Introduction¨  Alison Lu: Introduction to characteristics of eco-    districts¨  James Connelly: Policy, indicators and ...
OVERVIEW OF ECO-DISTRICT            CHARACTERISTICS:            WHAT DOES THE “ECO-” LABEL MEAN?Alison Lu   Fulbright Rese...
Eco-District Characteristics¨    Eco-districts: Eco-cities,      Eco-villages, Eco-parks,      Low-carbon communities¨  ...
1. High-Tech Development Parks¨  Research and Development Centers¨  Promotion of Silicon Valley-type of atmosphere¨  Pa...
DeZhou “Solar Valley” 德州 2007: 800,000 people employed in solar panel industry (1 out of 3 working-age)       2020 project...
1. High-Tech Development Parks¨    Further Questions      ¤  SiliconValley comparisons      ¤  Can every district have ...
2. Abundant Housing¨  Potential for huge                      Planned Population    populations                 1,600,000...
ChengGong 呈贡        Branch district off of KunMing          Construction began in 2003 Currently: 100,000+ uninhabited apa...
HuangBaiYu 黄柏峪William McDonough + China-US Center for        Sustainable Development      “Cradle-to-Cradle” Eco-village  ...
2. Abundant Housing¨    Further Questions      ¤  Something  that only the rich can afford or only the poor          wan...
3. Public Transportation¨  Low-carbon claims¨  Ease of mobility¨  Outside of city centers: must consider transportation...
4. Pollution Remediation and Eco-Tourism¨  Ecological aspect of urban planning¨  Remediation: Conflict between agricultu...
MeiXi Lake 梅溪湖  Designed by Kohn Pendersen Fox   Associates, developed by Gale           International              MeiXi ...
Summary¨  “Eco-” can be interpreted in a thousand different    ways.¨  Four Characteristics: thorough planning to make s...
EVALUATING ECO-CITIES:                    POLICIES INDICATORS AND                    ENERGY CONSUMPTIONJames Connelly LEED...
The Challenge¨    12th Five year Plan (by 2015):      ¤  17% Reduction GDP GHG Emissions      ¤  7% Economic Growth    ...
The Solution?¨    Eco-Cities and Low Carbon Zones      ¤  Eco-City’s generally brand new cities      ¤  Low-Carbon Zone...
National Indicator Systems¨    MoHURD “Eco-Garden City Index”      ¤  Revised 2005      ¤  Focused on urban form, ratio...
3 Factors in Energy Consumption¨    Sector energy consumption is determined by a city’s      state of industrialization  ...
3 Good Indicators         1) Proportion of energy-efficient buildings and green buildings ≥50                             ...
3-Good Indicators      2) Proportion of Green Trips ≥20% in big cities      ≥15% in medium cities           •  Transportat...
3 Good Indicators                               3) Energy consumption (ton SCE per 10,000 RMB GDP) ≤0.9                   ...
2 Poor Indicators (绿化率)1) Urban public green space per capita >12 m22) Forestation coverage in built-up area > 45%Tianjin:...
Conclusion¨  Indicators must be tailored to a city’s state of    industrialization and economic structure¨  Indicators h...
DIRECTING THE DEMOGRAPHIC                   OF THE SINO-SINGAPORE TIANJIN                   ECO-CITY (SSTEC)Cecilia Spring...
SSTEC: Background and Basic Facts                  • Development type: Local eco-city program (项目) with                  i...
SSTEC Key Performance Indicators                                                      • Complex relationship between plann...
Understanding the Eco-City Demographic¨    Importance of understanding SSTEC residents      ¤  Achieving  indicators    ...
Commercial Eco-City Housing Advertising¨    Media      ¤  Promotional  Materials      ¤  Sales Centers      ¤  Sales P...
Commercial Eco-City Housing Advertising:Sales Centers
Promotional Materials: Technology
Sales Pitches: Expanding the Green  Lifestyle Concept¨  “像垃圾车,像回收车,不会进入咱们的社区,    像蟑螂、老鼠什么的,都会有力地减少。这个    是对生态比较帮助一些。” (“G...
