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Soil Fertility Management and eco-efficiency of small holder agricultural systems


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Soil Fertility Management and eco-efficiency of small holder agricultural systems

  1. 1. “Soil Fertility Management and eco-efficiency of small holder agricultural systems”<br />Deborah Bossio<br />Theme Leader ‘Productive Water Use’ <br />International Water Management Institute (IWMI) <br />Addis Ababa, Ethiopia<br />Presentation to CIAT September 2011<br />
  2. 2. Outline<br />My background<br />Global context for soils and land research<br />Creating impact with research<br />TSBF in the new CGIAR<br />
  3. 3. Brief Introduction<br />UC Davis - MSc Soil Fertility<br />UC Davis – PhD Soil Microbiology<br />USGS – Soil Microbiologist<br />ICRAF – Soil Ecologist<br />IWMI – Principal Soil Scientist, <br />Theme Leader ‘Productive Water Use’ <br />
  4. 4. Maintaining soil fertility on-farm in Ecuador<br />
  5. 5. Farm management, soil microbial community structure and function, California<br />Sustainable Agriculture <br />Farming Systems<br />Rice Straw Demonstration<br />
  6. 6. Land management, degraded soils and giraffe in Kenya<br />Goal: improve our ability to manage soils based on biology as well as chemistry and physical properties<br />ICRAF, TSBF<br />
  7. 7. “Every land use decision is a water use decision”<br />Conserving land - protecting water<br />Bossio et al. 2007<br />
  8. 8. IWMI’s Theme ‘Productive Water Use’<br />How water can be used better to benefit people in irrigated, rainfed and wetland agroecosystems<br /><ul><li>Multidisciplinary team: water management, soils, hydrology, anthropology, political ecology, institutions, ecosystem services, wetlands, RS/GIS, economics
  9. 9. Multifaceted activities: scoping and assessment, analytical research, institutional mapping, social network analysis, policy dialogue, innovation platforms, learning alliances</li></li></ul><li>Global Context for soils and land research<br />
  10. 10. Soils research and land management on small holder farms at the heart of many pressing global issues:<br />Food and Environmental security<br />Water Scarcity and Eco-efficiency <br />Planetary Boundaries and Climate Change<br />Ecosystem Services and Resilience<br />
  11. 11. 1. Food Security<br />We haven’t solved the food problem …<br />Food aide line in Ethiopia <br />during a ‘normal year’<br />
  12. 12. The 850 million undernourished.<br />Dependent on Agriculture<br />Vulnerable to loss of access<br />Employment<br />Nutrition, food security, income<br />There are few options outside of agriculture for most rural poor at present<br />Lower Food Prices<br />Source: FAO data, graphic from SEI<br />
  13. 13. Into the future <br />Food production needs to double to meet demand by 2050<br />
  14. 14. Global Drivers of Food Crises<br /><ul><li>Growing population
  15. 15. Dietary change
  16. 16. Urbanization
  17. 17. Globalization
  18. 18. Energy/Biofuel production
  19. 19. Need to preserve biodiversity and environment
  20. 20. Climate change </li></ul>Cars and Carnivores<br />Many actions are outside the food sector but have a profound impact on land, water and agriculture!!<br />
  21. 21. We will be able to feed the world, but at what cost?Environmental Security and Social Justice<br />Paradox that successful food production and agricultural livelihoods depend on ecosystem functioning, which is threatened by expansion and intensification of food production<br />The most vulnerable populations are the most closely dependent on ecosystem function, and have least secure access to food <br />Research: How is ‘land grabbing’ impacting on resource access for smallholders, pastoralists and the landless? <br />
  22. 22. 2. Water Scarcity and Eco-efficiency<br />1/3 of the world’s population live in basins that have to deal with water scarcity<br />
  23. 23. CA Scenarios to 2050<br />Today<br />Practices like today<br />CA Scenario<br />CA Scenario: Policies for productivity gains, upgrading rainfed, revitalized irrigation, trade<br />Based on WaterSim analysis for the CA<br />
