Biotech 2012 spring-4_cell_function_mircroarrays


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Biotech 2012 spring-4_cell_function_mircroarrays

  1. 1. Cell function analysis Example – tissue microarrays tissue-microarray/#types
  2. 2. Comparing Fluorescence In SituComparing Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization and Chromogenic InHybridization and Chromogenic In Situ Hybridization Methods toSitu Hybridization Methods to Determine the HER2/neu StatusDetermine the HER2/neu Status in Primary Breast Carcinomain Primary Breast Carcinoma using Tissue Microarrayusing Tissue Microarray Kyeongmee Park, M.D., Ph.D., Jungyeon Kim, M.D., Ph.D., Sungjig Lim, M.D., Ph.D., Sehwan Han, M.D., Ph.D., Jung Young Lee, M.D., Ph.D. Inje University Sanggye Paik Hospital; College of Medicine,Inje University Sanggye Paik Hospital; College of Medicine, The Catholic University, Seoul, Korea 2003The Catholic University, Seoul, Korea 2003
  3. 3. • HER2/neu is the most widely exploited breast cancer marker in clinical oncology. • HER2/neu has moved from a laboratory- based prognostic factor to a target for the specific therapy, trastuzumab (Herceptin; Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA), which binds to HER2/neu protein. • 185kDa transmembrane tyrosine kinase • overexpression of HER2/neu protein arises from HER2/neu gene amplification
  4. 4. • 20-40% of human breast carcinomas shows HER2/neu amplication • HER2/neu protein overexpression use immunohistochemistry detect. • Measurement of HER2/neu gene amplification is more accurate • Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) allows assessment of the level of gene amplification with information about distribution of gene copies in histologic section • FISH need additional equipment for analysis such as fluorescence microscopy and multiband fluorescence filters.
  5. 5. • Chromogenic in situ hybridization uses a simple immunohistochemistry-like peroxidase reaction. • Tissue microarray is a novel technology of harvesting small disks of tissue from individual donor paraffin-embedded tissue blocks and placing them in a recipient block with defined array coordinates. • Tissue microarray technology allows high- throughput molecular profiling of cancer from DNA to protein level by enabling the simultaneous analysis of hundreds of tissue specimens.
  6. 6. • This technology provides maximal use of limited tissue resources and renders the advantage of generating gene expression profiles of cells as they occur in actual neoplastic tissues in vivo. • Tissue microarray technology has the potential to significantly accelerate molecular studies and has become one of the most promising tools in cancer research fields. • In this report, analysis of HER2/neu amplification in 188 human breast carcinomas using tissue microarray technology. CISH appeared as a reasonable alternative to FISH in the current study, and genetic analyses on the archival cancer tissues were successful with novel technologies.
  7. 7. Materials and Methods • Materials: 188 primary breast carcinoma were collected at Inje University Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul, Korea • Histopathologic classification and determination of tumor collecting regions were done on HE stain slide. • The invasive ductal carcinoma with grade I-III with the Nottingham histologic grading system in ascending degree of malignancy and was grade I-III with the Black’s nuclear grading system in descending degree of malignancy.
  8. 8. Tissue Microarray Block • Recipient block were made with purified agar in 3.8 x 2.2 cm. Frames. Holes with 2mm in each size were made on the recipient blacks by core needle, and agar core was discarded. • Donor block were prepared after through evaluation of HE slides. • Cancer portions were transplanted to the recipient blocks using a 2mm core needle. • Recipient block were framed in the mold that is used to frame conventional paraffin block, and then paraffin was added to the frame.
  9. 9. • Consecutive sections in 3.5 µm thickness were cut from the recipient blocks using an adhesive-coated slide system supporting the cohesion of the 2mm array elements on the glass. (Fig 1)
  10. 10. Fig 1. A portion of tissue microarray section of breast carcinoma (H&E, 10x)
  11. 11. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) • 3.5µm thick consecutive microarray section • deparaffinized, dehydrated • Pretreatment solution • protease solution • denaturation solution • hybridization, 20 µl LSI HER2/CEP17 probe was applied, & a coverslip applied over the probe • Nuclei stained by DAPI
  12. 12. • Centromere 17 (CEP) and HER2/neu copy numbers were estimated for the predominant tumor cell population. • Hybridization signals were enumerated by the ratio of orange signals for HER2/neu to green signals for CEP im morphologically intact and nonoverlapping nuclei. • At least two times more HER2/neu signals than CEP signals in the tumor cells was considered as the criterion for HER2/neu amplification.