Promotional Materials: Green Lifestyles
Promotional Materials: Luxury
Is the Eco-City Actually a Luxury Development?                                   Housing Price Comparison (RMB/m2)35000300...
Who Lives in the Eco-City Right Now?¨    Commercial housing: 60 families (~100 people)      ¤  Retirees      ¤  Eco-Cit...
Conclusions¨    Residential behavior determines the outcomes of      several key indicators      ¤  Implications for liv...
URBAN FORM AND THE              ENVIRONMENT:              HOW CHINA’S ECO-CITIES              STACK UPGavin Lohry   MPA Ca...
What Urban Form has the leastInherent impact on the Environment?•  As Countries develop buildingand transportation emissio...
Density is Important (What do we know about Density)¨    Reduces Transport Emissions      ¤    Makes public transport mo...
Spatial Form is Important                Path #1                Walking Distance=0.6km 8.4min                Actual Distan...
Comparison of Chinese Urban Areas(All Images are set to the same scale)      Tangshan Bay Eco-city                  Hong K...
New Songdo- South Korea¨    High density mixed use city scale      development- Current pop+35,000¨    LEED Neighborhood...
Comparison- New Songdo and Tianjin Eco-cityTianjin Eco-city¨  Large blocks (2 to 4 time the size)¨  Fenced off communiti...
Conclusion¨  Density and Spatial Form are both important and    work best together¨  Neighborhoods need to be built for ...
Three Takeways1.    ‘Eco’ has many connotations in China that may      differ from Western conceptions of the term (e.g.  ...
For More Information: ecocitynotes.com
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Ecocitynotes.com: Critical Analysis of Eco-Cities in China, Ecocitynotes Team (May 2012)

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All but 2 of China's 278 cities with municipal status have proposed low-carbon or eco-city targets, and over half have already begun construction to achieve these goals. However, the term "eco-city" is not clearly defined in China, and it is uncertain how many of these projects are living up to their hype. Eco-City Notes, is an online multimedia web platform that aims to provide a unique perspective on eco-city development on the ground in China. Our interdisciplinary analysis draws from the fields of architecture, international development, environmentalism, anthropology, and engineering to understand the impact of the explosive growth and development of eco-cities in China. This presentation highlights our latest research on the complex and evolving eco-city concept in China.

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Ecocitynotes.com: Critical Analysis of Eco-Cities in China, Ecocitynotes Team (May 2012)

  1. 1. Introduction¨  Alison Lu: Introduction to characteristics of eco- districts¨  James Connelly: Policy, indicators and energy consumption¨  Cecilia Springer: Case study of Sino-Singaporean Tianjin Eco-City and residential demographic¨  Gavin Lohry: Urban form and the environment: how China’s eco-cities stack up
  2. 2. OVERVIEW OF ECO-DISTRICT CHARACTERISTICS: WHAT DOES THE “ECO-” LABEL MEAN?Alison Lu Fulbright Research Scholar, Tsinghua University
  3. 3. Eco-District Characteristics¨  Eco-districts: Eco-cities, Eco-villages, Eco-parks, Low-carbon communities¨  Sustainable development 1.  High-Tech Development Parks 2.  Abundant Housing 3.  Public Transportation Systems 4.  Pollution Remediation and Eco-Tourism
  4. 4. 1. High-Tech Development Parks¨  Research and Development Centers¨  Promotion of Silicon Valley-type of atmosphere¨  Partnerships with other countries: Attraction of foreign investment in China
  5. 5. DeZhou “Solar Valley” 德州 2007: 800,000 people employed in solar panel industry (1 out of 3 working-age) 2020 projection: 1,500,000 Home to Himin Group, world’s largest solar hot water heater manufacturerThe Micro Emission Sun-Moon Mansion 50,000 square feet of solar paneling Hotel, research facilities, offices, exhibition areas
  6. 6. 1. High-Tech Development Parks¨  Further Questions ¤  SiliconValley comparisons ¤  Can every district have the same success? ¤  Financial support must be given as an incentive
  7. 7. 2. Abundant Housing¨  Potential for huge Planned Population populations 1,600,000 1,400,000 1,200,000¨  Empty Housing: 1,000,000 800,000 ¤  Misalignment of 600,000 interests between 400,000 200,000 citizens, government, 0 city planners, and designers
  8. 8. ChengGong 呈贡 Branch district off of KunMing Construction began in 2003 Currently: 100,000+ uninhabited apartments Empty government buildings, shopping malls, offices, etc. New effort in 2010: Calthorpe Associates to improve sustainability
  9. 9. HuangBaiYu 黄柏峪William McDonough + China-US Center for Sustainable Development “Cradle-to-Cradle” Eco-village Since 2006: 42 out of 400 houses built Designs were not fit for farming lifestyle Too expensive .
