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 Introduction to IoT
 Definition
 IoT’s Timeline
 Basic Structure
 RFID & Sensors
 Applications
◦ Consumer
◦ Industrial
 Current Trends and future of IoT
 Standards used (Zigbee and Zwave)
 Security & Vulnerability
 Challenges
 Open Problems and Q & A
● Simply put, this is the concept of basically connecting any device with an
on and off switch to the Internet (and/or to each other). This includes
everything from cell phones, coffee makers, washing machines,
headphones, lamps, wearable devices and almost anything else you can
think of.
● This also applies to components of machines, for example a jet engine of
an airplane or the drill of an oil rig. As I mentioned, if it has an on and off
switch then chances are it can be a part of the IoT.
 The Internet of Things, also called The Internet of Objects, refers to a wireless network
between objects, usually the network will be wireless and self-configuring, such as
household appliances.
 By embedding short-range mobile transceivers into a wide array of additional gadgets and
everyday items, enabling new forms of communication between people and things, and
between things themselves.
 The term "Internet of Things" has come to describe a number of technologies and
research disciplines that enable the Internet to reach out into the real world of physical
objects.
 “Things having identities and virtual personalities operating in smart spaces using
intelligent interfaces to connect and communicate within social, environmental, and user
contexts”.
The Internet of Things has been gestating for decades,
but its growth really started to accelerate around 2008.
1993
US Government allows civilians to us GPS
1990
Presenters at the Interop networking conference
control a Sunbeam Deluxe Toaster via the Internet
1999
Kevin Ashton coins the phrase “Internet of Things”,
moves to MIT to launch its Auto – ID center
2000
LG launches the first Internet - connected refrigerator
2008
Google tests self driving technology.
IOT was born, according to CISCO there
were more connected devices than people
2009
Google unveils self driving car.
CISCO, GE, AT&T, Intel forms Industrial Internet
Consortium to create IOT standards
First International Conference of IOT held at Zurich.
2014
RFID
• To identify
and track
data of
things.
Sensors
• To collect
and process
data to detect
the changes
in physical
status of
things.
Smart Tech
• To enhance
power of
networks by
transferring
processing
capabilities to
different part
of networks.
Nano Tech
• To make the
smaller
things that
have the
ability to
connect and
interact.
The IoT can be viewed as a gigantic network consisting of networks of devices and
computers connected through a series of intermediate technologies where numerous
technologies like RFIDs, wireless connections may act as enablers of this connectivity.
 Tagging Things: Real-time item traceability and addressability by RFIDs.
 Feeling Things: Sensors act as primary devices to collect data from the environment.
 Shrinking Things: Miniaturization and Nanotechnology has provoked the ability of
smaller things to interact and connect within the “things” or “smart devices.”
 Thinking Things: Embedded intelligence in devices through sensors has formed the
network connection to the Internet. It can make the “things” realizing the intelligent
control.
9
 Dynamic control of industry and daily life.
 Improve the resource utilization ratio.
 Better relationship between human and nature
 Universal transport & internetworking.
 Acts as technologies integrator.
 RFID is a wireless communication
technology that uses microwave or ultra-
high frequency electromagnetic signals
within the radio spectrum to send digitally
encoded data between a tag and a reader.
 Elements of RFID:
◦ a microchip containing nonvolatile memory
◦ an antenna to collect and transmit radio waves.
● Sensors are the magic of IOT. The ability to detect changes in the physical status of things is
essential for recording changes in the environment.
● Sensors play a pivotal role in bridging the gap between the physical and virtual worlds, and enabling
things to respond to changes in their physical environment. Sensors collect data from their
environment, generating information and raising awareness about context.
MEMS -are micro scaled devices that integrate electrical and mechanical elements
● Gyroscope
● Accelerometer
● Step Counter
OTHERS-
● Pressure Sensor
● Proximity
● Humidity
● Temperature
 It involves the control and automation of lighting, heating (such as smart thermostats),
ventilation, air conditioning, and security, as well as home appliances such as
washer/dryers, ovens or refrigerators/freezers.
