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The first foot
On moon
Human Foot performs
- supports weight of body
- serves as lever to propel
body in walking & running
Child starts walking w...
These functions are carried out by
1. Foot skeleton made of series of small bones
- Foot acts as a segmented lever with mu...
These functions are carried out by
2. Long Flexors and Intrinsic muscles of foot act on
forepart of foot and assist propul...
Arches of foot
1. Longitudinal
2. Transverse
Concavity of both arches directed
to the plantar surface
Functions of arches
...
Body weight
120 pounds
Rt. Foot - Talus
60 pounds
Lt. Foot - Talus
60 pounds
Rt. Calcaneus
30 pounds
Heads of
5 Meta tarsa...
Functions of arches
2. Arched foot acts as a segmented lever
Fore part of foot short muscles and long flexors
assist gastr...
Functions of arches
3. Plantar concavity protects plantar vessels and nerves
from compression
Flat foot – compression lead...
Functions of arches
4. Arched foot is dynamic and pliable
- When foot is on the ground arch flattens
- Off the ground rest...
Functions of arches
5. Invertors lift foot on medial side shifts weight to lat.border
Tibialis anterior, Tibialis posterio...
Longitudinal arch
Medial and lateral
Transverse
Medial Longitudinal arch
Medial Longitudinal arch
Talus
Tibia
CalcaneusSpring Lig.
Navicular
Med.Cun.
1st
Met.Tar.
Sesam.Bone
Medial Longitudinal arch
Summit of arch
Art. Surf.Talus
Post.pillar
Med.Tub.Calcaneus
Ant.pillar
Heads of 1st
to 3rd
Met.T...
The medial longitudinal arch
This arch is very tall
(which is why the medial side of the foot is missing
from a footprint ...
Lateral Longitudinal arch
Post.pillar
Med.Tub.Calcaneus
Ant.pillar
Heads of 4th
& 5th
Met.tar.
Summit of arch
Sub Talar Jo...
Lateral Longitudinal arch
5th
Metatarsal
Cuboid
Talus
Calcaneus
Peroneus longus
Suspension
The lateral longitudinal arch
The arch is flat and contains relatively less no. of bones
Hence more rigid
Bears the body w...
The medial and lateral longitudinal arches of the foot
Transverse arch
When med. Borders of both feet are approximated a
complete transverse arch is formed
Each foot represents ...
Transverse arch
Factors maintaining arches of foot
Med. Long. Arch:
1 Shape of bones
wedge shape with thin edge downwards
Talus “key stone...
Factors maintaining arches of foot
Lat. Long. Arch:
1 Calcaneal angle of cuboid
supports ant lower art.surf. of calcaneus
...
Factors maintaining arches of foot
Transverse Arch:
1 Shape of bones
Wedge shaped 3 cuneiforms
Bases of middle 3 metatarsa...
Deformities of the foot
1 Pes planus – Flat foot
2 Pes Cavus – High arched foot
Exaggeration of long. Arch
Toes dorsiflexe...
Deformities of the foot
Foot print
(Normal)
Flat foott
(Pes planus)
Highly arched foot
(Pes cavus)
Deformities of the foot
March Foot
Neck of intermediate metatarsals undergo
decalcification
Minor injury may lead to patho...
Deformities of the foot
Hallux vulgus
Great toe adducted towards midline
1st
Metatarsal abducted
wearing of narrow pointed...
Arches of foot
Arches of foot
Arches of foot
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Arches of foot

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arches of foot structure and function

