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Analyzing on apperal merchandising

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How to be a smart Merchandiser?

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Analyzing on apperal merchandising

  1. 1. AnalysingonApparelMerchandising APrepared By: Supervised By: Md.Abul Hossain. Id:09221085 Batch:12-th. Muhassina Ahmed Assistant Professor Dept.ofTextile Engineering. City University of Bangladesh
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Bangladesh is an under developing Country. The development and progress of the country largely depends on export performance. In case of Bangladesh among the export sectors the ready-made garments(RMG) are the main earning source of foreign currency. In the garment and Textile industry, merchandisers have been playing a vital role for the execution of export orders. There are large number of merchandising personnel who are working in the garment and textile sub-sectors. In Eastern Europe, particularly in Russia, the term “merchandising” Basically a merchandiser is someone who is continuously involved in business promotion by buying and selling of goods. The merchandiser is the person whose responsibility is to execute the orders perfectly as per the costing and pricing.
  3. 3. TYPES & HIGHLIGHTS WORK OF MERCHANDISING Two type of merchandising done in garment exports 1. Marketing merchandising. 2. Product merchandising. work of Merchandising  To collect buyers addresses & contact with the buyers sending formal letters/profile.  Receiving buyer’s response and providing price quotation & Receiving samples .  To furnish the pro-forma invoice and sending lab-dips of the materials (FAB & ACC)  Receiving the master L/C . floor booking , transfer authentication of the L/C .  Pushing the factory taking initial procurement to open the back-to-back L/C by bank.  Searching reliable fabric and accessories  To monitor the shipment of raw materials and arrival in the factory.  To order the test cutting with quality, check/inspect/advise for the bulk production.  To monitor production, quality and delivery.  Sending Samples to the buyer for approval.  Collecting accessories form different Suppliers.  Giving order to the specified garment factory.  Communicate with all the respective parties.  Coordinating the whole process at a regular manner.  Merchandiser is he who builds up relationship with the buyer and acts as a seller. He plays a vital role in an organization in a sense that he bears more responsibility than other in regards to execution of an order.  His aim is to impress the buyers by means of Right PQQT
  4. 4. KEY RESPONSIBILITY OF MERCHANDISING  Product Development  Market and product Analysis  Selling the concept  Booking orders  Confirming Deliveries  Designing and Sampling  Costing  Raw Material  Flow Monitoring  Production Follow Ups  Payments Follows  Internal & external communication,  Sampling  Lab dips  Accessories & trims  Preparing internal order sheets  Preparing purchase orders  Advising and assisting production,  Advising quality department about quality level  Mediating production and quality departments  Giving shipping instructions and following shipping,  Helping documentation department  Taking responsibility for inspections  Following up the shipment
  5. 5. MERCHANDISER SHOULD HAVE KNOWLEDGE IN FOLLOWING TOPICS Textile Fiber (two types) Natural Fibers : (sheep, goats, camelids, etc.) or vegetable-based fibers (cotton, flax, linen, and other plant fibers). Mineral fibers (asbestos, etc) Synthetic fibers : nylon, polyester, acetates. Yarn: 1. Single Yarn a) Continuous Filament b) Spun Yarn C) Modified Continuous Filament. 2. Multi-folded Yarn/ Ply Yarn 3. Cabled Yarn. 4. Complex Yarn 5. Fancy Yarn. Yarn Count: Count is a number of indicating the mass per unit length or length per unit mass of yarn. Direct System (Length Fixed): A). Tex B) Denier C) Pounds Per Spindle: 2.Indirect System ( Weight Fixed): A). English Cotton Count B) Metric Count C) Worsted count:
  6. 6. SAMPLE WOVEN FABRIC
  7. 7. Boiled wool Single knits Four-way stretch knits Bunting Pique knit Jersey Knit Sweater knits Rib knits Jersey