 Modern systems generally consist of switches and sensors connected to a central hub
sometimes called a "gateway" from which the system is controlled with a user interface
that is interacted either with a wall-mounted terminal, mobile phone software.
 Applications
◦ Heating, ventilation and air conditioning.
◦ Lighting control system.
◦ Occupancy-aware control system: it is possible to sense the occupancy of the home using smart
meters and environmental sensors like CO2 sensors.
◦ Security: a household security system integrated with a home automation system can provide
additional services such as remote surveillance of security cameras over the Internet, or central
locking of all perimeter doors and windows.
◦ Leak detection, smoke and CO detectors
● Logistics
● Automation
● Transportation:
– Vehicle to Infrastructure:
- Traffic Management: (Google Real Time Traffic and
Pathadisha)
18
“Change is the only thing permanent in this world”
 Zigbee communication is specially built for control and sensor networks on IEEE
802.15.4 standard for wireless personal area networks (WPANs) and is a product
of Zigbee alliance.
 It operates at 868 MHz, 902-928 MHz and 2.4Ghz.
 It consist of Coordinator (acts as a rote and bridge of network), Router and End
devices.
 Zigbee two way data is transferred in two modes: Non-beacon mode and Beacon
mode.
 Zwave or Z Wave is a protocol for communication among devices used for home
automation. It uses RF and signaling for control.
 It operates at 908.42 MHz using a mesh networking topology.
 A central, network controller, devices is required to setup and manage a Zwave
network.
 Each Z-Wave network is identified by a network ID (4 bytes) and each devices are
further identified by a Node ID.
 Botnets are networks made up of remote-controlled computers, or
“bots.” These computers have been infected with malware that
allows them to be remotely controlled. Some botnets consist of
hundreds of thousands — or even millions — of computers.
 If your computer is part of a botnet, it’s infected with a type of
malware. The bot contacts a remote server and waits for instructions
from whoever is controlling the botnet. This allows an attacker to
control a large number of computers for malicious purposes.
Since as early as 2000, hackers have been using botnets. But the
Internet of Things has made the problem much worse. The market
has been flooded with inexpensive devices, these devices have little or
no built-in security, and even when they do, users often neglect to even
take the basic step of setting a password for them
That makes them easy targets for hackers wanting to create and use a
botnet.
Occurred incident:-
 In October of 2016, a botnet comprised of an estimated 100,000
unsecured IoT devices took an integral Internet infrastructure
provider, Dyn, partially offline. As a result, many high-profile and
high-traffic websites, including Netflix and Twitter, disappeared
from the Internet for a short time.
DoS
 In computing, a denial-of-service attack (DoS attack) is a cyber-attack where the
perpetrator seeks to make a machine or network resource unavailable to its
intended users by temporarily or indefinitely disrupting services of a host
connected to the Internet. Denial of service is typically accomplished by flooding
the targeted machine or resource with superfluous requests in an attempt to
overload systems and prevent some or all legitimate requests from being fulfilled.
DDoS
 In a distributed denial-of-service attack (DDoS attack), the incoming traffic
flooding the victim originates from many different sources. This effectively makes
it impossible to stop the attack simply by blocking a single source.
 A DDoS attack means that it is administered with the same target
from different sources – and here the Internet of Things must feel for
hackers a bit like a toyshop would to children: millions of devices,
all too often unprotected and unmonitored for long periods of time.
The scale in which these attacks are now possible is rising
tremendously with the advancement of the Internet of Things.
 Hence it doesn’t come as a big surprise that researchers say that
nearly 21% of DDoS attacks now result from Internet of Things
devices. We predict this will only keep increasing over the next few
years.
64% of IoT projects fail globally – CISCO survey report
 Scalability
 Technological Standardization
 Inter operability
 Software complexity
 Power Supply
Scholars and social observers and pessimists have doubts about the
promises of the ubiquitous computing revolution, in the areas as:
 Privacy
 Security
 Autonomy and Control
 Social control
 Political manipulation
 Design
 Environmental impact
 Influences human moral decision making
30
31
"In the next century,
planet earth will don an
electronic skin. It will
use the Internet as a
scaffold to support and
transmit its sensations."
