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Ppt slides anatomy

  1. 1. Anatomy Review – Muscles Presented by: Jon Chan
  2. 2. Muscles of the Neck Sternocleidomastoid (SCM) › O: sternal head – top of manubrium; clavicular head – clavicle (medial 1/3) › I: mastoid process & occipital bone › A: unilaterally – lateral flexion of the head to the same side, rotation of the head to the opposite side; bilaterally – flexion of the head
  3. 3. Muscles of the Scapula 1. 2. 3. 4. Serratus Anterior Trapezius (Upper, Middle, Lower) Levator Scapulae Rhomboid (Major / Minor)
  4. 4. Muscles of the Scapula • Serratus Anterior › O: Anterolateral Superior Borders of ribs 1-8 › I: Medial border of scapula (Anterior Surface) › A: protraction and upward rotation of scapula
  5. 5. Muscles of the Scapula Trapezius (upper fibers) › O: occipital protuberance, spinous process of C1 to C7, ligamentum nuchae › I: Lateral 1/3 of the clavicle › A: Scapula elevation and upward rotation Trapezius (middle fibers) › O: spinous process of T1 to T5 › I: spine of scapula, acromion process (medial border) › A: scapula retraction Trapezius (lower fibers) › O: spinous process of T6 to T12 › I: medial portion of spine of scapula › A: Scapula depression, retraction and upward rotation
  6. 6. Muscles of the Scapula Levator Scapulae › O: transverse process of C1 to C4 › I: medial superior angle of scapula › A: scapulae elevation and downward rotation Rhomboid Minor › O: spinous process of C7 and T1 › I: medial border of scapula, superior to spine of scapula › A: retraction and elevation of the scapula, aids in downward rotation of the scapula Rhomboid Major › O: spinous process of T2 to T5 › I: medial border of scapula, inferior to spine of scapula › A: scapula retraction, elevation, downward rotation
  7. 7. Muscles of the Shoulder 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Deltoid (anterior/middle/posterior) Latissmus Dorsi Teres Major Pectoralis Major (Sternal / Clavicular heads) Pectoralis Minor
  8. 8. Muscles of the Shoulder Deltoid – Anterior › O: Anterolateral 1/3 of clavicle › I: deltoid tuberosity › A: shoulder flexion, internal rotation, and horizontal adduction Deltoid – Middle › O: acromion process › I: deltoid tuberosity › A: Shoulder abduction Deltoid – Posterior › O: spine of scapula › I: deltoid tuberosity › A: Shoulder abduction, extension, horizontal abduction and external rotation
  9. 9. Muscles of the Shoulder Latissmus Dorsi › O: Thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest, 9-12 ribs, inferior angle of scapula › I: floor of biciptial groove of humerus › A: shoulder extension, adduction and internal rotation Teres Major › O: inferior angle, inferior 1/3 lateral border of scapula › I: medial lip of the bicipital groove of humerus › A: shoulder extension, adduction and internal rotation
  10. 10. Teres Major
  11. 11. Muscles of the Shoulder Pectoralis Major – Sternal portion › O: sternum (anterior surface) and rib 1 - 7 › I: lateral lip of the bicipital groove of the humerus › A: Shoulder adduction & internal rotation (both heads) Sternocostal portion: shoulder Extension (from a flexed position) Pectoralis Major – Clavicular portion › O: medial ½ of clavicle (anterior surface) › I: anterior, medial aspect of humerus, crest of greater tuberosity › A: Shoulder adduction, internal rotation Clavicular portion: shoulder flexion & horizontal adduction Pectoralis Minor › O: outer surface of ribs 3 -5 or 2-4 near costal cartilages › I: coracoid process of scapula › A: Scapula depression, downward rotation and anterior tilt
  12. 12. Muscles of the Rotator Cuff
  13. 13. Muscles of the Rotator Cuff Supraspinatus › O: supraspinous fossa › I: greater tuberosity of humerus › A: Shoulder abduction (esp 1st 30degree), stabilization of the humeral head in the glenoid fossa Infraspinatus › O: infraspinous fossa › I: greater tuberosity of humerus › A: Shoulder External rotation, stabilization of the humeral head in the glenoid fossa
  14. 14. Muscles of the Rotator Cuff Teres Minor › O: superior 2/3 of lateral border of scapula › I: greater tuberosity of humerus › A: Shoulder external rotation, stabilization of the humeral head in the glenoid fossa Subscapularis › O: subscapular fossa › I: lesser tuberosity of humerus › A: medial rotation of the shoulder, stabilization of the humeral head in the glenoid fossa Note: the preceding four muscles are referred to as the rotator cuff
  15. 15. Muscles of the Arm • Anterior Compartment – Bicep Brachii – Coracobrachialis – Brachialis – Brachioradialis
  16. 16. Biceps Brachii Brachioradialis
