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MANAGEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY
BTMU 1023
Lecture 3
CRITICAL FACTORS IN MANAGING TECHNOLOGY
1
Lesson outcome
At the end of the lesson, the student should be able to:
• Understand the important factors in managing technology
• Describe the issues in managing technology
• Know the important of managing change
2
• Technology is the base for economic growth.
• Managing technology is important because
Rapid rate of technological change - some increase exponentially
especially in the IT industry
Change in scope - consumer new attitude.
Change in the competition- the rise of new competitors such as China
3
The importance of managing technology
“The decline of U.S. industrial competitiveness in the 1970s and 1980s is widely
perceived to have resulted not from an inability to develop new technologies but
from the failure to manage available and emerging technologies in an effective
and timely manner”
4
5
Resources
The business environment
The structure and management of the organization
Project planning and management
Management of human resource
The efficient utilization of technological resources is a critical aspect of the management of
technological organization
the rational and productive use of available instruments, equipment, tools, materials,
methods, software, skilled workers, information, intellectual assets, and financial resources is
crucial to provide the competitive position for organization
6
Resources
The business environment
The structure and management of the organization
Project planning and management
Management of human resource
Resources
The business environment
The structure and management of the organization
Project planning and management
Management of human resource
7
To remain competitive, a firm must anticipate and evaluate
technological opportunities before other firms attain an
unbeatable competitive edge
Environmental factors : customers, competitors, economy,
technology, political, social condition, legal and global
8
Resources
The business environment
The structure and management of the organization
Project planning and management
Management of human resource
• Installation of technological gate keepers
• Encourage internal entrepreneurship
• Joint venture between R&D and production
• Matching skilled workers with the requirement of
technologies
• Effect of technologies to the workers skill
What are the skills requires for IR 4.0 Industry?
The Effects of Different Organizational Structures
Resources
The business environment
The structure and management of the organization
Project planning and management
Management of human resource
9
Complex R&D project and NPD project require effective and
efficient mobilization of resources and coordination of activities
Pay attention to
• Project portfolio and project selection
• Human problems in managing project
• Lesson learned from previous project
Resources
The business environment
The structure and management of the organization
Project planning and management
Management of human resource
10
The biggest challenge for an organization is developing,
harnessing and fully utilizing the capability of the employees
Issues in IR4.0
• Upskilling
• reskilling
Three important factors
11
CREATIVITY FACTOR
TIMING FACTOR
MANAGING CHANGE
Critical factors in managing technology
CREATIVITY FACTOR
• Creativity can be low or high, depending on its perceived value.
• Technology is an expression of creativity
• Managing technology can require creativity
• Indicators for creativity in managing technology:
INVENTION AND INNOVATION
12
Creativity factor
Myths about creativity
• The smarter you are, the more creative you are.
• Creativity exists outside of time and circumstance.
• The creative act is essentially effortless
• Creative output is always good.
• Creativity exists in the art only.
13
Myths about creativity
• Creativity: The ability to produce work that is useful and novel.
• Individual creativity is a function of:
• Intellectual abilities (e.g., ability to articulate ideas)
• Knowledge (e.g., understand field, but not wed to paradigms)
• Style of thinking (e.g., choose to think in novel ways)
• Personality (e.g., confidence in own capabilities)
• Motivation (e.g., rely on intrinsic motivation)
• Environment (e.g., support and rewards for creative ideas)
14
CREATIVITY FACTOR
Creativity factor
15
What do you see?
Components of creativity
16
Components of creativity
creativity
Creative
thinking
skill
motivation
expertise
Reason such as solving problem
,monetary
Skills, knowledge
Imagination, flexibility
17
People that are creative
innovative!
Creativity factor
18
CREATIVITY FACTOR
• Organizational Creativity is a function of:
• Creativity of individuals within the organization
• Social processes and contextual factors that shape how those individuals interact and
behave
• Methods of encouraging/tapping organizational creativity:
• Idea collection systems (e.g., suggestion box; Google’s idea management system)
• Creativity training programs
• Culture that encourages (but doesn’t directly pay for) creativity.
• http://lnkiy.in/creativity
19
Organizational creativity
20
Creative environment
21
Characteristics of a creative organization
• Encourage brainstorming with colleagues
• Permits risks that are moderate
• Tolerate failures
• Giving recognition and awards ( Maslow )
• Free flowing information
• Employees have access to Knowledge sources
Google 80/20 rule
Organizational creativity
Strategic timing
For example technology trend or market trend
First mover vs second mover/ leader vs follower
• Types of firms
• A leader
• The first to market an innovation
• A Follower
• Follow closely behind the leader
• A Laggard
• Realizes a potential for profit but seldom influences technology’s use
22
Timing factor
To be the market leader
• Reputation/strong name recognition ( example next slide)
• Better market position
• Define the industry standard
• Earlier return from learning effects
• Deterrence advantage
• Higher profit
• Loyal customer
• Attaining more appreciation and support
23
 Large cost
 Being a target for
competition
 Difficult to predict demand
 Difficult to sustain the lead
/target for competition
Timing factor
THE TIMING FACTOR
Time-based competition (TBC)
• power of time management, and how companies can use it to gain a competitive advantage
• Quick in making decision and responsive to changes in market
• -Time is reduced in delivering the service from start until delivery.