- Arihant Kumar Seraogi
- Ishani Ray
- Navonil Mukherjee
- Vishal Agarwal 3rd SEMESTER MCA (HERITAGE INSTITUTE OF TE

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Introduction to IoT: Connecting Devices and Impacting Lives

  • 1.
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  • 3.  Introduction to IoT  Definition  IoT’s Timeline  Basic Structure  RFID & Sensors  Applications ◦ Consumer ◦ Industrial  Current Trends and future of IoT  Standards used (Zigbee and Zwave)  Security & Vulnerability  Challenges  Open Problems and Q & A
  • 4. ● Simply put, this is the concept of basically connecting any device with an on and off switch to the Internet (and/or to each other). This includes everything from cell phones, coffee makers, washing machines, headphones, lamps, wearable devices and almost anything else you can think of. ● This also applies to components of machines, for example a jet engine of an airplane or the drill of an oil rig. As I mentioned, if it has an on and off switch then chances are it can be a part of the IoT.
  • 5.  The Internet of Things, also called The Internet of Objects, refers to a wireless network between objects, usually the network will be wireless and self-configuring, such as household appliances.  By embedding short-range mobile transceivers into a wide array of additional gadgets and everyday items, enabling new forms of communication between people and things, and between things themselves.  The term "Internet of Things" has come to describe a number of technologies and research disciplines that enable the Internet to reach out into the real world of physical objects.  “Things having identities and virtual personalities operating in smart spaces using intelligent interfaces to connect and communicate within social, environmental, and user contexts”.
  • 6. The Internet of Things has been gestating for decades, but its growth really started to accelerate around 2008.
  • 7. 1993 US Government allows civilians to us GPS 1990 Presenters at the Interop networking conference control a Sunbeam Deluxe Toaster via the Internet 1999 Kevin Ashton coins the phrase “Internet of Things”, moves to MIT to launch its Auto – ID center 2000 LG launches the first Internet - connected refrigerator 2008 Google tests self driving technology. IOT was born, according to CISCO there were more connected devices than people 2009 Google unveils self driving car. CISCO, GE, AT&T, Intel forms Industrial Internet Consortium to create IOT standards First International Conference of IOT held at Zurich. 2014
  • 8. RFID • To identify and track data of things. Sensors • To collect and process data to detect the changes in physical status of things. Smart Tech • To enhance power of networks by transferring processing capabilities to different part of networks. Nano Tech • To make the smaller things that have the ability to connect and interact.
  • 9. The IoT can be viewed as a gigantic network consisting of networks of devices and computers connected through a series of intermediate technologies where numerous technologies like RFIDs, wireless connections may act as enablers of this connectivity.  Tagging Things: Real-time item traceability and addressability by RFIDs.  Feeling Things: Sensors act as primary devices to collect data from the environment.  Shrinking Things: Miniaturization and Nanotechnology has provoked the ability of smaller things to interact and connect within the “things” or “smart devices.”  Thinking Things: Embedded intelligence in devices through sensors has formed the network connection to the Internet. It can make the “things” realizing the intelligent control. 9
  • 10.  Dynamic control of industry and daily life.  Improve the resource utilization ratio.  Better relationship between human and nature  Universal transport & internetworking.  Acts as technologies integrator.
  • 11.  RFID is a wireless communication technology that uses microwave or ultra- high frequency electromagnetic signals within the radio spectrum to send digitally encoded data between a tag and a reader.  Elements of RFID: ◦ a microchip containing nonvolatile memory ◦ an antenna to collect and transmit radio waves.
  • 12. ● Sensors are the magic of IOT. The ability to detect changes in the physical status of things is essential for recording changes in the environment. ● Sensors play a pivotal role in bridging the gap between the physical and virtual worlds, and enabling things to respond to changes in their physical environment. Sensors collect data from their environment, generating information and raising awareness about context. MEMS -are micro scaled devices that integrate electrical and mechanical elements ● Gyroscope ● Accelerometer ● Step Counter OTHERS- ● Pressure Sensor ● Proximity ● Humidity ● Temperature
  • 13.
