1. PHYLUM : PORIFERA
( Porus=pore; ferre=bear; sponges)
Porifera are commonly called sponges, mostly
marine but may live in fresh water.
Mostly sessile (stalk less) and attach to
They are asymmetrical.
They have cellular level organization.
They have a single large opening called osculum.
(intake and exit of food through a single opening).
They lack mouth, digestive cavity and anus.
Sponges are covered with hard outer skeleton.
Reproduction is both asexual as well as sexual.
Examples: sycon, euplectella , euspongia etc.
2. PHYLUM :
(koilos=hollow; enteron= gut)
These all organisms are aquatic (marine or fresh water.)
They may be solitary or colonial.
They have tissue level of organization but lacks organ and
organ system. Symmetry is radial.
It has a single aperture, the mouth. It has no anus. Mouth bears
tentacles (flexible processes).
They have special stinging cells, called cnidoblasts for defense
Reproduction is mainly asexual but sometimes undergoes
Fertilization may be internal or external. Hard skeleton occurs in
Example: hydra(fresh water polyp), obelia (the sea fur), Aurelia
3. PHYLUM : PLATYHELMINTHES
(platys=flat; helmins=worm; flatworm)
These are most primitive, soft, leaf or ribbon like
organisms without segmentation.
These are mostly parasites, few are free living.
They attach to the host by suckers or hooks.
They are the first animals to have third primary
germ layer, this shows tissue differentiation leading
to organ formation.
Digestive track is incomplete. They have flame-cells
They are mostly hermaphrophite (bisexual).
Examples: dugesia (planaria), fasciola (liver fluke),
taenia solium (tape worms).
4. PHYLUM : NEMATODA
Animal body is cylindrical, flattened, bilateral,
triploblastic(third layer), unsegmented.
Size of the body varies from microscopic to several
centimeters in length.
Body wall is covered with tough cuticle. Cilia are
Pseudocoelom (false body cavity) is present.
Digestive track is complete.
Sexes are separate (bisexual).
These are generally parasites and causes diseases.
They may be free living in soil or water.
Examples: ascaris (intestinal sound-worm),
hookworm, pinworm filarial worm.
(THE PIN WORM)
5. PHYLUM : ANNELIDA
(Annelus=a ring; segmented worms)
Animal body is soft, elongated, bilateral, flattened.
Body is divided into segments by rings like groove and
Body bears locomotory appendages, parapodia, setae.
Alimentary canal is complete, straight and extends from
mouth to anus. These are first animals to have true body
The specialized cells called metanephridia helps in
Closed circulatory system has appeared and nervous
system starts developing.
Reproduction occurs by sexual means. Sexes may be
separate (unisexual) or united (hermaphroditic).
Examples: nereis (the sandworm), pheretima
6. PHYLUM : ARTHOPDA
(Arthos=jointed; podos=foot; animals with jointed
It is the largest phylum includes prawn, crabs,
insects, spiders, etc.
They occur in soil, water and as parasites in plants
Body is segmented externally but not separated
Body is divided into 3 regions: head, thorax and
Interior part of the body forms head and bears
sense organs and small brain. Sexes are separate.
Hard exoskeleton is made up of cuticle. Body
contains blood, alimentary canal is complete,
respiration take place by gills, trachea, book lungs
7. PHYLUM : MOLLUSCA
(molluscus = soft)
It includes aquatic organisms like snails, octopus,
slugs, oysters etc.
Animal body is soft, unsegmented without
. Body is divided into 3 regions: head, visceral
mass and foot.
. Sometimes body is covered by fleshy folds called
. In most cases, calcarious shell is secreted by
mantle which covers the body.
. Alimentary canal is complete. Respiration is
through gills and sexes are separate.
. Examples: octopus, snail, logio, sepia etc.
8. PHYLUM : ECHINODERMATA
(Spiny skinned animals)
(Spiny skinned animals)
. These are marine, gregarious(at bottom), slow
. The shape of the animal ay be star-like,
cylindrical, melon, flower-like etc.
. Body is covered by spines. True body cavity,
podia for movement and all animals lacks head.
. Sexes are separate.
. Examples: a s te ria s (starfish), ho lo thuria ns
(sea-cucumber), a nte d o n (feather star)
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. These animals have notochords at early stage
. Notochord provides place for attachment of
muscles, internal support and locomotory
. These are mainly bilateral, unsegmented,
triploblastic, have body cavity, marine, soft and
have warm or vase like body.
Examples : amphioxus, balanoglossus, herd
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. These are bilateral, triploblastic, have body
. The animal body consists of 4 regions: head,
neck, trunk and tail.
. Well developed nervous system and sense
. There are 2 pairs of appendages (fins or
. Respiration is through gills. Sexes are
Cold blooded animals having 2
Body may be long, laterally compressed
and spindle shaped.
It consists of head, trunk and tail. Skin is
covered with scales.
They are egg laying animals.
Fertilization is external. Fishes breathe
There are many kinds of fishes. They have been
broadly grouped under 3 categories:
1. CYCLOSTOMATA : The round mouthed fishes.
Example :- The hag fish, the lamprey.
2. CHONDRICHTHYES : The cartilaginous fishes.
Examples :- Scoliodon (dog fish or the Indian Shark),
Sting ray, electric ray (torpedo).
3. OSTEICHTHYES :
The body fishes.
Examples :- labio
horse), tuna, etc.
fish or the Indian
The animals included in ambhibia are called
Respiration can takes place by gills, skin and
lungs. Heart is 3 chambered.
There are 2 pairs of pentadactyl limbs. The skin is
smooth, moist, rich in mucous and poison glands.
Scales are mostly absent.
Amphibians occur in fresh water and moist land.
There are no marine forms.
Examples :- rana tigerina (Indian frog), bufo (toad),
hyla (tree frog), necturus (mud puppy) etc.
It includes lizards, snakes, tortoises, turtles, etc.
These are terrestrial animals and live in warmer
These are cold blooded. Body is covered by
Teeth are usually present in all reptiles except in
tortoises and turtles. Respiration occurs by lungs.
Heart is 3 chambered. Most reptiles are
carnivorous or insectivorous but tortoises are
Example: Hemidactylus (wall lizard), chameleon,
The class aves includes birds which are the most
beautiful. They range in size from smallest humming
bird to largest ostrich.
There are 2 pairs of limbs. The forelimbs are
modified into wings.
The body is covered by a n exoskeleton of
Mouth is surrounded by beak and there are no
teeth. Respiration takes place by lungs.
Heart is 4 chambered.
Examples : columbo (pigeon), struthio (ostrich),
kite, pea fowl, etc.
Mammals are terrestrial. The body is divisible
into head, neck, trunk and tail.
The body is covered by exoskeleton of hair.
Respiration occurs by lungs.
Heart is 4 chambered. Mammals are mostly
viviparous (alive-bearing) but some are oviparous
and lay eggs like - platypus and echidna.
Examples: kangaroo, bat, rattus (rat),
oryctolagus (rabbit), felis (cat), etc.