• By reducing the consumption of time in every aspect of the business these companies reduce
cost and improve quality.
• Example of organizations that implemented TBC are Honda, Hitachi, Benneton, Domino’s Pizza
and Mc Donald
24
Timing factor
Just In Time ( JIT)
• Developed by Toyota Production System (TPS)
• Method that improve efficiency. The process involves ordering and receiving inventory for
production and customer sales only as it is needed to produce goods
• Improve lead time
25
Timing factor
Timing factor
Example of strong name recognition
• Kleenex vs. tissue
• Xerox vs. photocopy
• Coke vs. cola
• Frigidaire vs. refrigerator
• Scotch tape vs. adhesive tape
• Band-Aid vs. bandage
26
Famous case studies
Kodak
Blackberry
Nokia
Timing factor
Life cycle
Technology life cycle
27
Timing factor
Life cycle
Product life cycle
28
Timing factor
Life cycle
market life cycle
29
Early adopter –
small market –
critical importance of marketing strategist
Managing change
The Association of Change Management Professionals, an
international organization, defines the practice as “a deliberate set of
activities that facilitate and support the success of individual and
organizational change and the realization of its intended business
results”.
Survival is at risk if a company cannot forecast or foresee the changes
in the external environment. It is recognized that 60 to 80 percent of
small businesses fail within five years of starting up.
30
Change adoption objective
31
Managing change
Adaptability is the new competitive advantage
To be ready and willing to embrace change in the form of new
products and services, pricing, location, or concept.
Requires flexibility
Scanning the environment for signals ( PEST, PESTLE, STEEPLE)
The importance of forecasting
Failure to adapt
the case of Nokia
the case of Blackberry
32
Managing change
• https://tinyurl.com/4uhz223a
• http://lnkiy.in/whycompaniesfail
33
TECHNOLOGY GENERATION & NEW VISION
34
Organization will loose their competitiveness if fail to
manage technologies in an effective and timely manner
Managing technology involves continuous effort in
creating technology, developing novel products and
services and successfully marketing them
Discussion questions
1. What are some of the issues in managing technology in the era of IR 4.0?
2. Discuss how a person can develop his/ her creativity skill
35
References
Khalil, T.M., 2000. Management of technology: The key to
competitiveness and wealth creation. McGraw-Hill Science,
Engineering & Mathematics.
Other sources from the internet

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LECTURE 3: Critical Factors in Managing Technology

  • 1. MANAGEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY BTMU 1023 Lecture 3 CRITICAL FACTORS IN MANAGING TECHNOLOGY 1
  • 2. Lesson outcome At the end of the lesson, the student should be able to: • Understand the important factors in managing technology • Describe the issues in managing technology • Know the important of managing change 2
  • 3. • Technology is the base for economic growth. • Managing technology is important because Rapid rate of technological change - some increase exponentially especially in the IT industry Change in scope - consumer new attitude. Change in the competition- the rise of new competitors such as China 3 The importance of managing technology
  • 4. “The decline of U.S. industrial competitiveness in the 1970s and 1980s is widely perceived to have resulted not from an inability to develop new technologies but from the failure to manage available and emerging technologies in an effective and timely manner” 4
  • 5. 5 Resources The business environment The structure and management of the organization Project planning and management Management of human resource
  • 6. The efficient utilization of technological resources is a critical aspect of the management of technological organization the rational and productive use of available instruments, equipment, tools, materials, methods, software, skilled workers, information, intellectual assets, and financial resources is crucial to provide the competitive position for organization 6 Resources The business environment The structure and management of the organization Project planning and management Management of human resource
  • 7. Resources The business environment The structure and management of the organization Project planning and management Management of human resource 7 To remain competitive, a firm must anticipate and evaluate technological opportunities before other firms attain an unbeatable competitive edge Environmental factors : customers, competitors, economy, technology, political, social condition, legal and global
  • 8. 8 Resources The business environment The structure and management of the organization Project planning and management Management of human resource • Installation of technological gate keepers • Encourage internal entrepreneurship • Joint venture between R&D and production • Matching skilled workers with the requirement of technologies • Effect of technologies to the workers skill What are the skills requires for IR 4.0 Industry? The Effects of Different Organizational Structures
  • 9. Resources The business environment The structure and management of the organization Project planning and management Management of human resource 9 Complex R&D project and NPD project require effective and efficient mobilization of resources and coordination of activities Pay attention to • Project portfolio and project selection • Human problems in managing project • Lesson learned from previous project
  • 10. Resources The business environment The structure and management of the organization Project planning and management Management of human resource 10 The biggest challenge for an organization is developing, harnessing and fully utilizing the capability of the employees Issues in IR4.0 • Upskilling • reskilling
