened or hit by a major emergency
  32. 32. Bomb Threat - a search is made after every bomb threat call. The facility manager should make the decision as to who should search
  33. 33. The decision to evacuate a building upon the receipt of a bomb threat should be made by a senior member of management
  34. 34. Fire loading is the amount of combustible materials that occupy its interior spaces
  35. 35. When a bomb threat is received, the following are notified, in order : a. Persons responsible for search and evacuation b. Local authorities c. Explosive demolition teams; and d. Medical facilities
  36. 36. A clear zone with a radius of at least 300 feet should be established around a suspicious object including the floors above and below
  37. 37. The purposes of emergency planning are to: a. Anticipate the emergency b. Provide action during the emergency; and c. Return to normal operations
  38. 38. In assessing the vulnerability of individual facilities, major factors considered are: a. Environment b. Indigenous c. Economic
  39. 39. The basic emergency plan should be made up of three elements: 1. Authority 2. Types of emergencies 3. Plan execution
  40. 40. The value of an emergency plan is that it: a. Provides a written record and means of communicating information throughout the organization b. Assures that all procedures fit into an integrated plan c. Promotes uniformity d. Assures a permanent record of decisions and acquired knowledge e. Provides a means of orientation of new employees into emergency responsibilities f. Permits management to delegate specific authorities g. Presents a public relations medium for communicate to employees, customers and stockholders
  41. 41. Every industrial firm, regardless of size, should establish an internal organization that will be able to protect life and property in time of any emergency
  42. 42. The Vital Records Protection Plan should be tested at least once a year. The tests of Vital Records Program should verify that vital records needed after a disaster are: a. Current b. Protected sufficiently against natural disasters, nuclear detonation and other perils c. Retrievable as needed in usable form
  43. 43. Strike The most frequent strike is the “economic strike”, which must be preceded by at least 60 days notice
  44. 44. Strike The “unfair labor practice strike” can occur suddenly with little or no effective planning
  45. 45. Strike The most important outside contact will be with local police
  46. 46. Strike A sound policy with respect to police arrests would be to not attempt to influence the police against initiating prosecutions where police are complaining witnesses
  47. 47. Strike Documentary surveillance of workers engaged in legal and legitimate labor practices such as legal picketing during a strike could amount to an unfair labor practice
  48. 48. Terrorism Kidnapping is a classic act of terrorism
  49. 49. Terrorism For the most effective personal protection of a possible kidnapping target, a minimum of two (2) bodyguards is recommended
  50. 50. Terrorism The payment of ransom or complying with any criminal demand, without company approval, could render the payer civilly liable.
  51. 51. Terrorism The best way to determine if a hostage is alive is with direct communication
  52. 52. The four legs of fire: a. Heat b. Fuel c. Oxygen, and a d. Chemical reaction
  53. 53. Several by products accompany every fire: a. Smoke b. Gas c. Heat d. Expanded air
  54. 54. Fire Classifications: Class “A” - Ordinary combustibles (waste paper, rags, and furniture) Extinguish with Water or water fog (Green triangle) Soda and Acid Class “B” - Gas, grease oil, volatile fluids Extinguish with CO2 or water fog (Red Square) dry chemical Class “C” - Electrical fires Extinguish with non-conductive agent (Blue circle) CO2 Class “D” - combustible metals Extinguish with Dry powder (Yellow star) Dry powder
  55. 55. Water fog is very effective for Class “A” and “B” fires
  56. 56. A normal fire proceeds through 4 basic stages: 1. Incipient Stage - no smoke at this point 2. Smoldering Stage - smoke begins to appear 3. Flame Stage - actual visible fire 4. Heat Stage - heat is intense and building up
  57. 57. The principal fire sensors are:  Ionization detector - useful in giving early warning.  Photoelectric smoke detector - when source of light is interrupted, unit alarms  Infrared flame detector - reacts to emissions from flame  Thermal detectors - operates on a significant change in temperature
  58. 58. Manual fire alarm stations are of two types:  1. Local alarms – alerting personnel in building  2. Station alarms – signal is transmitted directly to a monitoring station
  59. 59. The causes of most fires are: Carelessness Ignorance
  60. 60. Most fires are electrical in origin
  61. 61. More fire fatalities are caused by toxic gases than by the flames
  62. 62. The major causes of death in a building fire are:  a. Toxic gases  b. Smoke  c. High temperatures  d. CO2  e. Fear and resultant actions  f. The fire itself
  63. 63. Most sprinklers will operate at temperatures between 130 and 165 F.