  • 14.
  • 15.  It involves the control and automation of lighting, heating (such as smart thermostats), ventilation, air conditioning, and security, as well as home appliances such as washer/dryers, ovens or refrigerators/freezers.  Modern systems generally consist of switches and sensors connected to a central hub sometimes called a "gateway" from which the system is controlled with a user interface that is interacted either with a wall-mounted terminal, mobile phone software.  Applications ◦ Heating, ventilation and air conditioning. ◦ Lighting control system. ◦ Occupancy-aware control system: it is possible to sense the occupancy of the home using smart meters and environmental sensors like CO2 sensors. ◦ Security: a household security system integrated with a home automation system can provide additional services such as remote surveillance of security cameras over the Internet, or central locking of all perimeter doors and windows. ◦ Leak detection, smoke and CO detectors
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  • 17. ● Logistics ● Automation ● Transportation: – Vehicle to Infrastructure: - Traffic Management: (Google Real Time Traffic and Pathadisha)
  • 18. 18 “Change is the only thing permanent in this world”
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  • 20.  Zigbee communication is specially built for control and sensor networks on IEEE 802.15.4 standard for wireless personal area networks (WPANs) and is a product of Zigbee alliance.  It operates at 868 MHz, 902-928 MHz and 2.4Ghz.  It consist of Coordinator (acts as a rote and bridge of network), Router and End devices.  Zigbee two way data is transferred in two modes: Non-beacon mode and Beacon mode.
  • 21.  Zwave or Z Wave is a protocol for communication among devices used for home automation. It uses RF and signaling for control.  It operates at 908.42 MHz using a mesh networking topology.  A central, network controller, devices is required to setup and manage a Zwave network.  Each Z-Wave network is identified by a network ID (4 bytes) and each devices are further identified by a Node ID.
  • 22.
  • 23.  Botnets are networks made up of remote-controlled computers, or “bots.” These computers have been infected with malware that allows them to be remotely controlled. Some botnets consist of hundreds of thousands — or even millions — of computers.  If your computer is part of a botnet, it’s infected with a type of malware. The bot contacts a remote server and waits for instructions from whoever is controlling the botnet. This allows an attacker to control a large number of computers for malicious purposes.
  • 24.
  • 25. Since as early as 2000, hackers have been using botnets. But the Internet of Things has made the problem much worse. The market has been flooded with inexpensive devices, these devices have little or no built-in security, and even when they do, users often neglect to even take the basic step of setting a password for them That makes them easy targets for hackers wanting to create and use a botnet. Occurred incident:-  In October of 2016, a botnet comprised of an estimated 100,000 unsecured IoT devices took an integral Internet infrastructure provider, Dyn, partially offline. As a result, many high-profile and high-traffic websites, including Netflix and Twitter, disappeared from the Internet for a short time.
  • 26. DoS  In computing, a denial-of-service attack (DoS attack) is a cyber-attack where the perpetrator seeks to make a machine or network resource unavailable to its intended users by temporarily or indefinitely disrupting services of a host connected to the Internet. Denial of service is typically accomplished by flooding the targeted machine or resource with superfluous requests in an attempt to overload systems and prevent some or all legitimate requests from being fulfilled. DDoS  In a distributed denial-of-service attack (DDoS attack), the incoming traffic flooding the victim originates from many different sources. This effectively makes it impossible to stop the attack simply by blocking a single source.
  • 27.
  • 28.  A DDoS attack means that it is administered with the same target from different sources – and here the Internet of Things must feel for hackers a bit like a toyshop would to children: millions of devices, all too often unprotected and unmonitored for long periods of time. The scale in which these attacks are now possible is rising tremendously with the advancement of the Internet of Things.  Hence it doesn’t come as a big surprise that researchers say that nearly 21% of DDoS attacks now result from Internet of Things devices. We predict this will only keep increasing over the next few years.