  24. 24. Eco-efficiency<br />‘Creating more goods and services while using fewer resources and creating less waste and pollution’ (WBCSD)<br />Increasing land and water (and other input) productivity is the only way to achieve positive scenarios<br />Soil and land degradation major impediment to achieving eco-efficiency and sustainable agricultural intensification<br />
  25. 25. Cycle of negative soil-water relations <br />must be broken to improve eco-efficiency<br />Loss of soil organic matter<br />Soil quality degradation<br />Soil physical properties degraded<br />Increased crusting and compaction decreased water holding capacity<br />Water cycles altered<br />More and faster runoff, more channelling<br />Accelerated erosion<br />more interrill and gully erosion, more gully formation<br />
  26. 26. 4/02/2011 ILRI Campus, ETHIOPIA <br />Water and Agriculture Share Fair<br />Eco-efficiency vision: Improved management of soil and water in landscapes to benefit people<br />
  27. 27. Semi-Arid Areas in Sub Saharan Africa<br />no where is the eco-efficiency problem more obvious<br /><ul><li>Difficult cluster of issues: population growth, poverty, hunger, malnutrition, chronically low and unreliable yields, and ecosystem degradation</li></li></ul><li>Smallholder Systems Innovation Project <br />Intensification of food production is compatible with improving other ecosystem services<br />Supplemental irrigation<br />+ organic matter and nutrients<br />Restore food security<br />IWMI, IHE, WOTRO, SEI, SIDA, <br />Stockholm University<br />
  28. 28. Restore water balance to increase water productivity/eco-efficiency<br />DEGRADED<br />Evaporation + Infiltration + Transpiration + Runoff <br />Benefits:<br /><ul><li>Slowed water movement
  29. 29. ‘Greening’ of upper catchments improves regulating and provisioning ecosystem services
  30. 30. Carbon sequestration</li></ul>RESTORED<br />Evaporation + Infiltration + Transpiration + Runoff <br />
  31. 31. Restore (preserving or maintaining) natural ecosystems and livelihood resilience<br />For the landscape: relieving pressure on natural ecosystems, preserves ‘ecosystem insurance capacity’ for communities during hard times<br />Bossio et al. Special Issue: Agricultural Water Management, 2011 <br />
  32. 32. Aggregate benefit of Resource Conserving Practices in ‘Bright spots’<br />Organic farming<br />Conservation agriculture<br />Ecoagriculture<br />Agroforestry<br />Integrated pest Management<br />Integrated nutrient management<br />Integrated livestock systems<br />Aquaculture<br />Water harvesting in dryland systems<br />Water saving irrigation, including small scale<br />Bossio et al. 2007, 2010<br />
  33. 33. Impact of ‘Bright spots’<br /><ul><li>286 recent cases of success
  34. 34. 57 countries
  35. 35. 36.9 M ha of land
  36. 36. 12.6 M farms</li></ul>Pretty, Noble, Bossio et al., 2006 <br />Env. Sci. Tech.<br />
  37. 37. Eco-efficiency and ecosystem benefits <br />in‘Bright Spots’<br /><ul><li>Increase in land and water productivity 20% irrigated & 100% rainfed
  38. 38. Carbon sequestration potential: 11 Mt C per year carbon potentially sequestered overall
  39. 39. Reduced pesticide use: Over 50% decreasewith average yield increase of 35%</li></ul>Research: <br />Eco-efficiency, not so much ‘can we?’ but where and how to create context for adoption and change? <br />(Pretty et al., 2006)<br />
  40. 40. 3. Planetary Boundaries<br />Soils and land use central to many of these defined boundaries<br />Research: What is the role of agriculture in crossing critical thresholds?<br />Rockstrom et al. 2009<br />
  41. 41. Planetary Boundaries<br />Research: What are the thresholds, and how close are we to them?<br />CC has catapulted Carbon to forefront, but also N cycles<br />
  42. 42. 4. Ecosystem Services and Resilience<br />Fig. 1 –Number of papers using the term “ecosystem services” or “ecological services” in an ISI Web of Science search through 2007. Fisher et al. 2009<br />
  43. 43. Ecosystem services in wetlands<br />Qualitative approach<br />How important are they?<br />Recent trends?<br />Sensitivity to change in practices<br />
  44. 44. Ecosystem Services and <br />Social Ecological Resilience<br />CPWF Nile<br />
  45. 45. Soils and land management are integral to multiple Ecosystem Services<br />Meat<br />Fish<br />Crops<br />Fuel<br />Fiber<br />Soil fertility<br />Regulation of <br />water balance<br />Land management<br />Recreation<br />Pest control<br />Climate <br />regulation<br />Nutrient <br />cycling<br />Soil biology<br />Soil formation<br />
