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WK8 Byzantine


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WK8 Byzantine

  1. 1. WK8 Agenda • Project 8 per group: members by Jan 18, 2009 • Pick one topic for multiple comparison project: religion, music, art, language and literature • Discussion • Byzantine Lecture • Homework (-2 per week for late work) • Amazing points • Fishbone • Exam Result
  2. 2. Byzantine Discussion • What do you think of Byzantine? • Where is it? • When was it? • Who do you know? • Why should we know about it? Better Thai than Byzantine? • How did we know about it?
  3. 3. Byzantine, Medieval World • Roman influenced: The Byzantine, Islamic, and Early-Medieval Western Worlds • No clear beginning date: successors of the Roman empire, Constantine vs. Diocletian or Justinian
  4. 4. Byzantine • Geography Reasons for moving: – Political stability – Economic advantage: cross roads of Europe and Asia • Who moved the capital city to here? • How many church? • What other cities do you think of?
  5. 5. Early Byzantine • Capital city at Constantinople • Constantine granted Decree of Milan 313 AD. – Equal rights between Christian and Roman – Christian could be government official – Christian could own asset – Christian could practice religious activities • Official religion of empire in 391 AD.
  6. 6. Early Byzantine • Early Christian art: – Mosaic – archivolt • Sant-Apollinare Nuovo • St. John Studios • Marble transenna or screen • Copied Greek literature What’s the official language?
  7. 7. Byzantine, 1st Golden Age • Justinian 527-565 AD. – Theodora – Justinian fought hard to win back the West (largest empire) – Active role in religion: “One God, one empire, one religion” – Justinian Code: Corpus Juris Civilis • Foundation for most European law – Goal was to centralize government • Impose legal and doctrinal conformity
  8. 8. Byzantine, 1st Golden Age • Volts, Dome Basilica • Pendentive architecture: -Cathedral of Saint Sophia (Holy Wisdom) – Symbolize the inward and spiritual character of the Christian religion – Little appearance on the outside – Beautiful mosaics and marble columns inside – Lighting/windows : floating – Dome in square • Ivory carving: Justinian as Conqueror: Barberini Ivory • Jewelry making: gold • Silk
  9. 9. Byzantine, 1st Golden Age • Heraclius: 610-641 AD. – Much greater Eastern influence – Challenged by the Persian armies which already won all the Asian territories
  10. 10. Iconoclastic Controversy • Leo the Isaurian (Iconoclastic emperor) 717- 741 AD. – Defeated the Arab troop with Greek fire: a mixture of sulfur, naphtha and quicklime – Enforced ban on images in Eastern churches (Today survival art works come from Italy and Palestine) • Result? – East and West religious disputes (patriarch vs. pope) – Images and Icons • Education of women – Tutoring at home
  11. 11. Second Golden Age • Icon pictures • Paris Psalter(Psalms of David) • St. Mark in Venice – 4 square domes at the corners – More space • Agriculture, Industrial • International trade – Import: • Luxurious goods from the East – Export: • Raw material
  12. 12. Second Golden Age • 1054 AD:Greek Orthodox Separation • 1060 AD: The holy land was under Muslim. • 1071 AD Seljuks invasion: Battle of Manzikurt • Byzantine asked help from Western Europe (Pope Urban II) • 1096-1099 AD: First Crusade – France, German, and Italy traveled 3 years to Jerusalem and the Outremer • Saladin Muslim leader fought back at Edessa (2nd Crusade)
  13. 13. Late Byzantine • 1189-1192 AD: 3rd Crusade: Richard the lion heart of England battled at Acre • 1204-1261 AD: 4th Crusade: Crusaders invaded Constantinople and governed for 60 years – Templar, Teutonic, Hospitaller • 1453 AD: End of the empire, Sultan Mehmet II renovated the city and renamed it to Istanbul
  14. 14. Stability of the Byzantine • Occasional able rulers • Efficient bureaucratic government: – Support education(opposite of the Latin West): literate laity – Support religion – Support economic: regulated prices and wages, maintained system of licensing What organization in the government will benefit from this kind of structure? • Firm economic base: – Import: • Far Eastern luxurious – Export • Silk, gold and silver coinage
  15. 15. Western Debt to Byzantine • Acted as a wall for Europe against Islam • Helped preserve classical Greek learning • Influence western art: St. Mark’s basilica in Venice, Giotto and El Greco works
  16. 16. Byzantine Time Politic, Economic, Knowledge, Art: Painting, Literature, Drama Society Philosophy, Religion Sculpture, Architecture Technology 395 AD Capital city at Byzantium or Edict of Milan, Spread of Christian art: Mosaic, Greek literature East and West Constantinople Christianity, Council of Nicea, archivolt Roman Empire Bureaucratic government: active role from the emperor Sant-Aplollinare Nuovo 476 AD. Byzantine: behind the scene, St. John Studios End of the Western complexity Marble transenna or screen Empire 527-565 AD. Justinian Largest empire, Justinian Code Volts, Dome Basilica 1st Golden Age Pendentive architecture: Cathedral of Saint Sophia 610-641 AD. Heraclius Greek fire, Silk, Ivory carving: Barberini Ivory, jewelry making, 726-843 AD. Emperor Leo the Isaurian: Persian Educated woman Iconoclastic threat, Controversy 900-1200 AD. Agriculture, Industrial, Official language: Greek, St. Mark in Venice Second Golden Age International trade, Religion: Greek Orthodox Icon picture 1071 AD. Seljuks invasion: Battle Church, Patriarch Paris Psalter(Psalms of of Manzikurt 1054 AD :Greek Orthodox David) 1096-1099 AD. Separation First Crusade 1200-1 453 AD. 1204-1261 AD. Ottoman Turk Crusade invasion invasion 1453 AD: End of the empire, Sultan Mehmet II renovated the city and renamed it to Istanbul
  17. 17. Homwork • Table for high and later middle ages (10th to 15th century)
  18. 18. Exam Amazing Points • How do geography affect civilization? Location effect to your business? Already talked about this many times even in the review lecture! • Know the countries and sea but wrong river? Nile river is in Europe? – Greek and pyramid? – Indus and Parthenon? We already mentioned Parthenon in the multiple choice and you wrote with Indus civilization? – Know Parthenon in short answer but answered incorrectly in multiple choice? • Are you Buddhist? • Basilicas instead of ziggurats? Shouldn’t you confuse between ziggurat and pyramid? • Logical reasoning: – Blank? – It’s old? Long time? – Medicine? Then…what civilization is the father of medicine?