  • 29. 64% of IoT projects fail globally – CISCO survey report  Scalability  Technological Standardization  Inter operability  Software complexity  Power Supply
  • 30. Scholars and social observers and pessimists have doubts about the promises of the ubiquitous computing revolution, in the areas as:  Privacy  Security  Autonomy and Control  Social control  Political manipulation  Design  Environmental impact  Influences human moral decision making 30
  • 31. 31
  • 32. "In the next century, planet earth will don an electronic skin. It will use the Internet as a scaffold to support and transmit its sensations." - Arihant Kumar Seraogi - Ishani Ray - Navonil Mukherjee - Vishal Agarwal 3rd SEMESTER MCA (HERITAGE INSTITUTE OF TE

Editor's Notes

  1. Layman terms
  2. Technical definition
  3. .
  4. Read about active and passive tags in detail. https://endtimestruth.com/mark-of-the-beast/rfid/ Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a wireless communication technology that uses microwave or ultra-high frequency (UHF) electromagnetic signals within the radio spectrum to send digitally encoded data between a tag and a reader, which can then be used to identify and track items.  The chip contains circuitry that stores a unique binary number in its memory and the antenna serves as the receiver and transmitter of information.  The antenna is much larger than the microchip and typically consists of loops or coiled wire extending out from the chip.  In a passive or unpowered RFID tag, the wire loops serve two purposes: 1) to transmit information (the stored encoded ID number) and 2) to act as a power source for the microchip using electromagnetic induction, which is caused as the RFID antenna picks up the radio signals emanating from a reader. Working: When a nearby RFID reader sends out a radio signal that is received by an RF tag, it causes an electromotive force to occur within the wire coil of the RFID antenna.  This in turn causes electrons to flow within the wire.  This electron flow within the coil is the electrical power source for all passive RF chips to operate.  The induction process causes the microchip to be powered up and respond by sending out a radio signal containing the identification code stored within its memory.  Thus, when a reader “wakes up” a RFID tag, it receives back a radio transmission containing the tag’s unique ID number, which then can be used to determine exactly what is labeled or associated with the tag. Passive RFID systems use tags with no internal power source and instead are powered by the electromagnetic energy transmitted from an RFID reader. Passive RFID tags are used for applications such as access control, file tracking, race timing, supply chain management, smart labels, and more. The lower price point per tag makes employing passive RFID systems economical for many industries. Active RFID systems use battery-powered RFID tags that continuously broadcast their own signal. Active RFID tags are commonly used as “beacons” to accurately track the real-time location of assets or in high-speed environments such as tolling. Active tags provide a much longer read range than passive tags, but they are also much more expensive.
  5. n the broadest definition, a sensor is an electronic component, module, or subsystem whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment and send the information to other electronics, frequently a computer processor. A better term for a sensor is a transducer. A transducer is any physical device that converts one form of energy into another. So, in the case of a sensor, the transducer converts some physical phenomenon into an electrical impulse that can then be interpreted to determine a reading. A microphone is a sensor that takes vibrational energy (sound waves) and converts it to electrical energy in a useful way for other components in the system to correlate back to the original sound. Another type of transducer that you will encounter in many IoT systems is an actuator. In simple terms, an actuator operates in the reverse direction of a sensor. It takes an electrical input and turns it into physical action. For instance, an electric motor, a hydraulic system, and a pneumatic system are all different types of actuators.
  6. http://www.businessinsider.com/internet-of-things-smart-home-automation-2016-8?IR=T
  7. http://www.businessinsider.com/internet-of-things-security-privacy-2016-8?IR=T http://home.howstuffworks.com/smart-home1.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Home_automation Two of the most prominent radio networks in home automation are ZigBee and Z-Wave. Both of these technologies are mesh networks, meaning there's more than one way for the message to get to its destination. Z-Wave uses a Source Routing Algorithm to determine the fastest route for messages. Each Z-Wave device is embedded with a code, and when the device is plugged into the system, the network controller recognizes the code, determines its location and adds it to the network. When a command comes through, the controller uses the algorithm to determine how the message should be sent. Because this routing can take up a lot of memory on a network, Z-Wave has developed a hierarchy between devices: Some controllers initiate messages, and some are "slaves," which means they can only carry and respond to messages. ZigBee's name illustrates the mesh networking concept because messages from the transmitter zigzag like bees, looking for the best path to the receiver. While Z-Wave uses a proprietary technology for operating its system, ZigBee's platform is based on the standard set by the Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) for wireless personal networks. This means any company can build a ZigBee-compatible product without paying licensing fees for the technology behind it, which may eventually give ZigBee an advantage in the marketplace. Like Z-Wave, ZigBee has fully functional devices (or those that route the message) and reduced function devices (or those that don't).
