Types of Technology & Its Life cycle By Dr. Vijay Kr Khurana
What are various types of technologies?• Generic, Basic & Key Technologies• Embodied & Disembodied Technologies• System & Infra Technologies• Hybrid & Emerging Technologies• Disruptive & Sustaining Technologies
What are various types of technologies?Disruptive & Sustaining Technologies• Disruptive Technology – A disruptive technology or disruptive innovation is an innovation that helps create a new market and value network, and eventually goes on to disrupt an existing market and value network (over a few years or decades), displacing an earlier technology.• A sustaining innovation does not create new markets or value networks but rather only evolves existing ones with better value, allowing the firms within to compete against each others sustaining improvements.
What are various types of technologies?• Disruptive Technology –• Disruptive technologies rarely wipe older technologies off the face of the earth, or out of the business world altogether. But they do often wipe out particular firms• Often established firms will flee upmarket trying to make up the revenues and margins lost to the disruption rising from below. They often eventually fail.
What are various types of technologies?Example - Disruptive Technology Digital Chemical Early digital cameras suffered Technolog photograp from low picture quality and y hy resolution and long shutter lag. Quality , shutter lag and resolution are no longer any issue. The convenience of small memory cards and portable hard drives that hold hundreds or thousands of pictures, as well as the lack of the need to develop these pictures, has led to replacement of chemical photographic camera by digital
What are various types of technologies?Example … contd…Digital Chemical It led to the sharp decline inTechnolog photograp consumer demand for commony hy 35 mm print film which had a deleterious effect on free- riders such as slide and infrared film stocks, which are now more expensive to produce
What are various types of technologies?• Disruptive Technology –
What is technology portfolio?• Products or manufacturing processes are generally not based on single technology.• A number of technologies are embodied / encapsulated in most of products and manufacturing processes.• Thus an organization is generally required to manage a portfolio of technologies.• The technologies in the technology portfolio are inter-related and influence each other.• Portfolio may keep on changing.
What is technology portfolio?• Both nation & firm are required to maintain an appropriate technology portfolio.• Technology portfolio decides the competitiveness and long term economic future of both nation and the firm.
Technology portfolio of a firma. Technology Portfolio for Manufacture of Passenger Car •Steel making •Electronic •Metal cutting engineering •Metal body •Combustion forming engineering •Welding •Rubber & plastic •Electrical technology engineering •Glass technology •Mechanical •Paint technology engineering •& So-on
Technology portfolio of a Nationb. A nation is also required to manage a portfolio of technologies. National technology policy aim at managing national technology portfolio / technology base with following objectives:• The national technology portfolio should lead to sustainable technological progress / advancement• The national technology portfolio should provide to long-term technological competitiveness, more efficiency, more productivity, more value generation and should lead to improvement in living standards of masses.
Technology portfolio of a Nationb. … contd ….• Focus is to seek development, acquisition, absorption and diffusion of appropriate technologies• The cost of technological change / improvement to the nation should be manageable and optimal.• Dependence on inappropriate and older technologies should be reduced.• There should be increased role and contribution of renewable energy technologies.
Technology portfolio of a Nationb. … contd ….• National technology portfolio should help in better disaster management.• National technology portfolio should facilitate better law & order, internal security.• It should help in conservation of resources, facilitate recycling, and help in strengthening of resources.
Technology portfolio of a Nationb. … contd ….• It should help in better environment management; and protection and growth of flora and fuana.• National technology portfolio should help in creating right and supportive economic environment and infrastructure.
What is Technology Life Cycle?• The biological concept of a life Cycle (i.e. Birth, Growth, Maturity & Death) can also be applied to a technology and the product, service or process associated with it.
What is Technology Life Cycle?• The technology life-cycle (TLC) describes the commercial gain of a product through the expense of research and development phase, and the financial return during its "vital life" .• The TLC associated with a product or technological service is different from product life-cycle (PLC) dealt with in product life-cycle management. PLC is concerned with the life of a product in the market- place in respect of timing of introduction, marketing measures and business costs.
What is Technology Life Cycle?• The technology life cycle is concerned with the time and cost of developing the technology, the timeline of recovering cost and modes of making the technology yield a profit proportionate to the costs and risks involved.• The TLC may, further, be protected during its cycle with patents and trademark seeking to lengthen the cycle and to maximize the profit from it.• The development of a competitive product or process can have a major effect on the lifespan of the technology, making it shorter.
What is Technology Life Cycle?• Some technologies, such as steel, paper or cement manufacturing, have a long lifespan (with minor variations in technology incorporated with time) whilst in other cases, such as electronic or pharmaceutical products, the lifespan may be quite short.• The technology life cycle can be broken down into following distinct stages / phases:
What is Technology Life Cycle?Stage / Technological FeaturesPhase• Stage / PhaseNo I Technology Basic Technology Development II Technology Technology + Applications Application III Application Technology + Applications + Product Launch Launch IV Application Technology + Applications + Rise in Growth product sales V Technological Technology + Applications + Fall in Maturity product sales VI Degraded Minimal Product sales + Loss of Technology application + Alternative Technology
Example - Technology Life Cycle in cars• On March 8, 1866 Daimler designed world’s first four-wheeled automobile.• Later, Henry Ford made his first car in 1896 called Quandricycle and later on introduced model T, which became a success after installing assembly lines in 1913.• Many technological changes have taken place at very fast pace in cars during last 140-150 years .
Example - Technology Life Cycle in carsFuels used Types of Engine Body •Steam •From 2 stroke •Sharp Edges to •Coal gas engine to 4 round & smooth stroke surfaces with •Gunpowder aerodynamics •Mixture of Hydrogen & •Manual steering Oxygen to Power steering •From metallic •Kerosene interiors to •Continuous plastic based •Petrol / interiors Diesel Improvement in features based •Electricity Future aimonCar which can run on road and fly •Solar : electronics
Types of Technology & Its Life cycle By Dr. Vijay Kr Khurana