  8. 8. Double knits Slub knitt Rib knits Tricot Double knit Fleece knit Two-way stretch knits Power net Milanese
  9. 9. TECHNICAL SUPPORT FOR MERCHANDISER Dyeing: Dyeing is the process of adding color to Textile products like fibers, yarns, and fabrics. Types of Dye & Use: Dye Use Acid Dye wool, nylon Basic Dye acrylic, some polyesters Direct Dye Cotton, rayon, other cellulosic’s Disperse Dye polyester, acetate, other synthetics Reactive Dye cotton, other cellulosic's, wool Sulpher Dye cotton, other cellulosic's Vat Dye cotton, other cellulosic's
  10. 10. Different Types Of Printing Block Printing Digital printing Warp Printing Burn Out Prints Plissé Prints Transfer Printing Roller Printing Direct Printing Duplex Printing
  11. 11. Different Types Of Printing Resist Printing Stencil Printing Spray Painting Foil Printing Flock printing Discharge Printing Screen Printing Batik Dyeing Jet Spray Printing
  12. 12. GARMENT FINISH  Pre –Shrinking Finish: Pre-shirking is needed almost on all fabrics because most textile materials shrink when washed.  Softening Finish: Fabric softening is generally done together with desizing.  Brush and Sanding Finish: In many cases we may finish the fabric by brushing or sanding to give them smooth velvet–like or suede-like surface.  Mercerizing and Singeing Finish: Singeing and mercerizing are in many cases related and done at the same time. Singeing is passing the fabric through a flame (fire) so that the hair and nubs of the fabric are burnt off to give it a clean surface.  Resin Finish: Resin finish is to stabilize the fiber to make it shrinkage and crease resistant.  Permanent Press Finish: Permanent Press Finish (P.P. Finish) is generally done on TC fabrics;.  Water Repellent Finish: Water repellant finish is different from water proof finish. It means water, if showered on the fabric briefly, cannot make the fabric wet.eg. Rain coat, Umbrella.  Water Proof Finish: water cannot showered into the fabric by this finish even air cannot pass easily.eg. Tripol, Hose pipe treat by fats, wax, rubber etc.  Peach Skin Finish: Peach skin is a smooth finish applied to finely woven Micro Fiber fabric.  Soil Release Finish: Repel the stains and soil using repellants such as flour chemicals or create a surface that aids the removal of soils when cleaning or laundering using chemicals based on poly- acrylic acid.  Fire Retardant Finish: The finishing of fabrics with flame retardants can reduce the tendency to burn or reduce the tendency to propagate the flame.  Sanforization Finish: Shrinkage in garments is very important issue because when they shrink out of size, they cannot be worn.
  13. 13. GARMENT WASH  Normal wash/ garment wash/rinse wash  Pigment wash  Caustic wash  Enzyme wash  Stone wash  Stone enzyme wash  Tinting (Tie) & Over Dyeing(Dip Dyeing)  Super white wash hydroxyl  Bleach was  Acid wash  Silicon wash  Laundry wash  Monkey wash  Ring wash  Wrinkle wash  Sand blasting
  14. 14. ApparelWashing:ApparelWashingistheprocesstoremovedirtanddustgreyorcolorgarmentsby chemicaltogetgood appearanceanddistinctperformanceofapparel. NormalWash:Washinhotwater(ofabout40˚c)addedwithsofteneranddetergentfor5-15minutes. Ringedinplainwateranddryintumbledryer. AcidWash: AcidwashmainlyuseforheavyfabriclikeJeansandDenim.Acidwashisverycommon withstone.Acidstonewashisverycommonterm.Duringacidwashpumicstoneisused.During loading andunloading ofthegarmentsinthewashingm/c.countingofgarmentshouldbedonetoavoiddouble treatmentofgarment.If garmentisdoubletreat,thenthegarmentswillberejected. WrinkleWash:Byusing wrinklewashchemical(EmxopretEco)washthegarmenttoget wrinkleeffect onfabricofbody.Aftergiving andapplyingchemicalconditioning(bysunlight)isdone.Finallydrying. Pigmentwash:Thepurposeofthepigmentwashistogetthesolidcolortofadeevenlyinwashing, leadinga prominentwasheffectonthegarment.Pigmentwashneeds50˚c to60˚c towash.Thenrinsein plainwater anddryintumbledryer. Stonewash:Theideaofwashingwithporousvolcanicstonesistogivethegarmentastrongandrough washtoachievethepronouncedwashedeffectthroughabrasionontheexposedareas,suchasseamsand pocketcorners.
