Person-Centered Approach to ServicePhysicalHealth Family School/WorkRecreationSocial/EmotionalHome“What is important to thisindividual?”Communi-cation
Realistic & FunctionalRealistic (Level of Functioning)Profound – IQ less than 20 (mulitple disabilities)Severe – IQ between 20-34 (minimal skills)Moderate – IQ between 35-49 (life skills & basicacademic skills)Mild – IQ between 50 – 69 (educable, independence)Borderline – IQ between 70-79 (routine work, lowcoping skills)Below Average – IQ between 80 – 89Functional(useful/meaningful)• Stimulation• Basic Needs/Care• Basic Skills/Social/Independence• Vocational/Life Skills• Academic Skills/Social/Independence• Academic/Hands-onVocations/Coping Skills
Case Studies…Charlie is in Yr. 3. He hascerebral palsy which affectshis ability to walk. He is in awheelchair. He has dailyphysiotherapy for weakmuscles. His IQ is “normal”.Lulu is in KG1. She hasDown Syndrome withmoderate cognitive delays.She likes other children andcoming to nursery but she isnot yet meeting her motorand communication mile-stones.Rashid is in Yr. 6 and is diagnosedwith autism. He is 3 years behind inacademic skills and has greatdifficulty socializing. He sometimesmakes “buzzing” noises in class.Sara is just entering high school inGrade 9. She is diagnosed with mildcognitive delays which makes her 4-5years behind her peers in academicand social skills. She is now enteringa new building with newteachers, routines and unfamiliarpeople.
Ask Yourself These Questions toDevelop an Individual Programme:1. “What is Realistic?”2. “What is „Normal/Normative‟?”3. “What is „Functional‟?”4. “What Goals are most important right now?”5. “How will I Assess/monitor Progress?”
Least Restrictive/Least IntrusiveApproachAt all times, we respect the person’s dignity, personalspace and ability to make their own decisions• Use “Graduated Prompting” (verbal, gestural, physical, hand-over-hand)• Provide adequate processing time after instructions• Have a clear behavioural policy in place to ensure professional practices whenworking with individuals with special needs or behavioural challenges
Setting Specific GoalsA “Goal” should be: 1) Realistic 2) Achievable 3) Measurable… and must take into consideration what the person already knows (baselineskill)What the Person canDo…Under whichconditions…With what degree ofaccuracy…Currently, John eats with his hands but can use a spoon when given verbalreminders.GOAL:John will feed himself using a fork or spoon, independently, 60% of the time.Currently, Shamma can independently write 2 letters to represent her name.GOAL:Shamma will write her full name tracing dotted letters, 90% of the time.
So What about „Inclusion‟?‘Inclusion’ means that we believe every child is entitled to participation inschooling and other activities with their typically-developing peers.Providing theRIGHT Support• IEP (goals)• Modifiedcurriculum• Circle ofFriends“buddies”• “PartialParticipation”• AlternativeProgramme
Managing BehavioursOne of the biggest obstacles to inclusion is challenging behaviour.In trying to develop a plan for managing challenging behaviours, always tryto understand the “underlying cause” first. All behaviours stem one of the 4causes:• Attention• Escape/Avoidance• Tangible (ie: trying to get item)• Sensory
“A-B-C” Analysis” (Functional Analysis):Date & Time: Antecedent Behaviour Consequence Notes:June 2, 2:05 am Playing in sand withRashid and Tom; Tomwas playing with thetoy truckJohn screamed andhit Tom. Grabbedtruck.Timeout, asked toapologize to Tomwhich he did.June 3, 8:30 am John arrived late;mother said therewere problems athome with siblings.John threw toys onthe floor during circletime.Timeout, asked topick them up.Refused, asked againand then staff helpedhim to followthrough.In order to develop a plan of action for eliminating misbehaviours,you must first observe and analyze the A-B-C’s for a minimum of 2weeks. Then you will begin to see patterns.
Things You Never Knew AboutRaising/TeachingMulti-Lingual Children That Can“Make” or “Break” ThemPresented By:Francesca McGearyIngeniousEd.
Quick TestSherblaine• Short e vowel sound + long a vowel sound• e• ay, ai, a-e• Sherblayne, sherblaine, sherblaneFlegstine• Short e vowel sound + long i vowel sound• e• i-e, y-eStromth• short o vowel sound• constonant cluster mth
It is easy to label EAL childrenas „dyslexic‟…
“Student D”•Grade 4•Spanish MT•Schooled InSpanish until lastyear•In ESL one year.•Can speak andwrite in Spanishto just belowgrade level•This child in only1 year has movedup 3 grade levels.Why?
“Student A”•Grade 6•Arabic MT•Schooled inArabic/Englishsince KG.•weak MT canspeak in Arabicbut cannot writewell in Arabic•Student hasmaintainedsame level ofwriting skills forpast 3 years withlittle progress.Why?
*Bilingual Brain Activity by Pablo Jaime Sainz 2010 @ La Prensa San DiegoMono-lingual versus MultilingualLearners
1. “We only speak in English now because he goes to an English school”2. “English is becoming the world language so our mother-tongue is notimportant anymore”3. “Bilingual/EAL children seem to speak English fluently, so they must beable to read and write at the same level.”4. “My child has been educated in English since they were in KG so theyaren’t an EAL student.”5. “I’ve taught it so they must have got it.”Popular Misconceptions:
6. “It’s easier for young children to learn a language.”7. “If a bilingual/EAL child has difficulties learning English, drop the other one”…8. “Bilingual children start school behind their mother tongue peers and nevercatch up. “
How to Build “Play” into EVERYExperience At Home and SchoolPresented By:Alison SchofieldIngeniousEd.―