Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Biocultural Heritage and Rural
Innovations
Local responses to global challenges in the Potato Park
Cusco, Peru
Alejandro A...
Peru: Biocultural Diversity
ETNOLINGUISTIC
FAMMILIES:16,
LENGUAGES: 68,
ETHNIC GROUPS 77
LIFE ZONES: 28/32
4400 especies d...
8,462.17
(ha)
Annual precipitation:
616.69 mm
Potato Park is:
Una crianza del Ayllu dedicado a la
conservación y aprovechamiento del
Patrimonio Biocultural Indígena par...
Changes Vulnerability/Impacts
Glacier and water Loss of small local glaciers
Disruption of continuous supply
of water
Fres...
Muyuy o Layme
Q’epor
2014, 4580 msnm
3950 msnm
2008 nivel inferior
Papas Nativas
3820 msnm
1982 nivel inferior
Papas nativ...
Conceptual Framework
and Key Concepts
Biocultural Heritage:
Biocultural Heritage Innovation:
Dynamic action of nurturing n...
Innovations for Endogenous
Community Development
Innovations
for Climate
Change
Adaptation
BCHI
Innovations for
genetic di...
Broad Category
(Ayllu-SIFOR)
Innovation elements Types of Innovations Indicator
Sallka Aylly:
Genetic diversity wild
crop ...
Technological innovations
Type: Technologies that Spread Risk Across Space: Understood as the practical use of new knowled...
Technological innovations
Type: Technologies that Spread Risks Across Time: Understood as the practical use of new knowled...
Technological innovations
Type: Technologies that Spread Risks Across Diverse Assets: Understood as the practical use of n...
Technological innovations
Type: Technologies that Spread Risks Across Households or Communities: Understood as the practic...
Market innovations: farm and non-farm based and biocultural heritage-derived livelihood options and business
opportunities...
Institutional Innovations: innovative new institutions and policies, which promote recognition of
indigenous peoples’ Trad...
Institutional Innovations: innovative new institutions and policies, which promote recognition of indigenous peoples’ Trad...
Institutional Innovations: innovative new institutions and policies, which promote recognition of indigenous peoples’ Trad...
Conclusions and Recommendations
• BCH innovations key to enhance multifunctionality and effective in-situ
conservation of ...
Biocultural Heritage is both a
promoter of resilience and
the manifestation of historical
resilience
Gracias!
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Biocultural Heritage and Rural Innovations: Local responses to global challenges in the Potato Park, Peru

897 views

Published on

This is a presentation by Alejandro Argumedo, Director of Programs at the Asociacion ANDES (Peru) for a side event at the FAO Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, on 22 January 2015.

The event was organised by IIED, Asociacion ANDES (Peru), Centre for Chinese Agricultural Policy (China), Lok Chetna Manch (India) and Kenya Forestry Research Institute (KEFRI)

Argumedo’s presentation focused on the baseline study of the SIFOR project (Smallholder Innovation for Resilience) in the Potato Park, including the methodology and innovations identified.

More details: www.bioculturalheritage.org

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Biocultural Heritage and Rural Innovations: Local responses to global challenges in the Potato Park, Peru