  8. http://www.econais.com/applications/industrial-applications/
  9. https://www.rs-online.com/designspark/eleven-internet-of-things-iot-protocols-you-need-to-know-about https://www.elprocus.com/what-is-zigbee-technology-architecture-and-its-applications/ http://internetofthingsagenda.techtarget.com/definition/ZigBee http://smarthome.com/sc-what-is-zwave-home-automation There exists an almost bewildering choice of connectivity options for electronics engineers and application developers working on products and systems for the Internet of Things (IoT).
  10. Zigbee is an IEEE 802.15.4-based and is low-cost and low-powered mesh network widely deployed for controlling and monitoring applications where it covers 10-100 meters within the range. This communication system is less expensive and simpler than the other proprietary short-range wireless sensor networks  as Bluetooth and Wi-Fi. Zigbee system structure consists of Zigbee coordinator, Router and End device. Every Zigbee network must consist of at least one coordinator which acts as a root and bridge of the network. The coordinator is responsible for handling and storing the information while performing receiving and transmitting data operations. Zigbee routers act as intermediary devices that permit data to pass to and fro through them to other devices. End devices have limited functionality to communicate with the parent nodes such that the battery power is saved. The number of routers, coordinators and end devices depends on the type of network such as star, tree and mesh networks. In a beacon mode, the coordinators and routers continuously monitor active state of incoming data hence more power is consumed. In this mode, the routers and coordinators do not sleep because at any time any node can wake up and communicate. However, it requires more power supply and its overall power consumption is low because most of the devices are in an inactive state for over long periods in the network. In a beacon mode, when there is no data communication from end devices, then the routers and coordinators enter into sleep state. Periodically this coordinator wakes up and transmits the beacons to the routers in the network. These beacon and non-beacon modes of Zigbee can manage periodic (sensors data), intermittent (Light switches) and repetitive data types. . In non-beacon-enabled networks, power consumption is decidedly asymmetrical: Some devices are always active while others spend most of their time sleeping.
  11. Z-Wave is a low-power RF communications technology that is primarily designed for home automation for products such as lamp controllers and sensors among many others. Optimized for reliable and low-latency communication of small data packets with data rates up to 100kbit/s, it operates in the sub-1GHz band and is impervious to interference from WiFi and other wireless technologies in the 2.4-GHz range such as Bluetooth or ZigBee. It supports full mesh networks without the need for a coordinator node and is very scalable, enabling control of up to 232 devices. Z-Wave uses a simpler protocol than some others, which can enable faster and simpler development, but the only maker of chips is Sigma Designs compared to multiple sources for other wireless technologies such as ZigBee and others.  Standard: Z-Wave Alliance ZAD12837 / ITU-T G.9959 Frequency: 900MHz (ISM) Range: 30m Data Rates: 9.6/40/100kbit/s 
  12. https://www.forbes.com/sites/gilpress/2017/03/20/6-hot-internet-of-things-iot-security-technologies/#5b577be31b49
  13. The market has been flooded with inexpensive devices — webcams, baby monitors, thermostats, and yes, even yoga mats and fry pans — that connect to the Internet, each of which has its own IP address. But these devices have little or no built-in security, and even when they do, users often neglect to even take the basic step of setting a password for them. That makes them easy targets for hackers wanting to create and use a botnet. In October of 2016, a botnet comprised of an estimated 100,000 unsecured IoT devices took an integral Internet infrastructure provider, Dyn, partially offline. As a result, many high-profile and high-traffic websites, including Netflix and Twitter, disappeared from the Internet for a short time.
  14. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Denial-of-service_attack
  15. https://www.globalsign.com/en/blog/denial-of-service-in-the-iot/