  46. 46. Ecosystem Services and Multifunctionality<br />Research:<br />Can biodiverse systems be profitable and sustain livelihoods?<br />Are multifunction agricultural systems more resilient?<br />
  47. 47. Ecosystem services - valuation, PES, ‘green economy,’ and Rio +20<br />“More and more agriculture needs to be brought into the ‘green economy’,” said Alain Vidal of the CPWF. “We need to value farming practices that protect our precious water resources in the same way we are beginning to value forest management that helps reduce greenhouse gas emissions, especially because those natural resources support the livelihoods of the most vulnerable.”<br />Research: <br />What is the value of the soil fertility resource to a nation? <br />Can co-benefits of carbon help justify increased supporting investment?<br />
  48. 48. Problem identification<br />Strategies for improvement<br />Creating Impact<br />Change Strategy<br />Practices and Interventions<br />Lever of Change<br />Project Outcome<br />
  49. 49. Planning for Impact<br />Start with a strategic issue that has large scale importance<br />Choose the right partners <br />Have a strategy – theory of change<br />Develop and link sets of projects along impact pathway…..<br />Pay attention to context, context really matters<br />Get lots of help from corporate comms to design materials for specific audiences….<br />Feedback and learning cycles<br />
  50. 50. ‘New alliance between agriculture and environment groups’<br />IWMI and UNEP, 2011<br />Strategic partnerships, local, national, global<br />
  51. 51. TSBF in the new CGIAR<br />
  52. 52. CRP 1.1 DrylandSystems<br />CRP1.2 The HumidTropics<br /><ul><li>Soil productivity and natural resource integrity on farms integral to sustainable intensification and achieving goals of CRP 1’s.
  53. 53. TSBF ISFM Program well placed to lead in soil fertility management practices, agenda and approach are very much aligned
  54. 54. Opportunity and challenge to take TSBF global</li></li></ul><li>CRP 5 Water, Land and Ecosystems<br />An integrated program that looks at agriculture- ecosystem interactions at basin/landscape scale<br />Landscape – social and biophysical<br />Take into account variability in resource and livelihood niches, <br /><ul><li>movement of people and animals in the landscape can be the most important feature…</li></ul>Create opportunities in political economy for transformation and change<br />
  55. 55. CRP5 responds to a number of scientific challenges in the arena of ecosystems and agricultural development<br />Understanding how human actions affect ecosystems, the provision of ecosystem services, and the value of services (Daily and Matson, 2008)<br />Measuring and monitoring trends and changes in important natural capitals (Sachs et al., 2010)<br />Developing incentives that accurately reflect the social values of ecosystem services to society (Daily and Matson, 2008)<br />Satisfying increasingly diverse expectations through sustainable intensification of agricultural systems (Dore, et al., 2011) <br />Developing and maintaining structure and function in social-ecological systems in the face of shocks, stresses or other disturbance, to reduce the vulnerability of the population (Walker et al, 2010)<br />Maintaining ecosystem functions and connectivity in landscapes under changing land use scenarios (Silvestri and Kershaw, 2010)<br />Understanding dynamics in linked social-ecological systems, to support progress towards long-term sustainability (Ostrom, 2009)<br />
  56. 56. CRP 5 Water, Land and Ecosystems<br />An integrated program that looks at agriculture- ecosystem interactions at basin/landscape scale<br /><ul><li>TSBF SLM Program well placed to lead the largest strategic research portfolio ‘Rainfed’
  57. 57. ‘Rainfed’ focuses on mixed farming landscapes, including social and biophysical landscape, integrating soil and water management, and developing opportunities at larger scales
  58. 58. Opportunities and challenges:
  59. 59. Livelihoods and landscapes
  60. 60. Engage in scientific challenges related to ecosystems and agriculture
  61. 61. Global leadership </li></li></ul><li>Thank you<br />