Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Joints of the limbs


Published on

A summary of the joints of the body

Published in: Health & Medicine

Joints of the limbs

  1. 1. Joints of the Limbs
  2. 2. Learning outcomes <ul><li>Describe the type of joint </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the articular surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the capsule and its attachment </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the synovial membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the arrangement of ligaments ( extra-capsular & intra-capsular) </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the movement and name the muscles producing movements </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the anatomical basis of common problems associated with the joint </li></ul>
  3. 3. Shoulder ( glenohumeral) joint <ul><li>Synovial joint </li></ul><ul><li>Ball & socket </li></ul><ul><li>Multi - axial </li></ul>Articular surfaces Glenoid fossa of scapula Head of the humerus Glenoid labrum ( fibro-cartilagenous rim) Increase the depth Only 1/3 of the humeral head is in contact with the glenoid fossa
  4. 4. Joint capsule Margin of the glenoid fossa ( outside the labrum) Anatomical neck of the humerus Synovial membrane lines the capsule, but not the articular surfaces
  5. 5. Ligaments Three bands of thickening of the anterior part of the capsule Superior, middle & inferior gleno-humeral ligaments Coraco-humeral ligament from the coracoid process to the anatomical neck of humerus Long head of biceps tendon is intra-capsular and comes out beneath the transverse humeral ligament
  6. 6. Musculo-tendinous rotator cuff <ul><li>Subscapularis </li></ul><ul><li>Supraspinatus </li></ul><ul><li>Infraspinatus </li></ul><ul><li>Teres minor </li></ul>No rotator cuff Inferior dislocations are commoner
  7. 7. Dislocation of the shoulder <ul><li>Dislocated humeral head can press on </li></ul><ul><li>the axillary nerve </li></ul><ul><li>Test for axillary nerve function in </li></ul><ul><li>dislocation of the shoulder </li></ul>
  8. 8. Lateral rotation Infraspinatus Teres minor Movement Muscles Flexion Pectoralis major Deltoid anterior fibers Extension Deltoid posterior fibers Teres major Abduction Suprspinatus Deltoid middle fibers Adduction Deltoid anterior & posterior fibers Pectoralis major Teres major Lattisimus dorsi Medial rotation Deltoid anterior fibers Teres major Lattisimus dorsi
  9. 9. Elbow joint <ul><li>Synovial joint </li></ul><ul><li>Hinge joint </li></ul><ul><li>uni-axial </li></ul>Articular surfaces Trochlea of humerus Capitulum of humerus Trochlear notch of ulna Upper surface of the head of radius Proximally capsule is attached to the lower end of humerus Distally to the trochlear notch of the ulna & the annular ligament of the head of radius
  10. 10. Ligaments <ul><li>Ulnar collateral ligament </li></ul><ul><li>( from medial epicondyle to trochlear notch) </li></ul><ul><li>Radial collateral ligament </li></ul><ul><li>( from lateral epicondyle to annular ligament) </li></ul>Ulna nerve runs posterior to the ulnar collateral ligament and it is palpable at this location
  11. 11. Pronation & supination are NOT movements of the elbow joint Muscles Movements Flexion Biceps & brachialis Extension Triceps
  12. 12. Dislocation of the elbow <ul><li>Posterior dislocation commoner </li></ul><ul><li>Ulnar nerve may be damaged in posterior dislocation </li></ul>
  13. 13. Wrist ( radio-carpal) joint <ul><li>Synovial joint </li></ul><ul><li>ellipsoid </li></ul><ul><li>Bi - axial </li></ul>Articular surfaces <ul><li>Distal articular </li></ul><ul><li>surface of radius </li></ul><ul><li>Articular disc of </li></ul><ul><li>inferior radio-ulnar joint </li></ul>Scaphoid, lunate & triquetram
  14. 14. Joint capsule Peripheral margin of the radius and articular disc of the inferior radio-ulnar joint Peripheral margins of the scaphoid, lunate & triquetram Head of the ulnar is NOT a component of the wrist joint
  15. 15. Ligaments Palmar & dorsal radio-carpal ligaments are thickenings of the capsule <ul><li>Radial collateral ligament ( styloid process of radius to scaphoid and </li></ul><ul><li>trapezium </li></ul><ul><li>Ulnar collateral ligament ( ulnar styloid process to triqutram & </li></ul><ul><li>pisiform) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Midcarpal joint <ul><li>Synovial joint </li></ul><ul><li>Plane joints </li></ul>Articular surfaces <ul><li>Proximal: Scaphoid, lunate & triquetram </li></ul>Distal: trapezium, trapezoid, capitate & hamate
  17. 17. Movements of the wrist Movement Joint Muscle Flexion Midcarpal Flexor carpi ulnaris, Flexor carpi radialis Extension Radio-carpal Extensor carpi radialis longus & brevis, Extensor carpi ulnaris Adduction Radio-carpal Flexor carpi ulnaris & extensor carpi ulnaris Abduction Midcarpal Flexor carpi radialis & extensor carpi radialis