  15. 15. EnzymeWash:Enzymeisonekindofbiocatalystwhichusedtobreaksomeofthefibersonthesurfacein ordertogivethefabricsoft,sandedor“peached”effect.Ifgarmentismadeofindigodenim,enzyme can replacedofstone,togive thedenimastonewashlook,withbetter,nicerblueandwhitecontrastonthe surface. BleachWashing:Bleachwashissimple;youjusthavetoaddbleachtothewaterinthetumblefor washing.Washingtimeisveryimportantbecauseany garmentover-bleachedcannotbecorrected. LaundryWashing:Thisisonekindofhomewashing.Apparelwashwithsomeaddedofdetergentat 30˚cfor1.5hours.Finallysqueezeanddried. Monkeywash:Itisonekindofdrywash.Byusingsandblastitmakefadingeffectinacertainperiod. Speciallythiswashisdoneonthegarmentsmadefromdenimorjeanspant.Thiswashoccurredonapant byfollowingmonkey’sbody,soitiscalledmonkeywash. Tinting(Tie)&OverDyeing(DipDyeing):Inoverdye,thegarmentshouldbeputintotumbletodyeinto thecoloryouwant.Directorreactivedyedependonthedyedfabricoryarnwhichisusedtoapply.Ifyou usedirectdyecostwillbesave.Youmustuse colorfixingagentafterdyeingtomakethecolormorestable. RingWash:ItisonekindofnormalwashusedforWovengarments.Inthiswashprocesssoftener-1% andacid-0.5%areusedat40˚cfor10-20minutes.
  16. 16. Stone Enzyme Wash : At present ,in our country maximum denim garment is washing by stone enzyme wash process. You can achieve a distinct effect by combination of stone and enzyme. Every process almost same ,but after desizing and hot wash stone enzyme process is done. Super White Wash/ Magic Wash : Super White Wash is done on the garments made from cotton grey fabrics. Due to this type of wash garments become extremely white. You should use Whitening/OBA/ Fluorescent powder in the finishing process to make the part whitener. Silicon Wash : To soft the fabric silicon is used, but enzyme silicon wash and Stone silicon wash is more popular for providing softer feel and good drape to the polyester/ cellulosic blended fabric. It also use Jean & Denim after enzyme or stone wash. Silicon wash is popular for Sweater. Caustic Wash : Caustic wash is very easy and common garments wash. This process is done by two step. First step is pigment wash and last one is caustic wash. In this process , garment treat with caustic solution (NaOH) at 80˚c for 1 hour 30 minutes.
  17. 17. SandBlasting: Itisonekindofmechanicalwashprocess.It givesfadedeffecton garmentsmadefromheavyfabriclikeDenim&Jeans.Atpresentsandblastingisavery populargarmentswash,becauseofit ischeapandverygoodfadingeffectcanbedone.The sandblastingprocessnormallyfollowedbyawashordyeingprocess,Thesubsequentwash may benormal wash,bleachwash,enzymewash,overdyeingetc.Forsandblasting,nozzle (dia-1/1.5mm) ,tunnelboard,compressorandchemicalAl2O3 (sand)used.Aluminumm oxideisusedforsandblastingandimportedfromChina.Turkey.Aluminumoxidelooks likenormalsand, butveryhardandfinegranular.Inthisprocessfadingisdoneonthe premarked areasofthegarmentspatternsordesignby foldingorblockingtechniques.The areaofgarmentsfabricsurfaceisinstantlyfadedbyblowingactionof Aluminumoxidedue tofrictionaleffectofAluminumoxide. DelusterProcess: Delusteris onekindofchemicalwashingwhichcreatefadedeffect andmakedullofgarmentscolor.Itmakesextralookingofgarments,Manmadefiberhasa naturalbrightness.By deluster processmakethefibersemidullordullbywhitepigmenti.e Tetaniumdioxide.Fordelusterprocessdyeswhichusedfordyeingmusthaveknowbefore processingthenchoosedelusterchemical.Fordeluster of vatdyedfabric hydrous (Na2S2O4)&causticsoda(NaOH)isused.
  18. 18. GARMENT ACCESSORIES & TRIMMINGS  ZIPPER/FASTENER  SEWING THREAD  LABELS : Main, Size, Care, Content, price, patch etc.  BUTTON : Horn, Metal, Seed etc  ELASTIC : Cotton, Polyester etc.  EYELET : Antique Matching etc  VELCRO : Hook & Pile  STRING/CORD : Cotton, Polyester etc.  PLASTIC CLIP  TAGS : Price tag, Hand Tag  STICKER : Hook & Pile  TAGPIN  HANGER  POLYBAG  BLISTER BAG  SCOTCH TAPE  GUMTAPE  CARTON : 3ply, 5ply, Size (L, W. H)
  19. 19. DEFECTS  Sewing defects Open seams, wrong stitching techniques, non- matching threads, missing stitches, improper creasing of the garment, erroneous thread tension and raw edges are some of the sewing defects which can affect the garment quality adversely.  Color defects Variation of color between the sample and the final garment, wrong color combinations and mismatching dyes should always be avoided.  Sizing defects Wrong gradation of sizes, difference in measurement of various parts of a garment like sleeves of XL size for body of L size garment can deteriorate the garments beyond repair.  Garment defects Broken or defective buttons, snaps, stitches, different shades within the same garment, dropped stitches, exposed notches and raw edges, fabric defects, holes, faulty zippers, loose or hanging sewing threads, misaligned buttons and holes, missing buttons, needle cuts or chews, pulled or loose yarn, stains, unfinished buttonhole, short zippers, inappropriate trimmings etc. all can lead to the end of a brand name even before its establishment.
