Irahm I


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Irahm I

  1. 1. Topic 4 By Martyn Sinclair and Ihram Iqbal Spreadsheets
  2. 2. <ul><li>Purpose of Spreadsheets </li></ul><ul><li>Rows, Columns, Cells, Cell Reference </li></ul><ul><li>Simple Formulae </li></ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><li>Formula Replication </li></ul><ul><li>IF Statements </li></ul><ul><li>Charting </li></ul>Contents
  3. 3. Purpose of Spreadsheets What is a Spreadsheet and what are they used for? A spreadsheet package is a GPP that is mostly used for calculations. Entering data into a spreadsheet makes it easier to read the information. This GPP also allows you to put the data into a graph. Below is an example of how spreadsheets are used. As you can see, this makes it easier to keep track of your business.
  4. 4. What is a row or column and what makes a cell or cell reference important? A page of a spreadsheet looks like a sheet of paper divided into vertical columns and horizontal rows . Each column has a letter and each row has a number . Cells are identified by their Column letter and Row number. The highlighted cell here, is C3- this is known as a cell reference. In cells you can insert formulae for calculations. Rows, Columns, Cells, Cell References Column Letter Row Number Cell (C3)
  5. 5. Simple Formula <ul><li>There are four main simple formulas: </li></ul><ul><li>Addition- =A1+A2 ( add contents of “A1” with “A2”) </li></ul><ul><li>Subtraction- =A1-A2 </li></ul><ul><li>Multiplication- =A1*A2 </li></ul><ul><li>Division- =A1/A2 </li></ul><ul><li>All spreadsheet packages use the equals (=) sign at the start of most formulas. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Functions <ul><li>In any spreadsheet application there are many different types of functions. The four main functions are: </li></ul><ul><li>SUM </li></ul><ul><li>AVERAGE </li></ul><ul><li>MAXIMUM </li></ul><ul><li>MINIMUM </li></ul><ul><li>Sum function- this function allows you to total numbers between 2 cells in a column or row. E.g. =SUM(B6:B14) </li></ul><ul><li>Average function- The average function works out the average of a set of numbers. E.g. =AVERAGE(F3:J3) </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum and Minimum function- These functions give the maximum and minimum number in a list. E.G =MAX(C4:C21) – this gives the highest number within the range C4 to C21. =MIN (Y6:Z6), gives the lowest number within the range of Y6 to Z6. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Formula Replication Absolute Replication Absolute replication contains a cell reference that does not change. For example =$B$2*C2. the cell reference B2 will not change despite being copied as it has a dollar sign in front of the column letter and the row number. In a spreadsheet application, if you have a formula and you would like to use it in another cell, instead of typing it all out again you can easily drag the contents of the cell with your formula into your chosen cell . Relative Replication Relative replication is when you copy the formula and the cell references changes to reflect the functions new location. The formula “=C2*D2” in cell E2 has been copied down. The cell reference change as it is not absolute.
  8. 8. IF Statements What is an IF Statement? The IF function allows you to make choices, depending on the values places in other cells. For example, in cell A10 this formula =IF(D5>1200,500,200) Means If the value of cell D5 is greater than 120, then place the value 500 In A10, otherwise place 200 in A10 IF Statements can be combined and are made more complex.
  9. 9. A printout of the values of a spreadsheet can be very uninteresting to look at but you can make the figures more interesting if you put them in a chart.. One other reason of why charts are used is because it is much easier to see trends in a set of figures. Charting This Button will allow you to insert you data into your choice of chart type. Line Graph Pie Chart Bar Graph Examples of some Charts: