The Dark Ages, Part II A.D. 500-1000
Medieval Art <ul><li>Church funded Art, Art served the Church </li></ul><ul><li>Early on, some questioned if it was okay t...
Altarpieces <ul><li>Almost every church had a painting on the main altar as a focus of worship.  Mary (the Madonna) was a ...
Altarpiece, Cologne, Germany
Formula for Altarpieces: <ul><li>Figures float in ethereal golden land </li></ul><ul><li>The holy have gold plates behind ...
Secular Art <ul><li>It did exist  </li></ul><ul><li>(castle decorations, for example)  </li></ul><ul><li>but very little s...
Was the Rest of the World Dark? <ul><li>Certainly not! </li></ul><ul><li>Central America  – the Mayans and Toltecs were bu...
The Byzantine Empire <ul><li>Capital = Constantinople (today = Istanbul) </li></ul><ul><li>Language, Literature, and Art w...
<ul><li>Linked to Europe with sea trade, esp. in Venice </li></ul><ul><li>Europe’s Crusade travelers came home with storie...
St. Mark’s Basilica (Venice, Italy 1094 AD) <ul><li>Built in 828 in the Doge’s palace to house the relics of Mark stolen f...
 
 
Hagia Sophia (Istanbul, 537 AD) <ul><li>Was a basilica/ </li></ul><ul><li>cathedral </li></ul><ul><li>Then became a mosque...
 
 
Hagia Sophia Interior
 
Hagia Sophia Mosaic (Detail)
Islamic Art <ul><li>Intricate abstract designs </li></ul><ul><li>Pictures of people and animals are rare, since Islam forb...
Interior Ceiling Mosaics, Blue Mosque, Istanbul
Islamic Calligraphy, Alhambra, Granada, Spain
The Islamic World <ul><li>711 AD followers of Islam landed at the Rock of Gilbraltar and conquered Spain and Portugal. </l...
The Moors <ul><li>Spanish Muslims (= Moors) fostered higher learning and built some of Europe’s greatest cities while the ...
Golden Age of Muslim Spain <ul><li>Uniquely, it had a spirit of tolerance and cooperation between Islam, Judaism, and Chri...
The Alhambra
Charlemagne (742?-814 AD) <ul><li>Charles the Great, king of the Franks </li></ul><ul><li>On Christmas Day, 800 AD, the Po...
<ul><li>Created the “First Reich” from Germany to Sicily </li></ul><ul><li>Created a mini-Renaissance, a Roman revival. </...
Treaty of Verdun (843 AD) <ul><li>Split the Empire among his three heirs (Charles, Louis, and Lothair) </li></ul><ul><li>T...
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The dark Ages Part 2