  20. 20. MERCHANDISING FUNCTION
  21. 21. WORKFLOW OF SAMPLING  Salesmen samples or promotional samples  Proto samples or fit samples  Counter samples or reference samples or approval samples  Wash test samples  Photo samples  Fashion show samples  Pre-production samples  Production samples  Shipment samples
  22. 22. DEVELOP A SAMPLE: SAMPLE IS THE PHYSICAL FORM OF BUYER’S SPECIFICATION OR STYLE/DESIGN. AFTER DRAW A CACHE A SAMPLE IS PREPARED FOR THE BUYERS AND SENDS TO THE BUYERS. SAMPLING MAY BE IN TWO WAYS. 1. SAMPLING AFTER CONFIRMATION PRICE. 2. SAMPLING BEFORE CONFIRMATION PRICE. FOR SAMPLING A MERCHANDISER NEED FABRICS, YARN, LEVEL, ETC. TYPES OF SAMPLE/STAGES OF SAMPLE: 1.1ST PATTERN: THE FIRST PHYSICAL VERSION OF ANY GARMENT AS PER THE ARTWORK DONE BY DESIGNER AND/OR DEVELOPER. 2. 2ND PATTERN: USUALLY DESIGNER/ DEVELOPER ALWAYS ASKS FOR SOME CHANGES TO THE FIRST PATTERN. SECOND PATTERN IS MADE AS PER COMMENTS. 3.SALES MAN SAMPLE: SAMPLE IS MADE WHEN PRICE IS CONFIRMED AND ORDERS ARE ON SPECULATION, USUALLY IN L SIZE IN ALL COLOR COMBINATIONS WHICH IS EXPECTED 4.PRODUCTION: IT IS A REFERENCE TO THE BUYER THAT THE BULK IS BEING PRODUCED AS PER SPECIFICATION. BUYER WANTS TO BE ASSURED THAT CORRECT MATERIAL IS SOURCED AND LINE WORKMANSHIP CONFIRM TO THE QUALITY.
  23. 23. MARKETING/DEVELOPING SAMPLE: 5.COUNTER SAMPLE :(BASED ON BUYER REQUIREMENT,): WHERE FIRST PATTERN IS MADE ON DESIGNERS ARTWORK, COUNTER SAMPLE IS TO MAKE NOT ON DESIGNER’S ARTWORK, HAS TO FOLLOW ANOTHER SAMPLE GIVEN BY THE MERCHANDISER 6.FIT SAMPLE/RED TAG SAMPLE/ PROTO TYPE SAMPLE: SAMPLES ARE MADE WITH ACTUAL COLOR AND MATERIAL TO BE WORN BY THE MODELS ON THE EVENT OF SHOOTING FOR CATALOG. 7.APPROVAL SAMPLE: IN ANY DISCRETE PERIOD OF TIME, WHENEVER IT REQUIRED ANY REVISION IN THE SAMPLE, A NEW SAMPLE IS MADE (SOME TIMES MOCK-UP IS WORKABLE TOO) AS PER NEW SPECIFICATION. IT IS SENT TO BUYER FOR HIS APPROVAL OF THE CONFORMITY THAT- THE REVISION IS DONE CORRECTLY.