  13. 13. Fig2. FISH shows increasedHER2/neub gene copy number in breast cancer tissue (orange:HER2/neu, green: CEP control)
  14. 14. Chromogenic In Situ Hybridization (CISH) • 3.5 µm thick consecutive microarray section • deparaffinized and incubated in a SPOT- Light Heat pretreatment buffer • wash; 100 µl SPOT-Light Tissue Pretreatment Enzyme 37 5min℃ • dehydrated; 加 15 µl digoxigenin-labeled HER2/neu probe 後以 coverslip 蓋在 microarray slide 上
  15. 15. • Incubated 37 overnight; wash;100℃ µl CAS-Block (Zymed) FITC-sheep anti- digoxigenin (Zymed) • 100 µl HRP-goat anti-FITC (Zymed) 30-60 mins • 150 µl 3,3-diaminobenzidine tetrahydrochloride 20-30 min • microarray slides were counterstained with hematoxylin and eosin • dehydration with ethanol and xylene • HER2/neu amplification:gene copy number >4 or large gene copy cluster was seen in >50% of cancer cell nuclei
  16. 16. Fig 3. CISH with amplification of HER2/neu gene
  17. 17. Data Analysis • χ² test was used for data analysis, and correlation between the results was estimated by Spearman’s correlation coefficient (κ) • κ value ⇒1– complete agreement • κ value ⇒7.5– excellent agreement • κ value ⇒0.4-0.75– fairly good agreement • κ value ⇒<0.4– poor agreement
  18. 18. Results • HER2/neu amplification was detected in 46 cases (24.5%) by FISH and in 42 (22.9%) of 188 by CISH • Results of each method agreed with each other in 177 cases (94.1%) (Table 1) • Between the two methods, κ value was 0.838. • The results of the study indicated that efficiency of the two methods was equivalent to each other.
  19. 19. • Among the 178 invasive ductal carcinoma, HER2/neu amplification by FISH and CISH was associated with poor nuclear grade (p=.043 & .037). However, it was not associated with histologic grade. • Nuclear pleomorphism was associated with HER2/neu amplification by FISH. (p=.021). However, it was not associated with HER2/neu amplification by CISH. (p=.064). • No significant association with found between tubule formation or mitotic counts and HER2/neu amplification (Table 2 & 3)
  20. 20. Discussion • A significant correlation between CISH and FISH in the current study with high concordance rate. • High concordance seems to be partly influenced by the advantage of tissue microarray technology. • The current study indicated that tissue microarray technology was feasible for assaying gene amplification with a limited tissue volume. • Used 2mm sized needle for collecting microarray panels.(originally was developed that is as small as 0.6 mm in diameter)
  21. 21. • Heterogeneity of the breast carcinoma sometimes makes it difficult to accurately analyze the biologic properties of individual cancers, especially in antigens with heterogeneous staining patterns. • Applied a large needle of 2mm size in collecting the microarray panels to minimize the inadvertent variation in results from tumor heterogeneity. • Tissue microarray analysis had a merit: it could be performed in consecutive sections that had the same cancer tissues in the same coordinate positions as the others.
  22. 22. • A main obstacle to the popularization of FISH analysis has been the need to use special fluorescence microscopy with multi-bandpass fluorescence filters that makes it difficult for most institutes to integrate FISH in routine clinical diagnostics. • The practical superiority of CISH over FISH in the assessment of gene amplification. • CISH does not require equipment that does not already exist in routine pathologic laboratories. • another advantage is that simultaneous verification of histology can be done with CISH.
  23. 23. • CISH can be used instead of FISH in the screening of HER2/neu amplification in the primary breast carcinomas with feasibility and relative cost-effectiveness. • Prevalence of HER2/neu amplification was 22.9% by CISH and 24.5% by FISH, which well coincides with the results of other studies. • The validity of tissue microarray analysis has been shown by comparisons with whole- section analysis in breast carcinoma. • The main purpose in analyzing HER2/neu status is to provide the most effective therapeutic regimens for breast cancer patients.
  24. 24. • Recently, an interesting report performed FISH and RNA-RNA in situ hybridization for HER2/neu on the same cancer tissues. Results of that study indicated that mRNA expression was highly concordant with FISH and that most cases of immunohistochemistry positive without gene amplification in FISH were devoid of mRNA expression. • Hence, those investigators suggested that such cases were most l false positive and non-specific.
  25. 25. • Results from most studies comparing FISH and IHC have indicated that FISH was superior to all other methodologies in assessing formalin-fixed, paraffin- embedded material for HER2/neu amplification. • Data from the current study indicate that tissue microarray analysis is a feasible and reliable method for assessing HER2/neu amplification with rapidity in a large number of tissue.
  26. 26. • CISH can be a tempting alternative to FISH because of its accuracy and relative low cost. • CISH with tissue microarray technology enables high-throughput determination of HER2/neu expression profile and its abnormalities in large cohorts of breast carcinoma. • Integration of two novel technologies can provide a rapid validation of identified predictive markers in other cancer research fields.