  10. 10. 2. Abundant Housing¨  Further Questions ¤  Something that only the rich can afford or only the poor want to move into? ¤  How to incentivize people to move out of cities? n  Is this even a good idea in the first place?
  11. 11. 3. Public Transportation¨  Low-carbon claims¨  Ease of mobility¨  Outside of city centers: must consider transportation of people and goods in and out of districts¨  Hard to predict success in planning stages
  12. 12. 4. Pollution Remediation and Eco-Tourism¨  Ecological aspect of urban planning¨  Remediation: Conflict between agricultural land and land for development¨  Eco-Tourism
  13. 13. MeiXi Lake 梅溪湖 Designed by Kohn Pendersen Fox Associates, developed by Gale International MeiXi lake: Tourism and transportation: boat transport linkages . “creates conditions for edge gardensand makes places for cultural venues.” Man-made lake
  14. 14. Summary¨  “Eco-” can be interpreted in a thousand different ways.¨  Four Characteristics: thorough planning to make sure that each characteristic is developed in the way that they were intended¨  The “eco-“ label is something that must be earned, and not given automatically.
  15. 15. EVALUATING ECO-CITIES: POLICIES INDICATORS AND ENERGY CONSUMPTIONJames Connelly LEED AP, Fulbright Research Scholar, Tsinghua University
  16. 16. The Challenge¨  12th Five year Plan (by 2015): ¤  17% Reduction GDP GHG Emissions ¤  7% Economic Growth ¤  53% Urbanization Rate n  More than 100 million to urban residents n  Urban residents consume 3.5 – 4 times more energy than rural ¤  Compete and win in the green tech race
  17. 17. The Solution?¨  Eco-Cities and Low Carbon Zones ¤  Eco-City’s generally brand new cities ¤  Low-Carbon Zones for existing cities ¤  All but 2 of China 287 municipalities have established eco-city or low carbon goals, half have begun construction¨  National Green Building Action Plan (April, 2012) ¤  New construction 30% green buildings by 2020 ¤  45 Yuan for 2-Star, 80 for 3-Star (20% extra cost)
  18. 18. National Indicator Systems¨  MoHURD “Eco-Garden City Index” ¤  Revised 2005 ¤  Focused on urban form, ratio of green spaces, green buildings, infrastructure¨  MEP “Indices for Eco-County, Eco-City and Eco-Province” ¤  Revised 2008 ¤  Focus on overall environmental performance: energy intensity and emissions per unit of GDP¨  Local regulation draw from national models but are determined by the local governments ¤  Large degree of variation => difficult to compare
  19. 19. 3 Factors in Energy Consumption¨  Sector energy consumption is determined by a city’s state of industrialization Worldwide Sector Energy Consumption (2005)
  20. 20. 3 Good Indicators 1) Proportion of energy-efficient buildings and green buildings ≥50 3-Star Building Energy Consumption 3-Star Building Energy Consumption US CBECS Average 287  300.0 24% Savings  250.0 LEED Average 217 Energy Usage Intensity (kwh/m2a) 200.0 150.0 China Large Public Building Average 114  30% 100.0 Savings  3-Star Average 79.4  50.0 0.0 Shanghai Building Shandong Shanghai Power Plant Shangai Eco-Home Technology Institute Shanghai Expo Shenzhen Building Transportation and Chimney World Expo Best Green Engineering Center Technology Tower College Library Renovation (City Hall) Practices Area Research Center 40.0 38.0 146.4 164.6 45.7 44.4
  21. 21. 3-Good Indicators 2) Proportion of Green Trips ≥20% in big cities ≥15% in medium cities •  Transportation energy rises as urban areas develop and GDP increases •  Energy determined by vehicle use •  Vehicle use related to density/urban form •  Urban form is determined before indicators can be measuredTianjin Eco-City~110 p/ha