  24. 24. 8.PREPRODUCTION SAMPLE/SIZE SET SAMPLE : WHEN MATERIAL FOR BULK PRODUCTION ARRIVED, FACTORY MAKES A SAMPLE WITH THE ACTUAL MATERIAL AND SENDS TO BUYER. 9.PRODUCTION SAMPLE: THE SAMPLE IS GIVEN TO THE BUYER FROM THE PRODUCTION LINE IN THE PRODUCTION FLOOR IS CALLED PRODUCTION SAMPLE. 10.SHIPPING SAMPLE: A SAMPLE IS KEPT FROM EVERY PRE SHIPPING INSPECTION TO BE REFERRED, IF REQUIRED, AFTER THE ORDER HAS BEEN DELIVERED. USUALLY FOR ANY DISPUTES (E.G. CLAIM) SHIPPING SAMPLE IS IMPORTANT. 11.MOCK UP SAMPLE: ANY PART OF THE GARMENT TO MAKE FOR PARTICULAR PURPOSE, NOT COMPLETE GARMENT. SOMETIMES IT IS NECESSARY TO SEND TO THE BUYER ANY PART OF THE GARMENTS, SUCH AS SLEEVE, COLLAR, NECK ETC AND SOME ACCESSORIES. SWATCH: SWATCH IS A PRESENTATION OF ALL THE MATERIALS IS (FABRIC & ACCESSORIES) USED FOR ANY SPECIFIC STYLE/ORDER. USUALLY SMALL PIECE OF FABRIC AND EACH PIECE OF ACCESSORIES ARE ATTACHED IN BOARD PAPER IN A SYSTEMATIC MANNER. SWATCH IS VERY IMPORTANT FOR PRODUCTION LINE TO MAKE THE CORRECT CONSTRUCTION OF A GARMENT AND QC DEPARTMENT ENSURES IT.
  25. 25. WORKFLOW OF SAMPLING
  26. 26. MEASUREMENT OF A SHIRT
  27. 27. FABRIC CONSUMPTION CALCULATION OF A WOVEN SHIRT Rules: {1/2 Chest X (B length + Sleeve length)}X 2 / 36 / Fabric width + wastes % Body length = Body length + Seam allowance. (In case of wash garments, washing allowance to be added) Body width = Chest width + Seam allowance. (In case of wash garments, washing allowance to be added) Sleeve Length = Sleeve length + Seam allowance. (In case of wash garments, washing allowance to be added) Suppose: Body length = 32" + 1" (Seam Allowance ) = 33" Sleeve length = 23" + 2.5" (Cuff width) + 1.5" (Seam Allowance) = 27" 1/2 Chest Width = 24" + 1" (S.A) + 3" Pleat width = 28" Formula: = {1/2 Chest X (B length + Sleeve length)} X 2 / 36 / Fabric width + wastes % = {28" X (33+27)} X 2 / 36 / 44 + 5% = (28X60) X 2 / 36 / 44 + 5% = 2.22 YDS / PC
  28. 28. FABRIC CONSUMPTION CALCULATION OF A KNIT T-SHIRT Rules: {(B/length + S/length + Sewing Allowance) X (1/2 Chest + Sewing Allowance)}X 2 X GSM X 12 / 10000000 + Wastage% Body Length + Sleeve Length + 10 (for folding {sleeve & bottom}) * (1/2 Chest width + 4 C.M.) * 2 / 10,000 * G.S.M. (Gram per square meter) Range / 1000 * 12 + 10% (wastages) = K.G. per Dozen Body length of the garments in cm - 73 cm Sleeve length of the garments in cm - 19.5 cm Approximate sewing allowance at body hem, shoulder joint, sleeve hem & armhole joint (in cm). Say it is - 10 cm Chest width (1/2) in cm - 52 cm Approximate sewing allowance at both side seam (in cm) - 4 cm Fabric GSM (finish) - 160 gsm Approximate fabric wastage in various stages - 10% {(73 + 19.5 + 10) X (52 + 4)} X 2 X 160 X 12 / 10000000 + 10% = (102.5 X 56) X 2 X 160 X 12 / 10000000 + 10% = 5740 X 2 X 160 X 12 /10000000 +10% = 22041600 / 10000000 + 10% = 2.20416 + 10 % = 2.424576 Kg/dozen
  29. 29. MEASUREMENT OF A PANT(TROUSER)