  17. 17. Muscles of the Arm – Anterior Compartment Biceps Brachii › Origin: Short head – coracoid process of scapula › Long head – supraglenoid tubercle of scapula › Insertion: both heads - radial tuberosity › Action: Elbow flexion, Forearm supination, weak flexor of shoulder Coracobrachialis › O: coracoid process › I: medial aspect of middle humerus › A: Shoulder flexion & adduction
  18. 18. Muscles of the Arm – Anterior Compartment Brachialis › Origin: anterior surface of lower 1/2 humerus › Insertion: coronoid process of ulna › Action: Elbow flexion Brachioradialis › Origin: lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus › Insertion: styloid process of radius › Action: Elbow flexion, Forearm pronation and supination
  19. 19. Muscles of the Arm • Posterior Compartment – Triceps • • • Long (visible) Medial Lateral (visible)
  20. 20. Muscles of the Arm – Posterior Compartment Triceps Brachii › O: Long head – infraglenoid tubercle of scapula Lateral head – posterior humerus above radial groove Medial Head – posterior humerus, below radial groove › I: olecranon process of ulna › A: Elbow Extension
  21. 21. Muscles of the Thigh • Anterior thigh 1. Sartorius 2. Quadriceps • Rectus Femoris, Vastus Medialis, Vastus Lateralis, Vastus Intermedius
  22. 22. Muscles of the Thigh (anterior) Sartorius › O: ASIS › I: superior aspect of medial tibia › A: Hip flexion, external rotation, abduction; knee flexion
  23. 23. Muscles of the Thigh (anterior) Rectus Femoris › O: AIIS, ilium above acetabulum › I: tibial tuberosity via quadricep tendon to patella via patellar ligament › A: extension of the knee, hip flexion Vastus Lateralis › O: greater trochanter, linea aspera (lateral lip) › I: tibial tuberosity via quadricep tendon to patella via patellar ligament › A: knee extension
  24. 24. Muscles of the Thigh (Anterior) Vastus Intermedius › O: anterior, lateral, surface of femur (superior aspect) › I: tibial tuberosity via quadricep tendon to patella via patellar ligament › A: extension of the knee Vastus Medialis › O: intertrochanteric line, linea aspera (medial lip) › I: tibial tuberosity via quadricep tendon to patella via patellar ligament › A: extension of the knee Note: the preceding four muscles are referred to as the quadriceps
  25. 25. Muscles of the Thigh • Medial Thigh 1. 2. 3. 4. Adductor longus Adductor Brevis Adductor Magnus Gracilis
  26. 26. Muscles of the Thigh (medial) Adductor Longus › O: body of pubis (anterior) › I: middle to inferior 1/3 of linea aspera (medial lip) › A: Hip adduction Adductor Brevis › O: body of pubis & inferior ramus of pubis › I: pectineal line & superior aspect of linea aspera (medial lip) › A: hip adduction Adductor Magnus › O: Adductor part: inferior ramus of pubis; Hamstring part: ischial tuberosity › I: Adductor part: medial portion of femur, Hamstring part: adductor tubercle › A: adduction and lateral rotation of the femur, extension of the hip
  27. 27. Muscles of the thigh (medial) Gracilis › O: body & inferior ramus of pubis › I: superior part of the medial tibia (pes anserinus) › A: Hip adduction and knee flexion and knee internal rotation
  28. 28. Muscles of the Thigh • Posterior Thigh 1. Biceps Femoris 2. Semi-tendinosus 3. Semi-membranosus
  29. 29. Muscles of thigh (posterior) Biceps Femoris › Origin: long head - ischial tuberosity, short head – lateral lip of linea aspera › Insertion: lateral side of the head of fibula › Action: knee flexion and external rotation of knee(if knee flexed), hip extension Semitendinosus › O: ischial tuberosity › I: superior surface of medial tibia › A: knee flexion, internal rotation of the knee (if knee is flexed); hip extension Semimembranosus › O: ischial tuberosity › I: posterior aspect of the medial condyle of the tibia › A: flexion and medial rotation of the knee; extension, adduction and medial rotation of the hip • Note: the preceding three muscles are referred to as the hamstrings
  30. 30. Muscles of the Hip • Superfiscal Layer 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Gluteus maximus Gluteus medius Gluteus minimus Tensor fascia lata Illiopsoas (psoas major / iliacus)
  31. 31. Muscles of the Hip Gluteus Maximus › O: ilium behind posterior gluteal line, sacrum, coccyx › I: gluteal tuberosity and ITB › A: hip extension and external rotation Gluteus Medius › O: ilium between posterior and anterior gluteal lines › I: greater trochanter (lateral surface) › A: Hip abduction & internal rotation, keep pelvis level when LL on the same side bears weight
