BIOLOGY- ANIMAL KINGDOM-9 AND 11

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Top to bottom ANIMAL KINGDOM chapter from 11th biology textbook has been presented in power point slides to make the chapter easy to learn and understand.
Thanks to my biology teacher of Gulf Asian English School MRS.ALARMELU MAM.

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BIOLOGY- ANIMAL KINGDOM-9 AND 11

  1. 1. Arrangement of cells Body symmetry Nature of coelom Patterns of digestive Circulatory systems
  2. 2. Cellular level Tissue level Organ level Organ system • SPONGES • COELENTERATES • PLATYHELMINTHES
  3. 3. a. ROD LIKE STRUCTURE FORMED ON THE DORSOL SIDE DURING ENBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT b. ANIMALS WITH NOTOCHORD ARE CALLED CHORDATES WHICH DO NOT PERFORM THIS STRUCTURE IS CALLED NON CHORDATES a. THE BODY IS INTERNALLY AND EXTERNALLY DIVIDED INTO SEGMENTS . b. IN EARTHWORM – THE BODY SHOWS METAMERIC SEGMENTATION - METAMERISM
  4. 4. An undifferentiated layer , mesoglea , is present In between the ectoderm and the endoderm , that Develop embryo has a 3rd Germinal layer , mesoderm
  5. 5. Next
  6. 6. SPONGES EUSPONGIA
  7. 7. WATER OSTIA (MINUTE SPORE) SPONOCOEL (CENTRAL CAVITY) OSCULUM ENTERS SEXES ARE SEPARATE (HERMAPHRODITE)
  8. 8. PENNATULA ADAMSIA
  9. 9. EXHIBIT TWO BASIC FORMS CALLED POLYP AND MEDUSA POLYP - THEY ARE SESSILE AND CYLINDRICAL – HYDRA MEDUSA - UMBRELLA SHAPED AND FREE SWIMMING - AURELIA POLUP PRODUCE MEDUSA ASEXUALLY MEDUSA PRODUCE POLYP SEXUALLY GORGONIA PHYSALIA
  10. 10. PLEUROBRACHIA
  11. 11. PLANARIA FLATWORM
  12. 12. LIVER FLUKE TAPE WORM
  13. 13. ASCARIS
  14. 14. FILARIA WORM HOOK WORM
  15. 15. NEREIS
  16. 16. OYSTER PILA SQUID
  17. 17. LET’S LEARN ON .. Contains Radula CHITON
  18. 18. OPHIURA ASTERIAS SEA LILY
  19. 19. SEA CUCUMBER SEA URCHIN
  20. 20. Saccoglossus Balanoglossus
  21. 21.  Presence of a Notochord  A Dorsal Hollow Nerve Chord is Present  Chordates Have Paired Pharyngeal Gill Slits
  22. 22. Chordates stand varied due to many reasons. bilaterally symmetrical and triploblastic. They are the only Phylum which are coelomates with organ-system level of organisation. They possess a post anal tail and a closed circulatory system.
  23. 23. 1 Subphyla Urochordata 2 Subphyla Cephalochordata 3 Subphyla Vertebrata
  24. 24.  SUBPHYLA UROCHORDATA AND CEPHALOCHORDATA ARE TOGETHER REFERRED TO AS PROTOCHORDATES. THEY ARE EXCLUSIVELY MARINE. • UROCHORDATA NOTOCHORD IS PRESENT ONLY IN LARVAL TAIL. EG: ASCIDIA, SALPA,DOLIOLUM • CEPHALOCHORDATA NOTOCHORD EXTENDS FROM HEAD TO TAIL REGION AND PERSISTENT HROUGHOUT THEIR LIFE. EG:BRANCHIOSTOMA (AMPHIOXUS / LANCELET)
  25. 25. Characteristics Besides other chordates, vertebrates have:  They possess notochord during embryonic period. It is replaced by a cartilaginous/bony vertebral column in adults.  A ventral muscular heart with 2,3 or 4 chambers.  Kidneys for excretion and osmoregulation.  Paired appendages which may be fins or limbs. ALL VERTEBRATES ARE CHORDATES BUT ALL CHORDATES ARE NOT VERTEBRATES.
  26. 26. Vertebrates are divided into 7 classes : 1. CLASS CYCLOSTOMATA 2. CLASS CHONDRICHYTES 3. CLASS OSTEICHTHYES 4. CLASS AMPHIBIA 5. CLASS REPTILIA 6. CLASS AVES 7. CLASS MAMMALIA
  27. 27.  Cyclostomes are ectoparasites on some fishes.  They have an elongated body bearing 6-15 pairs of gill slits for respiration.  Their body does not possess any scales or paired fins.  Their cranium & vertebral column are cartilaginous.  They have closed circulation.  They are marine but migrate for spawning in fresh water. Their life span ends within a few days after spawning. But their larvae return to the ocean.
  28. 28.  They are marine animals with streamlined body and have cartilaginous endoskeleton.  Mouth is located ventrally.  Notochord is persistent throughout their life span.  Gill slits are separate without operculum (gill cover).  Skin is tough, containing minute placoid scales.  Teeth are modified placoid scales which are backwardly directed. Their jaws are very powerful.  Air- bladder is absent, so they have to swim constantly to avoid sinking.
  29. 29. • They are both marine and fresh water with bony endoskeleton. • Their body is streamlined. • Mouth is mostly terminal. • They have four pairs of gills, covered by an operculum on each side. • Skin is covered with cycloid (ctenoid) scales. • Air bladder is present which regulates up thrust. • Heart is two- chambered. • They too have 2 different genders. • They possess external fertilization. They are mostly oviparous and development is direct. Eg: Exocoetus , Hippocampus, Labeo, Claris
  30. 30. o Their possess the creeping or crawling mode of locomotion. o They are mostly terrestial. o Their body is covered by dry and cornified skin, epidermal scales(scutes).Their ears are represented by tympanum. o Limbs are of two pairs, if present. o They have a three-chambered heart,excluding crocodiles which have a four-chambered one. o Reptiles are cold-blooded animals. o Snakes & lizards shed their scales as skin cast. o They have different genders . Fertilisation is internal. o They are oviparous and development is direct. Eg: Turtle, Tree lizard, Crocodile, Cobra
  31. 31. The presence of feathers, makes them to fly, a beak and wings(modified forelimbs).  Their hind limbs are modified for walking, swimming, or clasping branches.  Skin is dry without glands except the oil gland in the base of the tail.  Endoskeleton is fully bony and long bones are hollow.
  32. 32. The digestive tract has additional chambers, crop & gizzard. Heart is four-chambered and they are warm-blooded animals. Respiration is done by lungs. They have different genders. Fertilisation is internal. They are oviparous & development is direct. Eg: Crow, Pigeon, Parrot, Ostrich, Vulture
  33. 33.  found in a variety of habitats.  Some are adapted to fly or live in water.  they possess milk producing glands by which their young ones are nourished.  They have two pairs of limbs, for walking, running, climbing, etc.
  34. 34.  Their skin possess hair.  External ears are present.  Heart is four chambered. Respiration is done by lungs.  They are warm-blooded.  They have different genders, fertilization is internal.  They are viviparous and development is direct. Eg: Dog, Platypus, Tiger, Rat, Dolphin

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