  1. 1. Biocultural Heritage and Rural Innovations Local responses to global challenges in the Potato Park Cusco, Peru Alejandro Argumedo Asociación ANDES
  2. 2. Peru: Biocultural Diversity ETNOLINGUISTIC FAMMILIES:16, LENGUAGES: 68, ETHNIC GROUPS 77 LIFE ZONES: 28/32 4400 especies de plantas nativas de usos conocidos, destacando las de propiedades alimenticias (782), medicinales (1300), ornamentales (1600), entre otras de cualidades tintóreas, aromáticas y cosméticas. De la flora se calculan que existen unas 25 000 especies (10% del total mundial), de las cuales un 30% son endémicas. Es el 5º país en el mundo en número de especies
  3. 3. 8,462.17 (ha) Annual precipitation: 616.69 mm
  4. 4. Potato Park is: Una crianza del Ayllu dedicado a la conservación y aprovechamiento del Patrimonio Biocultural Indígena para el Sumaq Kausay y aseguramiento de la seguridad y soberanía alimentaria Un laboratorio vivo para la búsqueda de innovaciones que reduzcan la amenazas, vulnerabilidad y refuercen las estrategias de adaptación de la agrobiodiversidad Andina frente al cambio global
  5. 5. Changes Vulnerability/Impacts Glacier and water Loss of small local glaciers Disruption of continuous supply of water Fresh water shortages Decreased water supply for agriculture Temperature and Rainfall Increasing frequency and severity of drought, rain and frost episodes Potato cultivation reached a world record altitude Shrinking area for crop and animal species adapted to coldest climatic zones and high altitudes Pest and Diseases Increased incidence of pest and diseases Short life cycle pest species (aphids, moths, etc.) may be able to complete more generations in a year Expansion of potato late blight Increase of fungal and bacterial pathogens and plant diseases Soils Increased soil erosion Erosion on cropped areas and rangelands have increased Shortened fallow lengths Breakdown of traditional crop rotation/fallow systems Seeds and Biodiversity Changes in crop yields and number of varieties Hailstorms and rains that come out of the typical are detrimental to the potato yield Some potato varieties, which only are able to grow at lower altitudes, have disappeared completely
  6. 6. Muyuy o Layme Q’epor 2014, 4580 msnm 3950 msnm 2008 nivel inferior Papas Nativas 3820 msnm 1982 nivel inferior Papas nativas 1982, nieve mas de 3 meses; 2008, no hay nieve 4693 msnm Cono de derrubio, crioclastismo Limites Inferiores: papas nativas del Parque de la Papa-Paru Paru, hace 25 años y actualmente
  7. 7. Conceptual Framework and Key Concepts Biocultural Heritage: Biocultural Heritage Innovation: Dynamic action of nurturing non obvious combination of old/existent elements of the BCS into a something new (e.g. ideas, methods, process, tools) that improves current practices Are produced using (or lead by) traditional methods or knowledge systems (knowledge holders). 60%-40% Usually involve complex interactions and knowledge flows between Traditional knowledge (“Mauka Ruway”), external knowledge (Science- “Misti Ruway”) and the living ecosystem (“Pacha Mama Ruway”) Developed as response to fast changes in the biocultural system Products/solutions are specific to socioecological context, respond to customary laws, food sovereignty, environmental integrity and Sumak Causay Local- Global dimension Ayllu System
  8. 8. Innovations for Endogenous Community Development Innovations for Climate Change Adaptation BCHI Innovations for genetic diversity management and food production innovations associated to addressing endogenous development priorities Innovations associated to addressing the overlap of endogenous development priorities, and genetic diversity conservation & food security objectives …innovations associated to helping communities which are vulnerable to climate change including variability Innovations associated to the overlap of endogenous development, PGRFA and climate change adaptation priorities which use biocultural assets Methodology: PIC, Local Researchers, Qualitative Methods and Tools (FGDs, In-depth interviews)
  9. 9. Broad Category (Ayllu-SIFOR) Innovation elements Types of Innovations Indicator Sallka Aylly: Genetic diversity wild crop relatives conservation priorities native agrobiodiversity and food production priorities The use of ancient agricultural technologies and generation of new knowledge; including new varieties or breed, agriculture, soil and water management practices etc. Technological innovations 1. Technologies that Spread Risk Across Space 2. Technologies that Spread Risks Across Time 3. Technologies that Spread Risks Across Diverse Assets 4. Technologies that Spread Risks Across Households or Communities • Number of innovations/new technologies developed/applied • Number of globally significant crop species protected • New farmer varieties Runa Ayllu: Community Endogenous Development Priorities Strategies to cope with socio-economic disturbances through new products and services Market innovations • Number of new products or ways of delivering products and processes developed/applied Auki Ayllu: Institutional and Organizational Priorities New institutions and policies which are based upon rules, cultures, values, norms, behavior and protocols associated to customary laws Organizing and delivering knowledge in new ways • Institutional innovations • Policy innovations • Number of innovations/new ways of organizing rules, cultures, values, norms, behavior • Number of local policies informed in climate change and biodiversity focal area • Number of national policies informed in climate change and biodiversity focal area • Number of rituals/festivals associated to crops varieties and agricultural management practices