  32. 32. Muscles of the Hip Gluteus Minimus › O: ilium between anterior and inferior gluteal lines › I: greater trochanter (anterior surface) › A: hip flexion, abduction and internal rotation, keep pelvis level when LL on the same side bears weight. Tensor Fasciae Latae › O: ASIS › I: ITB › A: Hip abduction and internal rotation
  33. 33. Muscles of the Hip Psoas Major › O: transverse process of all lumbar spine, sides of T12-L5 vertebrae and discs. › I: lesser trochanter of femur › A: Hip flexion, maintains lordosis (posterior fibres) Iliacus › O: iliac fossa › I: lesser trochanter of femur › A: Hip flexion Iliopsoas the combination of psoas major and iliacus
  34. 34. Muscles of the Hip • Deep Layer – Piriformis – Gemelli Superior – Obturator Internus – Gemelli Inferior – Obturator Externus – Quadratus femoris
  35. 35. Muscles of the Hip - deep Piriformis › O: sacrum (anterior surface) › I: greater trochanter (medial surface) › A: hip external rotation (with thigh extended), abduction and internal rotation (with thigh flexed) Obturator Externus › O: outer surface of obturator foramen › I: greater trochanter (medial surface) › A: hip external rotation Obturator Internus › O: inner surface of obturator foramen › I: greater trochanter (medial surface) › A: hip external rotation
  36. 36. Muscles of the hip - deep Gemellus Superior › O: Ischial Spine › I: greater trochanter (medial surface) › A: Hip external rotation Gemellus Inferior › O: ischial tuberosity › I: greater trochanter (medial surface) › A: Hip external rotation Quadratus Femoris › O: lateral border of ischial tuberosity › I: quadrate tubercle on intertrochanteric crest › A: Hip external rotation • Note: the preceding six muscles are referred to as the deep six lateral rotators of the hip
  37. 37. Muscles of the Leg • Anterior Compartment 1. Tibialis Anterior 2. Extensor Hallucis Longus 3. Extensor Digitorum
  38. 38. Muscles of the Leg (Anterior) Tibialis anterior (TA) › O: lateral condyle and superior lateral surface of tibia › I: medial and inferior surfaces of medial cuneiform & base of 1 st metatarsal › A: Ankle dorsiflexion and ankle inversion Extensor digitorum longus (EDL) › O: lateral condyle of tibia, superior medial surface of fibula › I: dorsal surfaces of bases of the middle and distal phalanges 2nd – 5th toes › A: extension of the lateral 4 toes, dorsiflexion of ankle and eversion of foot Extensor hallucis longus (EHL) › O: anterior surface of fibula (middle part) › I: dorsal base of distal phalanx of the 1st toe › A: extension of 1st toe; ankle dorsiflexion
  39. 39. Muscles of the Leg • Lateral Compartment 1. Peroneous Longus 2. Peroneous Brevis
  40. 40. Muscles of the Leg (lateral) Peroneus longus › O: head of fibula and superior portion of lateral surface of fibula › I: base of 1st metatarsal & medial cuneiform › A: Ankle eversion, weak ankle plantar flexor Peroneus brevis › O: distal portion of lateral surface of fibula › I: tuberosity of 5th metatarsal › A: Ankle eversion, weak ankle plantar flexor
  41. 41. Muscles of the Leg • Posterior Compartment – Superficial 1.Gastrocnemius 2.Soleus – Deep 1.Tibialis Posterior (TP) 2.Flexor Digitorum Longus (FDL) 3.Flexor Hallucis Longus (FHL)
  42. 42. Muscles of the Leg (posterior) Gastrocnemius › O: lateral head - lateral condyle of femur; medial head - medial condyle of femur › I: calcaneus via Achilles tendon (common calcaneal tendon) › A: ankle plantar flexion, Knee flexion Soleus › O: posterior surface of head and superior 1/3 of fibula; soleal line and medial border of tibia › I: calcaneus via Achilles tendon (common calcaneal tendon) › A: ankle plantar flexion Popliteus › O: lateral condyle of femur (lateral surface) › I: posterior surface of tibia, superior to soleal line › A: Assist knee flexion, unlock knee joint (medially rotate tibia on unplanted limb, laterally rotating femur on fixed tibia)
  43. 43. Gastronemius Soleus
  44. 44. Muscles of the leg (Posterior) Tibialis posterior › O: posterior surface of tibia inferior to soleal line, posterior surface of fibula › I: navicular, 3 cuneiforms and cuboid and 2nd, 3rd, 4th metatarsals › A: ankle plantar flexion and inversion, supports medial arch of foot Flexor digitorum longus (FDL) › O: medial, posterior surface of tibia inferior to soleal line › I: Bases of distal phalanges of the 2nd to 5th toes › A: 2nd-5th toe flexion; ankle plantar flexion and inversion, supports medial arch of foot Flexor hallucis longus (FHL) › O: distal posterior surface of fibula › I: plantar surface of the base of distal phalanx of the hallux › A: great toe flexion; assist ankle plantar flexion and inversion, supports medial arch of foot