  • 11. Three important factors 11 CREATIVITY FACTOR TIMING FACTOR MANAGING CHANGE Critical factors in managing technology
  • 12. CREATIVITY FACTOR • Creativity can be low or high, depending on its perceived value. • Technology is an expression of creativity • Managing technology can require creativity • Indicators for creativity in managing technology: INVENTION AND INNOVATION 12 Creativity factor
  • 13. Myths about creativity • The smarter you are, the more creative you are. • Creativity exists outside of time and circumstance. • The creative act is essentially effortless • Creative output is always good. • Creativity exists in the art only. 13 Myths about creativity
  • 14. • Creativity: The ability to produce work that is useful and novel. • Individual creativity is a function of: • Intellectual abilities (e.g., ability to articulate ideas) • Knowledge (e.g., understand field, but not wed to paradigms) • Style of thinking (e.g., choose to think in novel ways) • Personality (e.g., confidence in own capabilities) • Motivation (e.g., rely on intrinsic motivation) • Environment (e.g., support and rewards for creative ideas) 14 CREATIVITY FACTOR Creativity factor
  • 16. Components of creativity 16 Components of creativity creativity Creative thinking skill motivation expertise Reason such as solving problem ,monetary Skills, knowledge Imagination, flexibility
  • 17. 17 People that are creative innovative! Creativity factor
  • 18. 18
  • 19. CREATIVITY FACTOR • Organizational Creativity is a function of: • Creativity of individuals within the organization • Social processes and contextual factors that shape how those individuals interact and behave • Methods of encouraging/tapping organizational creativity: • Idea collection systems (e.g., suggestion box; Google’s idea management system) • Creativity training programs • Culture that encourages (but doesn’t directly pay for) creativity. • http://lnkiy.in/creativity 19 Organizational creativity
  • 20. 20
  • 21. Creative environment 21 Characteristics of a creative organization • Encourage brainstorming with colleagues • Permits risks that are moderate • Tolerate failures • Giving recognition and awards ( Maslow ) • Free flowing information • Employees have access to Knowledge sources Google 80/20 rule Organizational creativity
  • 22. Strategic timing For example technology trend or market trend First mover vs second mover/ leader vs follower • Types of firms • A leader • The first to market an innovation • A Follower • Follow closely behind the leader • A Laggard • Realizes a potential for profit but seldom influences technology’s use 22 Timing factor
  • 23. To be the market leader • Reputation/strong name recognition ( example next slide) • Better market position • Define the industry standard • Earlier return from learning effects • Deterrence advantage • Higher profit • Loyal customer • Attaining more appreciation and support 23  Large cost  Being a target for competition  Difficult to predict demand  Difficult to sustain the lead /target for competition Timing factor
  • 24. THE TIMING FACTOR Time-based competition (TBC) • power of time management, and how companies can use it to gain a competitive advantage • Quick in making decision and responsive to changes in market • -Time is reduced in delivering the service from start until delivery. • By reducing the consumption of time in every aspect of the business these companies reduce cost and improve quality. • Example of organizations that implemented TBC are Honda, Hitachi, Benneton, Domino’s Pizza and Mc Donald 24 Timing factor
  • 25. Just In Time ( JIT) • Developed by Toyota Production System (TPS) • Method that improve efficiency. The process involves ordering and receiving inventory for production and customer sales only as it is needed to produce goods • Improve lead time 25 Timing factor
  • 26. Timing factor Example of strong name recognition • Kleenex vs. tissue • Xerox vs. photocopy • Coke vs. cola • Frigidaire vs. refrigerator • Scotch tape vs. adhesive tape • Band-Aid vs. bandage 26 Famous case studies Kodak Blackberry Nokia
  • 29. Timing factor Life cycle market life cycle 29 Early adopter – small market – critical importance of marketing strategist
  • 30. Managing change The Association of Change Management Professionals, an international organization, defines the practice as “a deliberate set of activities that facilitate and support the success of individual and organizational change and the realization of its intended business results”. Survival is at risk if a company cannot forecast or foresee the changes in the external environment. It is recognized that 60 to 80 percent of small businesses fail within five years of starting up. 30
  • 32. Managing change Adaptability is the new competitive advantage To be ready and willing to embrace change in the form of new products and services, pricing, location, or concept. Requires flexibility Scanning the environment for signals ( PEST, PESTLE, STEEPLE) The importance of forecasting Failure to adapt the case of Nokia the case of Blackberry 32
  • 33. Managing change • https://tinyurl.com/4uhz223a • http://lnkiy.in/whycompaniesfail 33
  • 34. TECHNOLOGY GENERATION & NEW VISION 34 Organization will loose their competitiveness if fail to manage technologies in an effective and timely manner Managing technology involves continuous effort in creating technology, developing novel products and services and successfully marketing them
  • 35. Discussion questions 1. What are some of the issues in managing technology in the era of IR 4.0? 2. Discuss how a person can develop his/ her creativity skill 35
  • 36. References Khalil, T.M., 2000. Management of technology: The key to competitiveness and wealth creation. McGraw-Hill Science, Engineering & Mathematics. Other sources from the internet