  10. 10. Technological innovations Type: Technologies that Spread Risk Across Space: Understood as the practical use of new knowledge that help farmers to extend their spatial range of action, including taking advantage of new climatic conditions at higher elevations, and using resources that are spread across larger areas Innovation Description 1. Expanding the cultivation of traditional crops into higher elevation Growing agricultural produce for sale, using traditional terraces for soil conservation and pond construction for water reserves. This includes the introduction of vegetables and crops such as quinoa, corn, wheat, barley and beans, as well as white and pasture to support livestock production 2. Shifting the range of potato cultivation Growing established varieties at higher elevations. Potato yields in the area are decreasing, mostly due to increased pest and diseases and changes in water and temperature regimes. Shifting potato production areas to higher elevations aims to avoid these problems 3. Creating new cultivars through Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) The objective is to create new cultivars able to maintain yields under stressors induced by climate change, by introducing traits that may help to reduce negative impacts of climate on potato production while maintaining biocultural values. The program exploits the existing genetic diversity of the Potato Park to identify characteristics that can protect from threats of climate change 4. Experimenting with local cultivars to adapt to changing conditions If one cultivar is not highly pest resistant, but does well in cold frosts, farmers plant such variety at a higher altitude. Each potato cultivar does not need to be resistant to all climate effects; rather, the farmers utilize a selection of varieties that include resistance to different effects, to increase the chance of survival overall 5. Changing the time and location for Chuño (freeze-dried potato) production Move to higher and colder areas where the climate allows the freeze- drying method used by local farmers.
  11. 11. Technological innovations Type: Technologies that Spread Risks Across Time: Understood as the practical use of new knowledge for reducing risks across time, and which is chiefly used to address seed, food and water scarcities. Innovation Description 1. Community Seed Bank Collective repository for the maintenance of potato genetic diversity, which also serves as a backup for local seed self-sufficiency by providing local farmers with the access to a wide diversity of local seeds and thus a reliable source of planting material. 2. Reducing the Traditional Potato Fallow Period “Muyuys” Reducing from 7-year period to shorter fallow periods of 4 years without losing the benefits of the longer period (e.g. reducing pests and diseases, regenerate the soil, and supporting adaptation of varieties to different ecological zones). The new 4-year integrated rotation system includes the traditional elements, with new tools and agroecological practices for the management of fertility, humidity, and soil erosion. 3. Adopting screen tents and greenhouses Applied for clean potato seed multiplication to ensure that quality of seeds production prevent infection by viruses, bacteria, fungi and other pests and enhance physiological characteristics such as turgidity and firmness 4. Improving water capture implementation of family and community micro-reservoirs, which combine traditional water harvest technology “Aruna” and the use of modern materials and techniques to ensure water availability for irrigation and consumption. This innovation also combines ancestral weather forecasting with science-based scenario development and ensures good crop yields without putting undue stress on water supplies
  12. 12. Technological innovations Type: Technologies that Spread Risks Across Diverse Assets: Understood as the practical use of new knowledge aimed chiefly at diversifying conservation schemes, productive and non-productive assets, consumption strategies, and livelihood activities Innovation Description 1. Methods, tools and processes for the re-introduction of potato diversity from Gene Banks to farmers’ fields. Product of the Repatriation Agreement between PoPa and CIP. It has ensured an increase of potato diversity in the Park, from around 600 varieties in 2000 to 1345 varieties in 2014. The increase in diversity has reduced vulnerability to pests and diseases, enhanced the conservation of a large genetic diversity of native potatoes, and it sustains ongoing evolution of a diverse pool of native potato varieties that may hold natural resistance in their genes 2. Community Gene Reserve Established as a “living gene bank” and source of genetic variability for improving potatoes in the Cusco Region and the Andes. It includes the development of a biocultural approach for preserving cultivated and crop wild relatives of Solanum tuberosum that are endemic to the Andes as well as the generation of agrobiodiversity-based sustainable products and services that provide additional income for the Park’s families without endangering the original potato habitat 4. Improving techniques for food production Production of natural fertilizers and pesticides. New natural pesticides such as Biol, which is made with local medicinal plants, and composting in which farmers set up a pile of garden waste and "walk" it down a bed or row as they turn it, support improved pest control, soil and water management
