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Yohannes GebreMichael: Participatory climate-change adaptation building on local innovation

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Yohannes GebreMichael: Participatory climate-change adaptation building on local innovation

  1. 1. Participatory climate-change adaptation building on local innovation Yohannes G/Michael & Ann Waters-Bayer
  2. 2. Facing the reality of climate change <ul><li>Weather extremes will occur more frequently </li></ul><ul><li>Rising temperatures will favour agents of tropical diseases. </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural production could decline by 50% by 2020. </li></ul><ul><li>By 2025, about 480 million people in Africa could be living in water-stressed areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Many African crop farmers will be shifting to livestock-keeping </li></ul><ul><li>Natural phenomenon is non liner and less predictable </li></ul>
  3. 3. Living with climatic variability <ul><li>Climatic variability is not a new phenomenon in Ethiopia </li></ul><ul><li>From 1540 to 1800 AD, 26 major droughts and famines were recorded. </li></ul><ul><li>The “great Ethiopian famine” happened in the period 1889–92. </li></ul><ul><li>Pastoralist had been the victims and have developed mechanisms to cope with high climate variability. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, they were practising adaptation long before the concept of “climate change” emerged </li></ul>
  4. 4. Pastoralists’ adaptation to climate variability <ul><li>Pastoralists’ livelihoods primarily based on livestock that graze natural pasture. </li></ul><ul><li>Globally, it is assumed that up to 200 million people are pastoralists. </li></ul><ul><li>In Africa, it is assumed to be up to 40 million people </li></ul><ul><li>In Ethiopia, up to 15 million and using more than 60% of the territory. </li></ul><ul><li>Mobility is one of the most successful strategies used by most pastoralists. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Pastoralists’ adaptation…(2) <ul><li>Mobility has multiple functions including: </li></ul><ul><li>- gaining access to water and pasture </li></ul><ul><li>- avoiding pests and diseases </li></ul><ul><li>- avoiding conflicts and risks of livestock raiding </li></ul><ul><li>- conserving biodiversity </li></ul><ul><li>Pastoralists keep different animals in order to: </li></ul><ul><li>- reduce risks and improve overall productivity </li></ul><ul><li>- obtain food, means of transport and income from marketing </li></ul><ul><li>- exploit different ecological niches </li></ul>
  6. 6. Pastoralists’ adaptation…(3) <ul><li>Similarly, vegetation in the drylands has many purposes, such as: pasture, bee forage, materials for tools, medicinal plants, materials for rituals, wild fruits, fuelwood and early-warning indicators of impending drought </li></ul><ul><li>General attributes of viable pastoral production systems are: flexibility, dynamism, multi-functionality, complementarity and reciprocity in resource use </li></ul>
  7. 7. The paradox: productive and adaptable yet vulnerable pastoralists <ul><li>Traditional pastoral systems can produce up to ten times more food per unit area than can modern ranching. </li></ul><ul><li>In Ethiopia, pastoralists keep about three-quarters of all goats in the country, one quarter of the sheep, 20% of the cattle and all of the camels. </li></ul><ul><li>The livestock sector ranks second after coffee in generating foreign exchange for Ethiopia: up to US$ 50 million per annum. </li></ul>
  8. 8. The paradox…(2) <ul><li>Many policymakers in Ethiopia have a vision to settle the pastoralists, considering them to be backward, primitive and a cause of poverty and land degradation. </li></ul><ul><li>Many of the prime areas used by pastoralists for dry-season grazing are allocated for government farms, private investors and national parks. </li></ul><ul><li>This increasing marginalisation is making pastoralists more vulnerable to the effects of droughts and climate change. </li></ul><ul><li>Moreover, insufficient attention is given to the deep-rooted knowledge and adaptation practices of pastoralists and their customary institutions for dealing with land-management issues. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Determinants of pastoralists’ vulnerability to climate change <ul><li>Change in responsibility for herd management </li></ul><ul><li>Herd size </li></ul><ul><li>Livestock species kept </li></ul><ul><li>Strength of customary socio-political institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical location of resource exploitation </li></ul><ul><li>Land-use systems </li></ul><ul><li>Particular emphasis by pastoralists on the degree of good governance in customary institutions </li></ul>
  10. 10. Why look at local innovation? <ul><li>Recognising local innovativeness leads to more equal partnership in R&D </li></ul><ul><li>Local innovations are sources of valuable new knowledge based on deep-rooted experience </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulates appropriate and pro-poor adaptation </li></ul><ul><li>An entry point that increases self-confidence and motivation to adapt </li></ul><ul><li>Greater likelihood of sustainability </li></ul>
