Definition of Training
When the plant is stalked or tied or supported over a
trellisorpergola in certain fashion orsomeof its parts
are removed or trimmed with aview togive the planta
particularshape, thisoperation is called training.
Training refers to judicious removal of part todevelop
a proper shape of plant capable of bearing heavy crop
The management of plant structure and
fruiting branches is called pruning and
Objectives of Training
Training controls the shape of plants.
It aims at proper distribution of fruit bearing
Control of insect &diseases.
To facilitate interception of sunrays to each
and every part of plant.
To develop a balance between vegetative and
reproductive growth of plant.
Principles of Training
Training should be started from very
beginning age of plant.
In plant having prominent apical
dominance, the terminal bud should be
removed to facilitate emergance of side
Drooping branches needs to be removed.
Definition of Pruning
Removal of any excess or undesirable/
unproductive branches, shoots or any other
parts of plants so as to allow the remaining part
to grow normally or according to desire of
prunner is called pruning.
Pruning is defined as the judicious removal of
parts like root, leaf, flower, fruit etc. to obtain
good and qualitative yield
Objective of Pruning
To control flowering and fruiting.
To remove diseased, damaged, insect infested
part of plant.
To remove weak shoots.
To thin out flower and fruits.
To augment production in plant which bear on
It ensure access to sunlight to bearing shoots.
Principle of Pruning
Pruning should be completed well in advance
of flowering season.
Apply Bordeaux paste after pruning to avoid
incidence of diseases.
Diseased, damaged and insect infested shoots
should be removed.
Avoid injury to plant while pruning.
STAKING AND TRAINING IN TOMATO PRODUCTION
The main reason for staking and supporting
tomato plants is to keep plants and off the ground.
This reduces losses from fruit rots when fruit are
not shaded by foliage.
Determinate varieties are not heavily pruned,
regardless of support system, because most of the
fruit produced on the branches.
Merits of staking tomato plants are:
It keeps the fruits above the ground
It helps in producing healthy fruits.
Relatively clean, firm and large sized fruits are
There are comparatively less chances from
incidence of pests
It facilitates spraying and dusting of pesticides/
It increases the plant stand per unit area.
It facilitate rapid picking and collection of fruits.
Training and staking help in better utilization of
sunlight and air.
It adds more cost of cultivation
There is a damage of spreading virus infection
unless necessary precaution are taken.
Stake and weavedtomato
1. Stake and Weave
In this training system, wooden or metal
stakes are driven between every other
tomato plant. Lines of twine are strung
between stakes on either side of the plants
to provide support.
Indeterminate varieties require longer
stakes (5-6 feet) than determinate varieties
(3-4 feet.) although the growth of
your specific variety will determine
TRAINING SYSTEMS OF TOMATO
Trellising is used to train indeterminate
The system consists of heavy gauge wire
strung horizontally across the top of
widely spaced, sturdy (3-6 inch) support
Lengths of twine are dropped from this
top wire and secured to the base of each
tomato plant (or to a bottom wire, if used).
A foot length of mesh can be folded into
a cylindrical cage with an 18 inch
The cage can be supported by a stake, or
if the bottom cross-wires are cut out the
cage can be pressed into the ground on its
For indeterminate varieties, cages should
be 5 feet high; determinate varieties can
be grown with shorter cages.
Comparison of Tomato TrainingSystems
Earliness 3rd 4th 2nd Best
Fruit Size 4th 3rd 2nd Largest
4th Largest 2nd 3rd
Fruit Cracking 3rd 4th 2nd Worst
Fruit Rotting Worst 2nd 2nd 2nd
Fruit Quality Worst 2nd 2nd 2nd
Fruit Sunburn Worst 4th 3rd 2nd
Cost/Acre 4th 2nd Largest 3rd
Pest Control 4th 3rd 2nd Best
TRAINING AND PRUNING OF TOMATOIN
Greenhouse tomatoes, as a result of their indeterminate
growth habit, require continuous pruning and training to the
The trellis system consists of wire cable stretched from one end
of the house to the other between two anchor posts.