  22. 22. 3 Good Indicators 3) Energy consumption (ton SCE per 10,000 RMB GDP) ≤0.9 12 FYP GDP V Energy Intensity (planned and actual) 45   1.5   GDP  Energy  Intensity  (Tce/ 40   1.4  GDP  (2005  price  trillion)   35   1.3   10,000  RMB)     30   1.2   Planned  GDP     25   1.1   Actual  GDP     20   1   15   0.9   Planned  Energy  Intensity   10   0.8   ActualEnergy  Intensity   5   0.7   0   0.6   2005   2006   2007   2008   2009   2010   2011   2012   2013   2014   2015   Energy Intensity of Chinese Provinces and Municipalities (2006) 4.5GDP Energy Intensiity (Tsce/ 4 50% Cut (1.42) 3.5 10,000 RMB) 3 2.5 2 40% Cut (.90) 1.5 30% Cut (.65) 12th FYP 1 Goal (.88) 0.5 0 2015
  23. 23. 2 Poor Indicators (绿化率)1) Urban public green space per capita >12 m22) Forestation coverage in built-up area > 45%Tianjin: Decreased Density & Qingdao: Too many trees!Landscape not adapted to Climate
  24. 24. Conclusion¨  Indicators must be tailored to a city’s state of industrialization and economic structure¨  Indicators have both good and bad impacts¨  Definitions must be clear and measureable¨  More useful as evaluative and comparative metrics than design blueprints
  25. 25. DIRECTING THE DEMOGRAPHIC OF THE SINO-SINGAPORE TIANJIN ECO-CITY (SSTEC)Cecilia Springer Fulbright Research Scholar, Nankai University
  26. 26. SSTEC: Background and Basic Facts • Development type: Local eco-city program (项目) with international collaboration • Estimated construction duration: 2008-2020 • Projected population: 350,000 • Projected total area: 30 km2 • Location: 40 km east of Tianjin city center
  27. 27. SSTEC Key Performance Indicators • Complex relationship between planning and operation that partially depends on residents’ behavior • Residents’ behavior affects key performance indicators, both directly and indirectly Qualitative Indicators KPI Area KPI Coordinated Natural Ecological health and safety, green Integrated Regional Coordination Ecology consumption, low carbon operation Coordinated Regional Advance innovative policies, coordinate Policies anti-pollution policies Social and Cultural Give prominence to preserving the Coordination character of local wetlands and culture through planning and design Regional Coordinated Supplement the recycling economy Economy
  28. 28. Understanding the Eco-City Demographic¨  Importance of understanding SSTEC residents ¤  Achieving indicators ¤  Building a diverse population¨  Housing ¤  Commercial real estate (80%) ¤  Public housing (20%)
  29. 29. Commercial Eco-City Housing Advertising¨  Media ¤  Promotional Materials ¤  Sales Centers ¤  Sales Pitches¨  Appeals ¤  Technology ¤  Green Lifestyle ¤  Luxury
  30. 30. Commercial Eco-City Housing Advertising:Sales Centers
  31. 31. Promotional Materials: Technology
  32. 32. Sales Pitches: Expanding the Green Lifestyle Concept¨  “像垃圾车,像回收车,不会进入咱们的社区, 像蟑螂、老鼠什么的,都会有力地减少。这个 是对生态比较帮助一些。” (“Garbage trucks, recycling trucks won’t need to enter our community, cockroaches, mice, and so on will be fully eliminated. This helps out the ecology. ”)¨  “在中国别的小区不会派追求绿化。这边的话, 就必须得达到一个绿化的保证,有舒适度的”¨  (“Other communities in China wouldn’t emphasize this green space. Here, green space security must be achieved, it’s a level of comfort”)
  33. 33. Promotional Materials: Green Lifestyles
  34. 34. Promotional Materials: Luxury
  35. 35. Is the Eco-City Actually a Luxury Development? Housing Price Comparison (RMB/m2)350003000025000200001500010000 5000 0 Average Eco- Average Eco- Average Eco- Farglory Public Housing in Luxury Housing Luxury Housing Average Housing City Low Rise City High Rise City Housing (Highest-end the Eco-City in TBNA/TEDA in Tianjin City Price in Chinas (Intl Company) (Intl Company) (Domestic Eco-City real Center Top 10 Cities Company) estate)