  64. 64. Halogenated agents (1211, 1302) are non-corrosive chemical agents used for extinguishing fires in areas containing computers and electrical equipment
  65. 65. A fire door is for the purpose of impeding the spread of fire
  66. 66. Automatic fire doors are held open until there is sufficient combustion to trigger the door closing devices
  67. 67. The focus of disaster control planning is on solutions to major problems and to prevent a disaster from becoming a tragedy
  68. 68. The three principles of disaster control planning are: a. Coordinated planning; b. Mutual assistance; and c. Community resources
  69. 69. In the organizational structure of proprietary firms, security may provide both line and staff functions a. When advising senior executives, the security manager performs “staff”duties b. In security operations, the security manager carries out “line” duties As a general rule, “line” duties are considered to be operational in nature and “staff” duties are of a support nature
  70. 70. When security managers exercise authority delegated by a senior executive to whom they report, such authority is known as “functional” authority
  71. 71. Security functions cut across departmental lines and consist of involvement into every activity of the company but should not involve significant interference
  72. 72. Probably the most common security management failure is the inability to delegate responsibility and the authority necessary to carry it out
  73. 73. “Span of control” is a management term which refers to the number of personnel over which one can effectively supervise
  74. 74. The largest single item of expense in the security operation is the cost of the security personnel
  75. 75. The number of security personnel required to cover a single post around the clock on three eight- hour shifts is 4-1/2 to 5 persons Not 3
  76. 76. “Chain of command” is a management term which refers to the path along which authority flows
  77. 77. Well-trained, well-supervised security personnel may be the best possible protection available to a company
  78. 78. The accounting department of a company is the most vulnerable to major loss due to crime
  79. 79. “Unity of command” is a management concept which means that an employee should have only one immediate superior to whom the employee should report
  80. 80. The security manager should have the necessary authority to carry out responsibilities. To accomplish this, the security manager should occupy a position where the manager reports directly to a vice-president or higher
  81. 81. The “Theory X” management theory holds that the average employee has little ambition, dislikes work and must be coerced, controlled and directed to achieve organizational objectives - Douglas McGregor
  82. 82. The “Theory Y” management theory holds that the average employee does not dislike work, is self-directed, is creative and imaginative, accepts responsibility and is committed to achieving organizational needs and objectives - Douglas McGregor
  83. 83. Theory X and Theory Y were developed by Douglas McGregor
  84. 84. Those in management who believe the behavioral assumption of “Theory X” take an autocratic approach to get work done. Whereas “Theory Y” encourages managers to support and encourage employees in efforts to higher achievement
  85. 85. The three main theories of organizational behavior are: a. Autocratic theory b. Custodial theory c. Supportive theory
  86. 86. The “autocratic theory” holds that management is all-powerful and employees are obligated to follow orders without question
  87. 87. The “custodial theory” holds that the aim of the company is to make the employee happy and contented through economic benefits and thus they will be positively adjusted to their work. This theory does not motivate employees to produce to their full capacity
  88. 88. The “supportive theory” holds that through good leadership, management will provide a climate where employees will take on added responsibilities and thus make greater contributions to the growth of the company. Leadership: “We rather than they”
  89. 89. “Herzberg’s theory” is a management theory which holds that motivation comes from work achievement satisfaction and not from such things as salary and job security
  90. 90. “Theory Z” is a recent management style used effectively by the Japanese. This theory emphasizes humanized working conditions along with attention by management to enhance trust and close personal relationships
  91. 91. “Management by objectives” also known as “MBO” was introduced by Peter Drucker. In this approach, both subordinate and superior agree on measurable goals to be achieved primarily by the subordinate over a stated period of time
  92. 92. A “budget” is a plan stated in financial terms. It sets forth in dollars the necessary allocation of funds to achieve the plan
  93. 93. “Risk analysis” is a management method used to minimize risks through application of security measures commensurate with the threat
  94. 94. The major resource required for a risk analysis is manpower
  95. 95. The most important management skill is the ability to communicate effectively
  96. 96. Written communication is the best means to communicate
  97. 97. The primary objective in implementing a protection program within an organization should be to motivate every employee to become part of the protection team
  98. 98. Both private security and public law have, as their primary mission, the prevention of crime and protection of persons and property
  99. 99. “Economic crime” is defined as the illicit behavior having as its object the unjust enrichment of the perpetrator at the expense of the economic system as a whole
  100. 100. Private security relies upon both commercial security services and government agencies for intelligence gathering and crisis management planning
  101. 101. Private security frequently avoids or bypasses police with regard to white collar or economic crime
  102. 102. Business crime is most effectively attacked through sound management controls. The emphasis on loss prevention rather than the “offender” involved in the incident is a distinguishing characteristic of private security.