  30. 30. FABRIC CONSUMPTION CALCULATION OF A PANT(TROSUER) Formula =Out seam + allowance x Thigh + allowance x 4/36 x Fabric width Let, Out seam-42 inches In seam-32 inches Waist-36 inches Hip-40 inches Thigh-Hip/4=40/4=10 Bottom-20 inches Fabric width-58 inches =Out seam + allowance x Thigh + allowance x 4/36 x Fabric width ={(42+ 2 + 2) X (10 + 1.5+1.5)} X 4 / 36X57 =1.165 yd/trosuer =1.165 yd/trouser +{ Zipper fly+ Pocket facing(4)+back pocket bone+ belt loop} =1.165+0.058 =1.21+5% =1.21+0.060 =1.270X12(Per dozen) =15.24 yards/dozen
  31. 31. Sewing Thread consumption depends on some factor 1.Thickness of Fabric 2.Plies of fabric to be sewn 3.Stitch type 4.Stitch density 5.Width of Seam 6.Garment Size 7.Design of the garment 8.Skillness 9.Quality of Thread 10.Thead cutting System (Automatic/ manual) Different Stitch type show different consumption formula, Stitch type –101=3+2TS Stitch type –301=2+2TS Stitch type –401=4+2TS Stitch type –504=3+4WS+4TS Where, T=Fabric/Thickness of seam S=No of Stitch per inch(SPI) W=Seam Width Find out thread consumption where seam thickness 0.02 inch, stitch per inch – 8,seam width-.25 inch, stitch type- 504(over edge/lock three thread). Consumption/Thread per inch= 3+4WS+4TS = 3+4 X .25 X 8 + 4 X 0.02 X 8 =11.64 Inches
  32. 32. BY CONSIDERING ABOVE FACTORS & STITCH TYPE WE FIND SOME STANDARD FOR FOLLOWING STITCH AND M/C Stitch Type & Machine Required Thread in Inchs 1.Plain m/c one needle Needs 2.5 inch thread for per inch Stitch 2.Double needle/Two needle m/c Needs 5 inch thread for per inch Stitch 3.Over lock three thread m/c Needs 9 inch thread for per inch Stitch 4. Over lock four thread m/c Needs 12 inch thread for per inch Stitch 5. Over lock five thread m/c Needs 15 inch thread for per inch Stitch 6. Flat lock three thread m/c Needs 18 inch thread for per inch Stitch 7. Flat lock five thread m/c Needs 30 inch thread for per inch Stitch 8.Bar take m/c Needs 6 inch thread for .5 inch Stitch 9. Bar take m/c Needs 12 inch thread for 1 inch Stitch 10.Button hole m/c Needs 6 inch thread for .5 inch hole 11.Button hole m/c Needs 12 inch thread for 1 inch hole 12.Button attach m/c Needs 2.5 in thread for 2 eyes button attach 13.Button attach m/c Needs 5.5 in thread for 4 eyes button attach 14.Blind Stitch m/c Needs 6 inch thread for per inch Stitch 15. Kanchai machine Needs 4 inch thread for per inch Stitch per needle
  33. 33. Formula=M X SQ X TPI X P Where, M- Measurement SQ- Sewing Quantity TPI- Thread per inch P-Part Thread consumption for different component of a shirt Collar, L=M X SQ X TPI X P =16 X 2 X 2.5 X 1 =80 Inch W=3 X 2 X 2.5 X 2 =30 Inch Collar band, L=16 x 4 x 2.5 x 1 =160Inch W=1 X 2 X 2.5 X 2 =10 Inch Shoulder, L=8 X 2 X 2.5 X 2 =80 Inch THREAD CONSUMPTION OF A SHIRT(FULL SLEEVE)
  34. 34. Arm hole. L=20 X 2 X 2.5 X 2 =200 Inch Over lock(O/L)=20 X 1 X 9 X 2 =360 Inch Cuff, L=10 X 4 X 2.5 X 2 =200 Inch W=2 X 4 X 2.5 X 2 =40 Inch Pocket L=5 X 1 X 2.5 X 2 = 25 Inch W=5 X 1 X 2.5 X 2 = 25 Inch Upper Placket, L= 6 X 1 X 2.5 X 2 =30 Inch W=1 X 2 X 2.5 X 2 =10 Inch Lower Placket, L=5 X 2 X 2.5 X 2 = 50 Inch W=5 X 1 X 2.5 X 1 = 12.5 Inch Box plate, L=30 X 2 X 2.5 X 1 = 150 Inch Button plate, L=30 X 1 X 2.5 X 1 = 75 Inch Label, L=1.5 X 2 X 2.5 X 3 = 22.5 Inch A B U L