The anchors should be metal posts cemented into the
The cable is stretched tightly over each row of plants at a
height of 8 to 10 feet and fastened on one end to a cable
The downward pull exerted on the cable by a single
tomato plant with five or six well-developed clusters of
fruit might be 10 to 12 pounds.
Therefore, extra supporting posts will be needed every
20 to 30 feet down the row of plants.
Cable diameter should be at least 1/16 inch with 3/32 inch
Training and Pruning of Capsicum in
Capsicum plants are pruned to retain four stems. The tip of the
plant splits into two at 5th or 6th node and are left to grow.
These two branches again split in to two giving rise to four
branches. At every node the tip splits into two giving riseto
one strong branch and one week branch.
The pruning is done after 30 days of transplanting at an
interval of 8 to 10 days,
Resulting in bigger fruits with better quality and high
productivity. The capsicum plants can also be pruned to two
stems and same level of yield can be maintained.
The main stem of plant is tied with four plastic
twine to train along and tied to GI wire grid
provided on the top of the plants. This is
practiced after four weeks of transplanting. The
new branches and plants are trained along the
Training and Pruning of Cucumber
in Protected Cultivation
Branches, leaves, flowers and fruit should be pruned to
maintain a proper balance between the vegetative and
reproductive growth to maximize production.
Cucumbers are often trained on a string or wire system.
The umbrella system, which is best used for seedless
varieties, is straightforward and not too demanding in
labour. Seeded cucumber varieties perform best with
the tree trellis system
This system is straightforward, not
too demanding in labor and easily
1.Tie the cucumber plant to a
vertical wire (A), 7 feet tall. Pinch
out the growing point at the top.
2.Provide support for all fruit that
develops on the lower part of the
3.Remove all laterals in the leaf
axis on the main stem. (B)
4.The top two laterals should be trained
over the wire to hang down on either
side of the main stem. Allow these to
grow to two-thirds of the way down the
main stem. (E)
5.When the fruits on the first laterals
have been harvested (C), those laterals
should be removed back to a strong
shoot, allowing the second laterals to
take over (D). Repeat this process for
6.This renewal system will maintain
productivity of plants.
Tree Trellis System
1.Tie the cucumber plants to horizontal
wires (B) spaced about 2 feet apart. The
top wire should be about 6 feet from the
2.Remove all the leaves and laterals on
the bottom 20 inches of the plants. (D)
3.When the main stem has reached the
top wire, tie it and remove the growing
4.Allow the laterals at each leaf axis
along the main stem to develop two
leaves, then cut the growing point.
5.Train the top shoot developing the
leaf axis along the wire. (G)
6.When most of the fruit has been
harvested on the main stem, allow a
lateral to develop as replacement and
prune in the same manner as the
main stem. (H)
Over Head “Vertical Line” Trellis
Allow only one main
stem to develop by
pruning all lateral vines.
Continue to remove all
lateral vines on the main
stem throughout the life
of the crop
Traning and Pruning in Bittergourd
Training the vines are allowed to spread on bower made from
Bitter gourd develops many side branches that are not
productive. To improve yield, remove lateral
branches until the runner reaches the top of the trellis.
Leave 4–6 laterals and cut the tip of the main runner to induce
early cropping. Removal of lateral branches in the first 10
nodes has a positive effect on total yield.
Without pruning, most of the female flowers occur between the
10 th and 40 th nodes, or at a height of 0.5–2.0 m.
Training and Pruning in
Trained on bower system .
The auxiliary buds are to be removed weekly till the vine
attaining bower and finally the top of the vine is to be pruned
15 cm below the bower allowing two auxiliary buds to grow
which are later in trialed on the bower.
Two months after sowing male flower initiate following the
female in the sequence of 5:5 at the end of 5th flower of
female the vines are again pruned allowing 2-3 auxilliary bud
to grow on the primary vines. When crop attains 2 ½- 3 month
and stem of vine become thumb thickness the jute string is to
removed and older pale to yellow coloured leaves near the
bottom of the vine are to be removed and destroyed.