  18. 18. 1 st carpometacarpal joint <ul><li>Synovial joint </li></ul><ul><li>Saddle </li></ul><ul><li>Multi - axial </li></ul>Articular surfaces Trapezium Base of 1 st metacarpal bone Movements Muscles Flexion Flexor pollicis brevis & longus Extension Extensor pollicis brevis & longus Abduction Abductor pollicis longus & brevis Adduction Adductor pollicis Opposition Opponens pollicis
  19. 19. Metacarpo - phalangeal joints <ul><li>Synovial joint </li></ul><ul><li>Ellipsoid </li></ul>Articular surfaces Head of metacarpal Base of proximal phalanx 1 st MP joint Flexion: Flexor pollicis longus Extension: Extensor pollicis longus & brevis Movements Muscles Flexion Lumbricals Extension Extensor digitorum Abduction Dorsal interossei Adduction Palmar interossei
  20. 20. Inter-phalangeal joints <ul><li>Synovial joint </li></ul><ul><li>Hinge </li></ul><ul><li>Uni-axial </li></ul>IP joint: Thumb Flexion: Flexor pollicis longus Extension: Extensor pollicis longus Thumb: Inter-phalngeal joint (IP) Other fingers: Proxiaml & distal inter-phalangeal joints (PIP & DIP) Movements Joint Muscles Flexion PIP Flexor digitorum superficialis & profundus DIP Flexor digitorum profundus Extension PIP Lumbricals DIP Extensor digitorum
  21. 21. Hip joint <ul><li>Synovial joint </li></ul><ul><li>Ball & socket </li></ul><ul><li>Multi - axial </li></ul>Articular surfaces Lunate surface of the acetabulum Head of the femur acetabular labrum ( fibro-cartilagenous rim) Increase the depth Non articular area of the actebular fossa contains fat ( Haversian fat)
  22. 22. Joint capsule Margin of the actabular fossa ( outside the labrum) Anteriorly: intertrochanteric line Posterirorly: middle of the neck Synovial membrane lines the capsule, but not the articular surfaces
  23. 23. Ligaments <ul><li>Ilio-femoral ligament </li></ul><ul><li>Pubo-femoral ligament </li></ul><ul><li>Ischio-femoral ligament </li></ul>Ilio-femoral ligament is the strongest of the three ligaments and prevents anterior dislocation of the joint
  24. 24. Ligaments <ul><li>Ligament of the head of the femur </li></ul>Blood vessels reach the head of the femur along ligament of the head of the femur & retinacular fibers From the inferior margin of the acetabulum to the fovea of the head of the femur Joint capsule is reflected along the neck of the femur as retinacular fibers
  25. 25. Movement Muscles Flexion Ilio-psoas Extension Gluteus maximus Adduction Adductor longus, brevis & magnus Abduction Gluteus mediaus & minimus Medial rotation Ilio-psoas, pectineus Lateral rotation Piriformis, obturator internus , obturator externus, gemmeli & quadratus femoris
  26. 26. Dislocation of the hip <ul><li>Posterior dislocation commoner </li></ul><ul><li>Dislocated femoral head can fracture acetabular lip & damage the sciatic nerve </li></ul>Shenton’s line
  27. 27. Knee joint <ul><li>Synovial joint </li></ul><ul><li>Modified hinge </li></ul>Articular surfaces <ul><li>Medial & lateral condyles of femur </li></ul>Medial & lateral condyles of tibia Articular surface of patella
  28. 28. Joint capsule Above the condyles of the femur Articular margins of the tibial condyles
  29. 29. Ligaments <ul><li>Tibial collateral Ligament </li></ul><ul><li>Fibular collateral ligament </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior cruciate ligament: prevents forward displacement of tibial condyles </li></ul><ul><li>Posterior cruciate ligament: prevents backward displacement of tibial condyles </li></ul>Movements Muscles Flexion Semimembranosus, semitendinosus, biceps femoris Extension Quadreceps femoris
  30. 30. Ankle joint <ul><li>Synovial joint </li></ul><ul><li>Modified hinge </li></ul><ul><li>Uni-axial </li></ul>Articular surfaces <ul><li>Inferior surface of tibia </li></ul><ul><li>Medial malleolus of tibia </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral malleolus of </li></ul><ul><li>fibula </li></ul><ul><li>Upper surface of body of the talus </li></ul><ul><li>Medail surface of talus </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral surface of talus </li></ul>Tibio-fibular mortise Trochlea tali
  31. 31. Ligaments <ul><li>Deltod ligament ( medial) </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior & posterior talo-fibular ligaments </li></ul><ul><li>Calcaneo-fibular ligament </li></ul>Movements Muscles Dorsi flexion Tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus, extensor hallucis longus Plantar flexion Gastrocnemius & soleus ( tendo-calcaneus)
  32. 32. <ul><li>Mid-tarsal joints </li></ul><ul><li>Talo-calcaneo-navicular joint </li></ul><ul><li>Calcaneo-cuboid joint </li></ul><ul><li>Subtalar joint </li></ul><ul><li>Movements: </li></ul><ul><li>Inversion ( Tibialis anterior & posterior </li></ul><ul><li>Eversion ( Peroneus muscles) </li></ul>Metatarso phalangeal joints ( flexion, extension, abduction & adduction) Interphalangeal joints ( flexion & extension)