  45. 45. Muscles of the trunk • Superfical (Core Strength) 1. Rectus Abdominal 2. External Oblique 3. Internal Oblique • Deep (Core Stability) 1. Transverse Abdominis 2. Diaphragm 3. Pelvic Floor (Levator Ani)
  46. 46. Muscles of the trunk Rectus Abdominis › O: pubic crest and symphysis › I: costal cartilages of rib 5 to 7 › A: bilaterally – forward flexion of the trunk; unilaterally –› lateral flexion of the trunk to the same side External Oblique › O: rib 5 to 12 › I: broad abdominal aponeurosis to the linea alba, anterior iliac crest › A: bilaterally – forward flexion of the trunk; unilaterally – lateral flexion of the trunk to the same side and rotation of the trunk to the opposite side Internal Oblique › O: medial iliac crest and thoracolumbar fascia › I: rib 10 to 12 › A: bilaterally – forward flexion of the trunk; unilaterally – lateral flexion and rotation of the trunk to the same side
  47. 47. Muscles of the trunk Transversus Abdominis › O: iliac crest; thoracolumbar fascia, rib 6 to 12 › I: broad abdominal aponeurosis to the linea alba › A: compression of abdominal viscera; stabilization of the lumbo-pelvic region Diaphragm › O: inner surface of the body wall: sternal portion – back of the xiphoid process; costal portion – inner surfaces of lower six ribs; lumbar portion – anterior bodies of lumbar vertebrae › I: central tendon › A: draws the central tendon downward increasing thoracic cavity volume during inhalation Pelvic Floor › refers to a group of muscles of the inferior pelvis › made up of the puborectalis, pubococcygeus, iliococcygeus (collectively the levator ani) and ischiococcygeus › extends from the body of the pubis to the coccyx and between the ischial spines › functions to stabilize the joints of the pelvis including the sacroiliac joint
  48. 48. Muslces of the Spine • Superficial Erectus Spinae group • • • Semispinalis Iliocoastalis Lumborum Quadratus Lumborum • Deep Multifidus
  49. 49. Erectus Spinae Group - Superfical Semispinalis thoracis › O: transverse process of T6 to T12 › I: spinous process of C6 to T4 › A: unilaterally – rotation of the spine to the opposite side; bilaterally – extension of the spine Semispinalis cervicis › O: transverse process of T1 to T6 › I: spinous process of C2 to C5 › A: unilaterally – lateral flexion of the spine to the same side, rotation of the spine to the opposite side; bilaterally – extension of the spine Semispinalis capitis › Origin: transverse process of C5 to T6 › Insertion: occipital bone › Action: unilaterally – lateral flexion of the neck to the same side, rotation of the head and neck to the opposite side; bilaterally – extension of the head and neck
  50. 50. Erectus Spinae Group - Superfical Iliocostalis lumborum › O: thoracolumbar fascia from the sacrum to spinous process of T11 to L5 › I: rib 6 to 12 › A: unilaterally – lateral flexion of the spine to the same side; bilaterally – extension of the spine Iliocostalis thoracis › O: rib 6 to 12 › I: rib 1 to 6 › A: unilaterally – lateral flexion of the spine to the same side; bilaterally – extension of the spine Iliocostalis cervicis › O: rib 3 to 6 › I: transverse process of C4 to C6 › A: unilaterally – lateral flexion of the spine to the same side; bilaterally – extension of the spine
  51. 51. Erectus Spinae Group - Superfical Longissimus thoracis › O: thoracolumbar fascia on the lumbar spine › I: transverse process of T1 to T12 and rib 6 to 12 › A: unilaterally – lateral flexion of the spine to the same side; bilaterally – extension of the spine Longissimus cervicis › O: transverse process of T1 to T5 › I: transverse process of C2 to C6 › A: unilaterally – lateral flexion of the spine to the same side; bilaterally – extension of the spine Longissimus capitis › O: transverse process of C4 to T5 › I: mastoid process › A: unilaterally – lateral flexion and rotation of the head to the same side; bilaterally – extension of the head and neck
  52. 52. Muscles of the Spine – Superficial Quadratus lumborum (QL) › O: posterior iliac crest › I: 12th rib and transverse process of L1 to L4 › A: unilaterally - Spine lateral flexion, bilaterally – aids Spine extension
  53. 53. Muscles of the Spine - Deep Multifidus › O: sacrum, transverse process of L1 to T12 and the articular process of C4 to C7 › I: spinous process of all vertebrae except C1 spanning 2 to 3 intervertebral spaces › A: stabilization of the spine; unilaterally – rotation of the spine to the opposite side. lateral flexion of the spine to the same side; bilaterally – extension of the spine

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