  13. 13. Technological innovations Type: Technologies that Spread Risks Across Households or Communities: Understood as the practical use of old and new knowledge for enhancing collective action for the management of community biocultural assets and resources Innovation Description 1. “Wiri“, a new ploughing technique for potato cultivation This technique that makes ploughing less strenuous since it produces smaller clumps of soil, which are easier to move. The smaller clumps also become soaked more quickly, and allow denser planting patterns. 2. Seed exchanges Exchanges of climate-resilient varieties and associated knowledge and practices among and between farming communities of Cusco, the Andean region and mountain communities across the world. 3. Reviving Spiritual Practices Reviving the tradition of offering gifts to the spirit of the potato for better weather conditions, a custom that had otherwise been abandoned 4. New Biocultural Festivals Festivals based on local traditions. Festivals caters chiefly to the Cusco public highlights the biocultural significance of native potatoes for culture, society and global food security. 5. Biocultural descriptors for local potato varieties with culinary virtues Descriptors are based on Quechua women’s ancestral knowledge of the culinary uses and forms, sizes, colours and phenological characteristics of the hundreds of potato cultivars, used to select potatoes for the Park’s Restaurant, selling, bartering, storage for seeds or exchange to diversify their stock. 6. The “Khipu” Biocultural Heritage Register Used to document their biocultural heritage, particularly resources vulnerable to biopiracy. The register includes potato varieties, plant varieties, traditional knowledge, and other communal resources deemed relevant by the communities of the Potato Park. 7. “Dynamic Conservation” Model of collaboration between the Potato Park, ANDES and the International Potato Center focuses on developing complementarity between in situ and ex situ approaches based on respect and cooperation. The model is generating an integrated approach and new information and knowledge, cross-fertilization between traditional and scientific knowledge, participatory research, and evidence creation through multiple evidence based platforms
  14. 14. Market innovations: farm and non-farm based and biocultural heritage-derived livelihood options and business opportunities for products and services that support socioeconomically viable and climate resilient livelihood options Type: Products and services Innovation Description 1. Development of microenterprises for producing and marketing biocultural products Economic Collectives are the business model of microenterprises in the Potato Park in charge of the production of biocultural products and market linkages, which facilitate trade relationships between the microenterprises and the external market. The microenterprises specifically target women for capacity development and income generating opportunities and have been developed in coordination with NGOs and influenced by international institutions. 2. Informal Collective Trademark The communities of the Potato Park use an informal collective trademark to protect and promote a range of biocultural heritage-based products and services. This informal ‘soft’ intellectual property rights tool is collectively owned, linked to the Park as a conservation area, and to the Park’s diverse biocultural products and services, and has incorporated rules in line with the customary laws that promote indigenous innovation 3. Short-Localized Value Chain Development for Potato Culinary Heritage The Potato Park’s rich culinary heritage is protected through a model of Culinary Sanctuary. The model uses the concept of refugia to articulate the local agro- ecosystem with the ritual practices of agriculture and the creation of new gastronomic expressions based on potato. It is being proactively marketed by the communities in local and specialized markets in Cusco, as local and unique product based on biocultural diversity, to capture benefit derived from the local biocultural heritage 4. Linking monetary s and barter based markets using principles of reciprocity Barter techniques based on reciprocity are being used for exchanges of goods and services in formal or monetary markets, in such a way that it is possible to access goods that would not otherwise be accessible. This change strengthens social relations and networks within and between communities, and promotes a low carbon
  15. 15. Institutional Innovations: innovative new institutions and policies, which promote recognition of indigenous peoples’ Traditional Resource Rights and address conflict resolution based upon (or articulating) rules, norms and protocols associated to customary laws Type: Holistic Approaches to Integrated Landscape Management in Mountain Environments Innovation Description 1. The Biocultural Heritage Territory Model The Potato Park epitomizes the Biocultural Heritage Territory (BCHT) model, characterized as a mosaic of land uses, especially ritual, which are the backbone of local economies and critical repositories of genetic resources for food and agriculture. Deeply linked to local culture and knowledge, they protect the indivisibility and inter-connectedness of culture and agrobiodiversity with the territory. The novelty of the Potato Park is its method of merging in situ and ex situ conservation strategies. 2. The Culinary Sanctuary of the Potato Park The Culinary Sanctuary model uses the concept of biocultural refugia to articulate the potato ancestral habitats with culinary knowledge and ritual practices of potato farming and the creation of new gastronomic expressions based on native potatoes, other native crops, aromatic and medicinal plant species. It integrates conservation of domesticated crops and wild relatives and environmental services associated to agricultural landscapes with local biocultural expressions.. A restaurant dedicated to the potato offers meals and educational programs on local food systems, adding value to native potatoes and Andean crops, and creating a new ecotourism product supporting diversification of family incomes 3. Pluri-University & Living Lab of Climate Change The Potato Park is being organized as a site of a Pluri-University & Living Lab for applied teaching and research around local food systems and climate change. The site provides a platform for collaboration between community TK experts and scientists, researchers, students, and external stakeholders to improve understanding through a framework that links science and traditional knowledge for managing and monitoring changes occurring in food systems in fragile ecosystems, while promoting linkages between local and global action