  36. 36. Who Lives in the Eco-City Right Now?¨  Commercial housing: 60 families (~100 people) ¤  Retirees ¤  Eco-City workers ¤  TBNA/TEDA workers¨  Public housing: ~50 applicants for public housing lottery system ¤  Eco-Cityworkers ¤  Displaced former residents¨  Laborers
  37. 37. Conclusions¨  Residential behavior determines the outcomes of several key indicators ¤  Implications for liveability of the Eco-City ¤  City diversity ¤  Will residents adhere to green standards?¨  Indicators will be assessed in 2013
  38. 38. URBAN FORM AND THE ENVIRONMENT: HOW CHINA’S ECO-CITIES STACK UPGavin Lohry MPA Candidate, International Development, Tsinghua University
  39. 39. What Urban Form has the leastInherent impact on the Environment?•  As Countries develop buildingand transportation emissionbecome more important (largerpercent of overall emissions)•  Hong Kong’s per capita levelof building and transportationemissions are lower than majorChinese cities and just above theChinese National•  What does Hong Kong doright?
  40. 40. Density is Important (What do we know about Density)¨  Reduces Transport Emissions ¤  Makes public transport more cost effective and convenient ¤  Increased number of services within walking/biking distance ¤  Makes driving less convenient and more expensive¨  Building Emissions ¤  Decreases building energy use through shared walls ¤  Reduces floor space and increases communal space¨  Other Effects ¤  Increases infrastructure efficiencies and service efficiencies ¤  Reduces the total amount of land used (more land for farms & forests)¨  Negative Effects ¤  Pollution is concentrated ¤  Heat Island effect, Peak Flow Volume increase, etc.
  41. 41. Spatial Form is Important Path #1 Walking Distance=0.6km 8.4min Actual Distance= 0.15km Path #2 Walking Distance= 1.1km 15.3minNYC Manhattan Actual Distance= 0.55km East Side Wangjing Path #1 Walking Distance=0.3km 4.3min Beijing Actual Distance= 0.15km Path #2 Walking Distance= 0.7km 10min Actual Distance= 0.55km
  42. 42. Comparison of Chinese Urban Areas(All Images are set to the same scale) Tangshan Bay Eco-city Hong Kong Island Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city Shanghai Nanjing Road Area
  43. 43. New Songdo- South Korea¨  High density mixed use city scale development- Current pop+35,000¨  LEED Neighborhood Development project- pedestrian & cyclist friendly¨  Bike-Transit Oriented Development with small block sizes
  44. 44. Comparison- New Songdo and Tianjin Eco-cityTianjin Eco-city¨  Large blocks (2 to 4 time the size)¨  Fenced off communities¨  Two and three lane divided roads¨  Large separated bike and walking lanes New Songdo, South Korea Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city Neighborhood Through Path 470m 170m 200m Fenced Off Blocks 350m No Through Traffic 350m
  45. 45. Conclusion¨  Density and Spatial Form are both important and work best together¨  Neighborhoods need to be built for pedestrians and cyclists not with highways for cars¨  It is easier to add new technologies to existing developments for environmental improvements than to change a developments Density and Urban form
  46. 46. Three Takeways1.  ‘Eco’ has many connotations in China that may differ from Western conceptions of the term (e.g. luxury, low density)2.  Current eco-city developments face challenges in achieving their green goals due to their urban form3.  China is a testing a new green urban model in eco-city ‘laboratories’ across the country
  47. 47. For More Information: ecocitynotes.com

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