  35. 35. Yoke, L= 21 X 1 X 2.5 X 1 = 52.5 Inch Side seam, L=20 X 1 X 2.5 X 2 = 100 Inch Hem, L=48 X 1 X 2.5 X 1 = 120 Inch Button hole, =Part X Required thread per part =13 X 6 = 78 Inch Button attach, =Part X Required thread per part =17 X 5.5 = 93.5 Inch Under Sleeve, L=21 XC 1 X 2.5 X 2 = 105 Inch Over lock (O/L)=21 X 1 X 9 X 2 = 378 Inch TOTAL=2487 Inch/69 yds/ 63.30 meter With wastage (20%)=63.30 + 12.66=76 meter For 500 pieces of shirt 76 X 500 = 37980 meter Let, 3000 meters sewing thread are in each cone No of cone=37980/3000 =13 Pieces cone
  36. 36. Formula, M X SQ X TPI X P L= 40 X 3 X 2.5 X 1=300 Inch W=15 X 2 X 2.5 X 2 = 150 Inch Loop, L=2.5 X 2 X 2.5 X 5 = 62.5 Inch W=0.5 X 2 X 6 X 5= 30 Inch Upper Fly, L= 8 X 4 X 2.5 X 1= 80 Inch Lower Fly, L= 8 X 1 X 9 X 1=72 Inch Zipper, L= 8 X 4 X 2.5 X 1= 80 Inch Button Hole, =Part X Required thread per part =1 X 12= 12 Inch Front pocket bag, L= 10 X 2 X 2.5 X 2=100 Inch W= 8 X 2 X 2.5 X 2= 80 Inch Front pocket opening, L= 8 X 2 X 2.5 X 2= 80 Inch Yoke 19 X 1 X 2.5 X 1 = 47.5 Inch THREAD CONSUMPTION OF A PANT (TROUSER)
  37. 37. Coin pocket, L= 4 X 1 X 2.5 X 1 = 10 Inch W= 3.5 X 1 X 2.5 X 1 = 8.75 Inch Over lock(O/L)=4 X 1 X 9 X 1= 36 Inch Side seam, L= 44 X 2 X 2.5 X 2 = 440 Inch O/L=44 X 2 X 9 X 2 = 1584 Inch In seam, L= 35 X 2 X 2.5 X 2 = 350 Inch O/L=35 X 1 X 9 X 2= 630 Inch Hem, L= 16 X 1 X 2.5 X 2= 80 Inch Back rise (BR), L= 16 X 2 X 2.5 X 1 = 80 Inch High, L= 3 X 2 X 2.5 X 1 = 15 Inch Back pocket, L= 6 X 2 X 2.5 X 2 = 60 Inch W= 5 X 2 X 2.5 X 2= 50 Inch TOTAL = 4436.5 Inch/123.33 yds/113 meter With wastage (15%)=113 + 17 =130 meters/ Pant For 500 pieces of pant 130 X 500 = 64979 meter Let, 3000 meters sewing thread are in each cone No of cone=64979/3000 =22 Pieces cone
  38. 38. N.B.-There is 5% wastage, Due to variation of style consumption may vary. THREAD CONSUMPTION RATIO Stitch type Thread consumption per cm stitch(cm) No. of Needle Needle thread & looper thread ratio 101 Chain stitch 4 cm 1 1 : 0 301 Lock stitch 2.5 cm 1 1 : 1 304 Zigzag lock stitch 7 cm 1 1 : 1 402,2 Chain stitch 5.5 cm 1 1 : 3 503,2 Over edge stitch 12 cm 1 1.2 : 1 504,3Over edge stitch 14 cm 1 1 : 5 512,4 mock safety stitch 18 cm 2 1 : 3.3 602,4 Covering stitch 25 cm 2 1 : 3.3 606,4 Flat lock 32 cm 4 1 : 3.5 801,4 Safety stitch 17.5 cm 2 1 : 1.4 802,5 Safety stitch 20 cm 2 1 : 1.34 805,6 Safety stitch 21 cm 3 1 : 2
  39. 39. COSTING & PRICING  To make the garment costing, we have to find out following things.  Fabric consumption.  Gross weight of other components of garment.  Fabric cost per kg.  Fabric cost per garment.  Other charges (print, embroidery, etc.)  Cost of trims (labels, tags, badges, twill tapes, buttons, bows, etc.)  CMT (Cost of Making & Trimming Basis) charges  Cost of accessories (hangers, inner boards, poly bags, cartons, etc)  Cost of a garment.  Price of a garment