Training and Pruning in Ridge
gourd and Sponge gourd
In small homestead gardens, ridge gourd and
sponge gourd are trailed or pandal at 1.5-2.0 m
Commercial crop are trained on a kniffing
The crop is trained when the seedling are
about 10 -15 cm tall. The early crop can be
allowed to trail on the ground, rainy season
crop should be staked so that the fruits are
prevented from direct contact with the soil.
It is a practice of cultivation crop regrowth
after the first harvest for subsequent
Ratoon croping is growing a fresh crop from
the stubbles or sucker of the plant crop without
Ratooning in Brinjal
In northern plains the kharif crop of brinjal is transplanted
in july and gives good fruiting till the end of november.
But due to prevailing low temperature in Dec. and Jan.,
fruiting and plant growth is totally checked. The summer
crop of brinjal is planted at the end of Feb. or in the first
week of march which starts giving fruiting only in the
beginning of May.
This crops gives very poor return to the growers due to
very late fruiting and also because of low yield in
extremely hot months of summer season.
An extra early and profitable production of this
vegetable can be obtained in spring summer season by
following ratooning technology standardised by the
division of vegetable crops, IARI,New Delhi. For this,
the standing crop of kharif season is protected from
frost and cold injury in Dec. and Jan. by giving 3-4
light irrigartion in the field.
When the danger of frost is over in the last week of
Jan.or first week of Feb., the plant of standing crop are
pruned in such a way that only 30-40 cm plant portion
is left above the ground .
Dwarf varieties should be pruned lightly, whereas tall
and spreading type should be pruned more severely as
per their growth habit.
After that weeding spading is done and fertilezer
Diammonium phosphate @150 kg/ha is mixed properly
in the soil . Irrigation are given from time as per the
requirement of the crop.
Two or three protective spray of insecticide and pesticide
should be given at 15 days interval.
The first picking of fruit can be made 30 to 40 days after
Extra early harvest of fruit available from middle of
march gives higher profit to the growers.
As per observation, 30 to 40 percent extra yield can br
obtained from ratoon crop as compared to newly planted
brinjal in summer season.
Traning, Pruning and Ratooning in Pointed
Vines trained on trellis system facilitate effective pollination
and luxuriant plant growth leading to earlier flowering and
higher yields than flat bed system. (K. Singh 1989;Yadav et al.
Genarally training is done by two system:-
Bower system –Horizontal netted wire support 2.5 m above
Single row trellis system – The trellis is generally 2 m high,
constructed from stakes 2 m apart, where a system of vertical
strings is spaced 30 cm apart between horizontal wires
beginning 1 m above the soil surface.
During winter plants undergo a dormant phase and
the growth of meristematic tissues is retarded to a
great extent. Pruning vines to 30 cm long before
winter increase fruit yield.
For ratoon crop, the NPK mixture with well
FYM is applied by loosening the soil around the
mound towards the end of winter or before start of
fruiting every year.
Training of Ivy gourd
Ivy gourd can be grown with training on trellis, 80 cm
in height , staking with bamboo sticks, 2 m in length,
and secured with plastic ties
Shoot tips are usually pruned three days after
transplanting to stimulate vegetable growth for extra
branches at the early stage of production.
(Lin et al.,2006)
Pruning of Ivygourd
Under dry cool conditions, plant growth slows down
and the plant is readily infected by powdery mildew.
Besides, older branches that dry out and become
corky will no longer produce leaves.
The bottom 30 cm from the ground should be pruned
to leave it bare. if the plant is grown for young shoots,
flower and fruits should be cut back to stimulate new
Training, Pruning and Ratooning in
Pinching the terminal bud when the central main stem
is necessary and it attains a height of 75 cm which
will be 75 days after planting.
Vijayakumar et al.(2002) reported that early pinching
at 60 days after sowing is better than pinching at 90
days to realize higher pod yields.
Cutting down the plant to a height of about one meter
from the ground level can be practices after one year
of planting to allow ratooning of the crop.
This ratooning results in sprouting of several
new branches and it is better to allow 6 to 10
branches per tree starting at a height of about 60
cm above the ground level.
This can be done during winter (Nov.-Dec.)
during which no fruit production is seen. Crop
can be normally retained for 3-4 years with
regular pruning once an year.