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The dark Ages Part 2

  1. 1. The Dark Ages, Part II A.D. 500-1000
  2. 2. Medieval Art <ul><li>Church funded Art, Art served the Church </li></ul><ul><li>Early on, some questioned if it was okay to depict God/his creations at all (= “Iconoclasts”) (this continues in Muslim art, as we’ll see) </li></ul><ul><li>By ~600, it was generally agreed that art embellished places of worship and educated the illiterate masses. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Altarpieces <ul><li>Almost every church had a painting on the main altar as a focus of worship. Mary (the Madonna) was a cult figure & popular choice. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Altarpiece, Cologne, Germany
  5. 5. Formula for Altarpieces: <ul><li>Figures float in ethereal golden land </li></ul><ul><li>The holy have gold plates behind their heads (i.e. halos) </li></ul><ul><li>Faces are serene, generic, somber </li></ul><ul><li>People pose stiffly, facing directly out or in profile (never in between) </li></ul><ul><li>Saints have props to identify them (Peter = keys, Luke = a Gospel, Mark = a sword) </li></ul><ul><li>The most important person = the biggest </li></ul><ul><li>Pictures = symbols (ex: lion = Resurrection) </li></ul><ul><li>Perspective and Realism don’t matter – it’s about telling a story with just the necessary parts </li></ul>
  6. 6. Secular Art <ul><li>It did exist </li></ul><ul><li>(castle decorations, for example) </li></ul><ul><li>but very little survived. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Was the Rest of the World Dark? <ul><li>Certainly not! </li></ul><ul><li>Central America – the Mayans and Toltecs were building cities and doing remarkable astronomical work </li></ul><ul><li>China – the T’ang dynasty florished, coming up with things like paper, clockwork, looms, windmills, and gun powder (all of which helped pull Europe out of the Dark Ages) </li></ul><ul><li>Plus, right next to Europe, two cultures grew with unity, stability, and prosperity: </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Byzantine Empire <ul><li>Capital = Constantinople (today = Istanbul) </li></ul><ul><li>Language, Literature, and Art were all Greek. </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern Orthodox religion split eventually from the pope’s Latin church. </li></ul><ul><li>The eastern half of the Roman Empire, but it didn’t fall when the western part did – it stuck around for another 1000 years. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Linked to Europe with sea trade, esp. in Venice </li></ul><ul><li>Europe’s Crusade travelers came home with stories and loot of grand Byzantine Cities. </li></ul><ul><li>When the Muslim Turks overthrew Constantinople (then Christian) in 1453, the scholars and artists fled to the West, which fueled the Renaissance </li></ul>
  10. 10. St. Mark’s Basilica (Venice, Italy 1094 AD) <ul><li>Built in 828 in the Doge’s palace to house the relics of Mark stolen from Alexandria. </li></ul><ul><li>Burned in 976, rebuilt as it stands now </li></ul>
  11. 13. Hagia Sophia (Istanbul, 537 AD) <ul><li>Was a basilica/ </li></ul><ul><li>cathedral </li></ul><ul><li>Then became a mosque </li></ul><ul><li>Is now a museum </li></ul>
  12. 16. Hagia Sophia Interior
  13. 18. Hagia Sophia Mosaic (Detail)
  14. 19. Islamic Art <ul><li>Intricate abstract designs </li></ul><ul><li>Pictures of people and animals are rare, since Islam forbids “graven images” and idols </li></ul><ul><li>Instead, Geometric designs, floral patterns, and calligraphy (quotes from the Quran) </li></ul><ul><li>Water = purist symbol of life, so there’s fountains and pools everywhere </li></ul>
  15. 20. Interior Ceiling Mosaics, Blue Mosque, Istanbul
  16. 21. Islamic Calligraphy, Alhambra, Granada, Spain
  17. 22. The Islamic World <ul><li>711 AD followers of Islam landed at the Rock of Gilbraltar and conquered Spain and Portugal. </li></ul>
  18. 23. The Moors <ul><li>Spanish Muslims (= Moors) fostered higher learning and built some of Europe’s greatest cities while the rest of Europe was dawdling in the Dark Ages. </li></ul><ul><li>Built mosques, palaces, public baths, paved streets lit with oil lamps at night, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Medicine, astronomy, literature, law, architecture, and math (al-jibra) flourished </li></ul>
  19. 24. Golden Age of Muslim Spain <ul><li>Uniquely, it had a spirit of tolerance and cooperation between Islam, Judaism, and Christianity. </li></ul><ul><li>Didn’t last, though. Christians eventually forced the Moors south, turning the mosques into cathedrals (and the minarets into bell towers) </li></ul><ul><li>By 1492, Spain was completely Christian. </li></ul>
  20. 25. The Alhambra
  21. 26. Charlemagne (742?-814 AD) <ul><li>Charles the Great, king of the Franks </li></ul><ul><li>On Christmas Day, 800 AD, the Pope crowned Charlemagne “Holy Roman Emperor” </li></ul><ul><li>= United the core of Western Europe </li></ul><ul><li>= Revived the faded glory of Ancient Rome </li></ul>
  22. 27. <ul><li>Created the “First Reich” from Germany to Sicily </li></ul><ul><li>Created a mini-Renaissance, a Roman revival. </li></ul><ul><li>Replaced trial-by-ordeal with trial-by-judge </li></ul><ul><li>Built schools and churches </li></ul><ul><li>Legend says his foot = the foot </li></ul><ul><li>Ruled by the sword – would give the pagan tribal leaders a choice – convert or die. (Once ordered decapitation of 4,500 pagans in one day!) </li></ul><ul><li>Church membership thrived! </li></ul>
  23. 28. Treaty of Verdun (843 AD) <ul><li>Split the Empire among his three heirs (Charles, Louis, and Lothair) </li></ul><ul><li>Those regions became Germany, France, and the countries in-between. </li></ul><ul><li>As Voltaire quipped, Charlemagne’s “Holy Roman Empire” was neither Holy nor Roman nor an Empire. </li></ul>

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