  103. 103. About 95% to 99% of activated alarms are “false”
  104. 104. The main deterrent value of a burglar alarm system is that the alarm signal enunciated locally or transmitted to a central station brings a police response
  105. 105. Employee theft was the most frequently investigated crime by private security
  106. 106. As a general rule, local law enforcement has very little effect on many crimes against business. Exceptions are burglaries, robberies and arson
  107. 107. Frequently cited measures for improving private security are: a. More or better training b. Mandated training c. Improved selection process d. Higher wages e. Establishment or improvement of licensing and regulation
  108. 108. Two problems in police and security relationships which seem to have the greatest intensity of feelings are: a. Secondary employment or moonlighting by police officers in private security b. Police response to activated alarms which are largely false
  109. 109. The two major components of economic crime are white collar and ordinary crime
  110. 110. 80% of computer security incidents result from insider attacks by dishonest and disgruntled employees
  111. 111. Only 1% of computer security incidents annually are attributed to “hackers”
  112. 112. The practice of preventing unauthorized persons from gaining intelligence information by analyzing electromagnetic emanations from electronic equipment such as computers, is often termed “tempest”
  113. 113. In the year 2000, expenditures for private security industry will be $104 billion while public law enforcement expenditures will be only $44 billion by 2000
  114. 114. Employment in private security is projected to grow at 2.3% per annum to 2000 while law enforcement growth will be one percent annually
  115. 115. The term “narcotic” in its medical meaning refers to opium and opium derivatives or synthetic substitutes
  116. 116. “Drug dependence” is a condition resulting from repeated use whereby the user must administer progressively larger doses to attain the desired effect, thereby reinforcing compulsive behavior
  117. 117. “Physical dependence” refers to an alteration of the normal functions of the body that necessitates the continued presence of a drug in order to prevent the withdrawal or abstinence syndrome
  118. 118. The poppy (papaver somnifferum) is the main source of the non-synthetic narcotics
  119. 119. Examples of synthetic narcotics, which are produced entirely within the laboratory, are meperidine and methadone
  120. 120. Depressants have a potential for both physical and psychological dependence. Some examples : a. Chloral Hydrate b. Barbiturates c. Benzodiazepines
  121. 121. When “depressant” drugs are used to obtain a “high” they are usually taken in conjunction with another drug, such as alcohol
  122. 122. “Stimulants” are drugs which may produce a temporary sense of exhilaration, superabundant energy and hyperactivity including extended wakefulness. Examples are cocaine and amphetamines
  123. 123. The two most prevalent stimulants are nicotine and caffeine, both accepted in our culture
  124. 124. The most potent stimulant of natural origin is cocaine which is extracted from the leaves of the coca plant
  125. 125. Excessive doses of cocaine may cause seizures and death. There is no “safe” dose of cocaine
  126. 126. “Marijuana” refers to cannabis plant parts and extracts that produce somatic or psychic changes in humans
  127. 127. The hemp plant grows wild throughout most of the tropic and temperate regions of the world
  128. 128. “Hallucinogenic” drugs distort the perception of objective reality. Examples are: a. LSD b. Mescaline and peyote c. Phencyclidine (PCP) d. Amphetamine Variants (such as DOM and DOB)
  129. 129. Long after hallucinogens are eliminated from the body, users may experience “flashbacks”
  130. 130. DOM, DOB, JDA, MDMA, DET and MDA are hallucinogens which are synthesized in the laboratory
  131. 131. Another source of hallucinogens (psilocybin and psilocyn) is psilocybe mushrooms
  132. 132. “Designer” drugs are analogues of controlled substances with slight variations in their chemical structure so as not to be specifically listed as a controlled substance
  133. 133. A “drug” is a substance which, because of its chemical make-up, alters the mood, perception or consciousness of the user. All drugs are not illegal.
  134. 134. The most abused “drug” is alcohol and the most used “drug” also alcohol
  135. 135. “Tolerance” is a body condition wherein ever-increasing amounts of a drug are needed to gain the desired effect
  136. 136. The street name for PCP is “angel dust”
  137. 137. The person most likely to become an alcoholic is a white male over 40 who is living alone
  138. 138. The following behavioral characteristics are associated with substance abuse: a. Abrupt changes in attendance, quality of work grades and work output b. Attitude changes c. Withdrawal from responsibility d. Breakdown in personal appearance e. Wearing sunglasses at inappropriate times f. Wears long-sleeved garments to hide needle marks g. Association with known substance abusers h. Excessive borrowing of money I. Stealing small items from home, work or school j. Secretive habits
  139. 139. Internal Accounting - Audit  To insure correctness and accuracy of accounting records  Not to detect theft and fraud  More losses due to accounting errors than by theft
  140. 140. External Audit Valuable because the persons conducting the audit do not know your business / company
  141. 141. Financial Aspects “CL” - Current Liability “L/T” - Long term Liability
  142. 142. Payroll  Biggest problem is “Ghosting”  Paying people that don’t exist  Can use “Pay-out” to detect Ghosting  manually paying each employee  Recommended twice a year
  143. 143. Internal Cash Best way to handle is using two people at all times to handle cash situations
  144. 144. Payables Money owed to vendors
  145. 145. Receivables Money owed by customers
  146. 146. General Management Line Executives are those who are delegated chain of command authority to accomplish specific objectives in the organization.
  147. 147. General Management The security manager, in exercising authority delegated by the senior executive to whom the security manager reports, is exercising functional authority
  148. 148. General Management Chain of Command is the path along which authority flows
  149. 149. General Management  Span of Control - the number of personnel which one individual can effectively control  1 supervisor to 3 employees - ideal  1 supervisor to 6 employees - good  1 supv to 12 employees - Acceptable
  150. 150. General Management Unity of Command - means that an employee should be under the direct control of only one immediate supervisor
  151. 151. General Management The most common management weakness is the failure to properly delegate responsibility and the authority to carry out the responsibility.
  152. 152. Organizational Chart Horizontal plane - indicates the divisions of areas of responsibility Vertical plane - defines the levels of authority