  16. 16. Institutional Innovations: innovative new institutions and policies, which promote recognition of indigenous peoples’ Traditional Resource Rights and address conflict resolution based upon (or articulating) rules, norms and protocols associated to customary laws Type: Community Governance of Biocultural Heritage Innovation Description 1. The Association of Communities of the Potato Park Model of community ownership of governance of biocultural heritage, and as a unified collective decision-making body for six communities with shared values, goals, structures and arrangements. The Association was formed using existing community structures, a fact that has strengthened the ownership and organisational capacity of member communities for making decisions about their own development as well as created conditions for effective adaptation to climate change. 2. Biocultural Heritage Registers The Biocultural Heritage Register has the format of a database, and is being used to establish legal recognition of the Potato Park’s resources, without the adoption of intellectual property rights. 3. Biocultural Protocols: the Intercommunity Agreement for Equitable Benefit Sharing Biocultural Community Protocol using customary laws to ensure equitable benefit sharing amongst the six communities that make up the Park, based on a local perspective of equity. The Protocol establishes claims to a range of rights in domestic and international law. In essence, the broad rights claim allows the community to determine for itself what is equity and how to share benefits, which in turn ensures the continuation of their stewardship practices 4. Network of Community-based Researchers The Network of Community-based Researchers advances endogenous capacity development and indigenous leadership in participatory research, management of the Potato Park and of the large native potato collection. The network’s exchange of knowledge is crucial for the effective governance of the Park. 5. Horizontal Partnerships The Potato Park has well established and exemplary collaborative partnerships with research centers, including the International Potato Center (CIP) and national and international universities. This allows the community to engage in research that benefits them directly, making sure that research is a source of innovation and enhances their local knowledge and networks. Ethical frameworks and review processes for participatory action research are included in the collaboration framework.
  17. 17. Institutional Innovations: innovative new institutions and policies, which promote recognition of indigenous peoples’ Traditional Resource Rights and address conflict resolution based upon (or articulating) rules, norms and protocols associated to customary laws Type: Influencing Policy Change from the Bottom Up Innovation Description 1. The Repatriation Agreement with the International Potato Center (CIP) In 2004, the Potato Park signed an Agreement with the International Potato Center (CIP), located in Lima, Peru, titled “Agreement on the Repatriation, Restoration and Monitoring of Agrobiodiversity of Native Potatoes and Associated Community Knowledge Systems.” The Agreement is a strategy to avoid the threat of intellectual property rights while increasing the level of biodiversity within the Park and addressing community development and a history of wrongful appropriation of indigenous resources. 2. Locking in Protection of Local Rights at the International Level A) FAO’s International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources (ITPGRFA). The Potato Park has applied to enter into the FAO’s ITPGRFA Multilateral System B) Svalbard Seed Vault. The Potato Park is transferring its potato collection to the Svalbard International Seed Vault, near the North Pole, to protect the varieties in the event of a global crisis. Both, membership in the FAO Treaty multilateral system and Svalbard actions, raise international awareness of the growing concerns of Peru’s potato farmers and promote a balanced relationship between in-situ and ex situ conservation strategies. 3. New laws and Policies: Ordinances in Cusco (i) Ordinance 010: Ordinance Declaring the Cusco Region a GMO-Free Region (the first Ordinance of its kind in Peru); (ii) Ordinance 048: Ordinance Against Biopiracy and to Protect Traditional Knowledge in the Cusco Region The Potato Park, as a self-organized group for collective action, has influenced policy change though the enactment of Regional Ordinances that ensure that indigenous peoples’ rights to biocultural heritage associated to agrobiodiversity, food sovereignty and climate change are respected and that indigenous peoples are involved in any decision making regarding such rights. 4. Gaining Recognition for Indigenous Rights to BCH Declaring a National Day of the Potato The Potato Park initiated and the lobbying to the Peruvian Government to declare a National Day of the Potato. Ultimately the government passed a law which declared May 30 as the date of the National Day of the Potato, emphasizing the potato's leading role as a source of nutrition, and its links to the culture and cuisine of Peru, especially for Andean peoples
  18. 18. Conclusions and Recommendations • BCH innovations key to enhance multifunctionality and effective in-situ conservation of PGRFA • Ensures participation and coordination of public policies in PGR conservation • Emergence of new types of territorial governance which are highly friendly to PGR conservation • Functional relationship between rural areas and urban centers • Brigs together science and TK for research on innovation • Creates economic activities specific to agrobiodiversity • Networking around BCH, seeds and climate change experiences • Promotion of sustainable agriculture and renewable energies • Relevant for the Commission work on: – Integration of genetic diversity into national climate change adaptation planning – Global Networking of in-situ conservation and on farm management of PGRFA
  19. 19. Biocultural Heritage is both a promoter of resilience and the manifestation of historical resilience Gracias!

×