  11. 11. P ROLINNOVA : P RO moting Local I NNOVA tion in ecologically oriented agriculture and NRM <ul><li>Global learning network </li></ul><ul><li>Functional since 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Members include more than 150 organisations of multiple stakeholders (state and non-state) </li></ul><ul><li>Currently, 18 countries involved </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Vision </li></ul><ul><li>A world in which women and men farmers play decisive </li></ul><ul><li>roles in research and development for sustainable livelihoods </li></ul><ul><li>Mission </li></ul><ul><li>To foster a culture of mutual learning and synergy in local </li></ul><ul><li>innovation process in agriculture and NRM </li></ul><ul><li>Goal </li></ul><ul><li>To develop and institutionalise partnerships and methods that </li></ul><ul><li>promote processes of local innovation for ecologically sound use of </li></ul><ul><li>natural resources </li></ul>
  13. 13. Approach and concepts in study on local innovation and climate change <ul><li>P ROLINNOVA initiated an exploratory study with funds made available by the Netherlands (DGIS). </li></ul><ul><li>In 2008, some P ROLINNOVA partners in Ethiopia, Nepal and Niger started studies on local innovation in the face of climate change. </li></ul><ul><li>This paper is based on results in Ethiopia from s emi-structured interviews and discussions with different stakeholders, both individuals and focus groups in Afar, Somali and S.Omo </li></ul>
  14. 14. Approach and concepts…(2) <ul><li>Innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Discovery of new and better ways of doing things </li></ul><ul><li>Not something inherited but could be building on existing technology / practice </li></ul><ul><li>Could also involve modification of introduced technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Every pastoralist has to be an innovator to some degree. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Approach and concepts…(3) <ul><li>Adaptation </li></ul><ul><li>A continuous learning process </li></ul><ul><li>A response to actual or expected risks </li></ul><ul><li>Integrates mitigation in its process </li></ul><ul><li>Can be spontaneous or planned </li></ul><ul><li>Can involve technological or institutional/ management change or process </li></ul><ul><li>Can arise from a challenge or an opportunity </li></ul>
  16. 16. Challenges in understanding local innovation <ul><li>Difficulties in separating climate-change impacts from other pressures on pastoral systems </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguishing between indigenous practices and local innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Recognising small but possibly important changes </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping a longer-term perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping pace with fast change </li></ul>
  17. 17. Some of the pastoralists contacted
  18. 18. Pastoralists’ emerging responses to climate change <ul><li>Developing their own cut and carry feeding system </li></ul><ul><li>Settlement around water points </li></ul><ul><li>Purchasing with credit </li></ul><ul><li>Changing herd composition </li></ul><ul><li>Settlement on islands in dryland lakes </li></ul><ul><li>Diversification of livelihood sources </li></ul><ul><li>Use of motor vehicles to transport water, fodder and/or animals </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Traditional early warning systems </li></ul><ul><li>Empowerment of traditional institutions </li></ul>
  19. 19. Major features of the local innovations <ul><li>Wide range of different types of innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Group innovations </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-functionality of innovations </li></ul><ul><li>Diversification of livelihoods </li></ul>
  20. 20. Traditional early warning systems
  21. 21. Cut and carry feed from national parks
  22. 22. Increased rearing of small animals
  23. 23. Multipurpose use of trucks (water / livestock )
  24. 24. Prolonged flooding leads to more weeds: used as fodder followed by zero tillage
  25. 25. Opportunistic cropping
  26. 26. Lessons learned and the way forward <ul><li>Recognising local innovativeness by pastoralists provides an entry point for a bottom-up approach to supporting climate-change adaptation, starting with local capacities and ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Local innovation in adaptation to climate change needs to be assessed together with other environmental, socio-economic and policy changes . </li></ul><ul><li>Documentation of adaptation needed as a continuous process for a better understanding of community competence to adapt and of need for joint experimentation and policy reorientation. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Lessons learned…(2) <ul><li>The focus should be not so much on specific innovations, but rather on documenting local innovation as a process . </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition of pastoralist innovation could lead to more equal partnership in formal research and development activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Results of such joint innovation processes would have a higher likelihood of sustainability than would starting interaction with external interventions that are foreign to the pastoralists. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Thank you

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