Arches of foot

  1. 1. The first foot On moon
  2. 2. Human Foot performs - supports weight of body - serves as lever to propel body in walking & running Child starts walking without support at 18 months age Myelination of pyramidal tracts begin Arches begin to get shape
  3. 3. These functions are carried out by 1. Foot skeleton made of series of small bones - Foot acts as a segmented lever with multiple joints thus becomes pliable and adapts to uneven surfaces 2. Long Flexors and Intrinsic muscles of foot act on forepart of foot and assist propulsive action of gastrocnemius and soleus
  4. 4. These functions are carried out by 2. Long Flexors and Intrinsic muscles of foot act on forepart of foot and assist propulsive action of gastrocnemius and soleus
  5. 5. Arches of foot 1. Longitudinal 2. Transverse Concavity of both arches directed to the plantar surface Functions of arches 1. Proportional distribution of weight
  6. 6. Body weight 120 pounds Rt. Foot - Talus 60 pounds Lt. Foot - Talus 60 pounds Rt. Calcaneus 30 pounds Heads of 5 Meta tarsals 30 pounds 6 Bearing points 4 metatarsals + 2 sesmaoids under hallux Each 5 founds 1 2 3 4 5 6
  7. 7. Functions of arches 2. Arched foot acts as a segmented lever Fore part of foot short muscles and long flexors assist gastrocnemius and soleus helps in take off of fore part from ground Lumbricals prevent buckling from contraction of Flex. Dig. Longus
  8. 8. Functions of arches 3. Plantar concavity protects plantar vessels and nerves from compression Flat foot – compression leads to Metatarsalgia
  9. 9. Functions of arches 4. Arched foot is dynamic and pliable - When foot is on the ground arch flattens - Off the ground restores original contour Acts like a spring board
  10. 10. Functions of arches 5. Invertors lift foot on medial side shifts weight to lat.border Tibialis anterior, Tibialis posterior Evertors lift foot on lateral side shift weight to med. Border Peroneus longus, brevis assisted by Per. Tertius LATERALMEDIAL Tib.Posterior Tib.Anterior Per.Longus Per.Brevis Per.Tertius
  11. 11. Longitudinal arch Medial and lateral Transverse Medial Longitudinal arch
  12. 12. Medial Longitudinal arch Talus Tibia CalcaneusSpring Lig. Navicular Med.Cun. 1st Met.Tar. Sesam.Bone
  13. 13. Medial Longitudinal arch Summit of arch Art. Surf.Talus Post.pillar Med.Tub.Calcaneus Ant.pillar Heads of 1st to 3rd Met.Tar Vulnerable part Head of Talus “Key stone”
  14. 14. The medial longitudinal arch This arch is very tall (which is why the medial side of the foot is missing from a footprint ) and is extremely resilient due to its large number of component bones.
  15. 15. Lateral Longitudinal arch Post.pillar Med.Tub.Calcaneus Ant.pillar Heads of 4th & 5th Met.tar. Summit of arch Sub Talar Joint Vulnerable part Calcaneo-cuboid jnt.
  16. 16. Lateral Longitudinal arch 5th Metatarsal Cuboid Talus Calcaneus Peroneus longus Suspension
  17. 17. The lateral longitudinal arch The arch is flat and contains relatively less no. of bones Hence more rigid Bears the body weight before the medial arch comes into play Note the foot print
  18. 18. The medial and lateral longitudinal arches of the foot
  19. 19. Transverse arch When med. Borders of both feet are approximated a complete transverse arch is formed Each foot represents a half dome Made of prox. By 3 cuneiforms and cuboid Distally bases of 5 metatarsals
  20. 20. Transverse arch
  21. 21. Factors maintaining arches of foot Med. Long. Arch: 1 Shape of bones wedge shape with thin edge downwards Talus “key stone” rests on concave art.surface of navicular and on sustentaculum tali of calcaneus 2 Intersegmental tiers - like staples Plantar ligs. Spring Lig. (supported from below by Tib.Post.) permanent stretch of spr.lig. Produces flat foot. 3. Factors acting as tie beams Plantar aponeurosis, Abd.Hallucis, Med.part of Flex.dig.brevis, Tendon of Flex.Hal.Longus, Med.part of tendon of Flex.dig.longus, Flex.hal.brevis 4. Suspending arch from above Tendon of Tib.anterior, Sup.fibres of Delt.Lig. Tend. Of Tib.Post.
  22. 22. Factors maintaining arches of foot Lat. Long. Arch: 1 Calcaneal angle of cuboid supports ant lower art.surf. of calcaneus – upward tilt of long axis of calcaneus 2 Intersegmental tiers - like staples Long and short plantar ligs. 3. Factors acting as tie beams Plantar aponeurosis, Abd.dig.minimi, Lat.part of Flex.dig.brevis, Lat.part of tendon of Flex.dig.longus, Flex.dig.min.brevis 4. Suspending arch from above Tendon of Per.brevis and tertius exert sling action Peroneus longus – long course below foot - sustentacular action
  23. 23. Factors maintaining arches of foot Transverse Arch: 1 Shape of bones Wedge shaped 3 cuneiforms Bases of middle 3 metatarsals accentuate arch 2 Intersegmental tiers - like staples Deep transverse ligs, other intrinsic plantar ligs. Dorsal interossei, Oblique and transverse heads of add. hallucis 3. Factors acting as tie beams Tendons of per. Longus and Tib. Posterior 4. Acting from above Per. Longus and tertius on lat. Side Tib.anterior on med. Side Factors which maintain long. Arches also maintain Trans.arch.
  24. 24. Deformities of the foot 1 Pes planus – Flat foot 2 Pes Cavus – High arched foot Exaggeration of long. Arch Toes dorsiflexed at metatarso-phalang. Joints plantarflexed at inter-phalang. Joints - Claw foot 3. Club Foot – Talipes – congenital or acquired a. Talipes equinus – Toes dorsiflexed and directed to ground similar to horse b. Talipes calcaneus – Heel remains on ground toes are upturned c. Talipes varus – Foot fixed in inversion and adduction d. Foot fixed in eversion and abduction
  25. 25. Deformities of the foot Foot print (Normal) Flat foott (Pes planus) Highly arched foot (Pes cavus)
  26. 26. Deformities of the foot March Foot Neck of intermediate metatarsals undergo decalcification Minor injury may lead to pathological fracture Commonly observed in soldiers prolonged walk after prolonged sedentary rest
  27. 27. Deformities of the foot Hallux vulgus Great toe adducted towards midline 1st Metatarsal abducted wearing of narrow pointed shoes results in undue prominence of medial part of metatarsal head and a bunion may develop

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