Formula• Formulas are equations that perform calculations in your worksheet.• A formula consists of the following: Starts with an equal sign Functions References Operators ConstantsExample 1: =C5 * 3Example 1: =C5 * SUM(E5:E9)
Functions• Functions are predefined formula. Functions consist of the following: Name – Every function is identified by a unique name. Arguments – Functions are specific values that a function requires. Arguments can be number, text, logical values such as TRUE or FALSE, Cell references, constants etc. Category – Functions belong to a category. Some of the categories are: Financial Mathematical & trigonometry Statistical Logical etc… Tooltip – are guidelines on how to use a function. They appear when a user types in the function name.
FunctionsExample: Click on formula tab and click on cell D57. Type in the following formula=SUM(D21:D56) Click on cell D58 and type in the following formula=COUNTA(D21:D56) Click on cell D59 and type in the following formula=MAX(D21:D56) Click on cell D59 and type in the following formula=MIN(D21:D56) Click on cell D61 and type in the following formula=AVERAGE(D21:D56)
References• References are cell address. A cell in Excel is identified by the column letter and row number. Example: B2• A worksheet consists of: Columns A to XFD Rows 1 to 1048576 (one million forty eight thousand five hundred and seventy six rows)
References To refer to UseAll cells in row 5 5:5All cells in column H H:HAll cells in row 5 to 7 5:7All cells in column H and J H:j
References• References can be broadly classified into 3 categories: Relative references Absolute references Mixed referencesExample: Open exercises excel folder Click on formula tab Copy paste numbers into internet and newspaper column Copy paste numbers into TV and magazine column Type in following formula in Total column =SUM(F5:G5) Copy and paste the formulas to other cells in the column.This is relative cell referencing.
References On cell F2 type in Commission On cell G2 type in .08 Add a new column after the Total column and name it Total + Commission Type the following formula in cell I5 =(H5*$G$2)+H5 Copy the formula to other cells.This is absolute cell referencing
References Using Names in formula• Names are labels that can be used in Excel. Names are used to make it easy for users to refer to cell references.• Names are managed (created, edited, deleted) using the Name Manager.• Example: Click on Advanced formatting tab. Select cells E2:E37. Click on Formula tab > Defined Names (subgroup) > Click on Name Manager icon. A dialog box opens. Click on New button. A dialog box opens. Type in Radio in the name field and click OK. Close dialog box. Click on formula worksheet tab. Click on cell I18 and type in the following formula =SUM(RADIO) Note the formula adds the revenue column from the other sheet.
Operators• Operators identify the type of operation to be performed.• Operators can be categorized into four groups: Arithmetic Operator : +, -, *, / (division), % (percent), ^ (caret) Comparison operator = , >, < (greater than), >= (greater than or equal to), <= (less than or equal to), <> (not equal) Text Concatenation operator & (ampersand) Reference operators Space : (reference operator), , (union), (intersection)
Operators• Use of comma: =SUM(B5:B15,D5:D15)• Use of intersection operator: =(B7:D7 C6:C8)Operator precedence1) Brackets2) :3) Single space4) ,5) -6) %7) ^8) * and /9) + and –10) &11) = < > <= >= <>Compute the following value: 2^4/2-4*3+15