  40. 40. GARMENTS COSTING SHEET (SHIRT) Style No. Description Season Size Date 50001 RAW MATERIAL COST 100% CTN long sleeve men’s shirt Spring ‘12 S M L XL 12-4-12 NAME OF ITEM TYPE OF ITEM QUANTITY UNIT PRICE/RATE TOTAL (TAKA) Fabric 100% CTN (Stripe) 2 yards TK. 50/yard TK.100 Sewing Thread 100% CTN 40/3 20 gm TK.150/ Kg TK. 3 Interlining Puseabll .5 yard TK. 10 Button Plastic 20 Pcs TK. 5 Label Woven 3 Pcs TK. 6 Poly Bag Polyethylene Printed 1 Pcs TK. 0.50 Neck Board 250 gm paper 1 Pcs TK. 0.10 Back Board 400 gm paper 1 Pcs TK. 0.90 Pin, Clip Brass/Plasnc TK. 1 Cartoon Box Paper 3 Ply 1 Pcs TK. 3 Miscellaneous TK. 6 Total cost of raw material TK. 136
  41. 41. Fixed & Variable cost = TK.20 Total Production cost = (136+13.55)=TK.169.55 Profit (20%)=TK.34 Commission = TK. 6 Grand total/Selling price of shirt= TK. 210 Custom & Vat(if external)=TK. 7 Caring cost of Freight charge =TK. 15 TOTAL COST = TK. 232/Shirt PROCESS COST (CUTTING, MAKING & TRIMMING)- PRODUCTION TIMING ( MIN)/UNIT RATE (TK.)/UNIT TOTAL (TK.)/UNIT Spreading 3 min TK. 0.20 TK. 0.60 Cutting 4 min TK. 0.50 TK. 2.00 Sewing 8 min TK. 1.00 TK. 8.00 Finishing 3 min TK. 0.25 TK. 0.75 Inspection 4 min TK. 0.25 TK. 1.00 Packing 4 min TK. 0.30 TK. 1.20 Total process cost TK. 13.55
  42. 42. COSTING & PRICING OF SHIRT IN (DOZEN) Particulars Amount(US $) Fabric (30 Yds X$0.95) Cost /Doz. 28.50 Accessories Cost./ Doz 06.00 CM (Cost of Manufacturing)/Doz. 10.00 Cost of Production 44.50 Transport Cost from factory to sea port or airport 0.23 (0.5% Of Cost of Production) Clearing & forwarding Cost 0.90 (2% Of Cost of Production) Overhead Cost (0.5% Of Cost of Production) 0.23 Total Cost 45.86 Commission (10% Of Total Cost ) 4.60 Net FOB Price 50.46 Freight (4% of Net FOB Price)2.02 2.02 Net C & F Price 52.48 Insurance Cost (1.5% of Net C&F Price) 0.79 Total Cost /Doz 53. 27 $
  43. 43. CARTON CONSUMPTION AND COSTING CALCULATION  Formula: (Length + Width) × (Width + High) × 2 + Wastage %   Measurement   Length = 92 cm = 0.92 m  Width = 80 cm = 0.80 m  High = 40 cm =0.40 m  Ply = 7  Quantity = 200 pcs carton  Price for 7 ply = $ 0.60 / sqm  For Carton,  = {(0.92 + 0.80) × (0.80 + 0.40)} × 2 + 5 %  = (1.72 × 1.20) × 2 + 5 %  = 4.128 + 5 %  = 4.33 sqm × $ 0.60  = $ 2.60 / carton box × 200 = $ 520  For knife Saver  Length x Width=.92 x .80= (0.0736 x 2 x .52)= $ 0.764 abul
  44. 44. POLY CONSUMPTION & COST  Length = 20 inch’s  Width = 15 inch’s  Thickness = 10 mm  So,  = 75000 / (L × W × T)  = 75000 / (20 × 15 × 10)  = 75000 / 3000  = 25 pcs  = 1 Lbs (25 pieces are produce by 1 lb of polymer chip)  1 pack =55 pounds market price pp=3500 BDT LDPE=3800 BDT  So, 1 pound=3800/55=70 BDT  25pcs =70 BDT  1 pcs =2.8 BDT = $ .034  For / dozen =$ .034 x 12 = $ .4148 abul
  45. 45. EMBROIDERY COST:  We have to know,  In embroidery m/c 1 head= 18000 stitch/hour(general speed)  Where number of needle per head=20  Per head stitch per minute(S.P.M) =300  Stitch per hour = 60 X 3000=18000  12000 stitch = 1 unit  Let,  10 unit for need to make Chicken design  Per unit cost= $ .12  = 10 unit x $ .12  =US $ 1.2 abul Some common design N-Normal A- Appleck R- Reese S- Sequency B- Borring C- Chicken PE-Printing Embroidery S-Sateen Stitch T- Tatami Stitch C-Chain Stitch
  46. 46. L/C (LETTER OF CREDIT) Different types of L/C:  Master L/C  Back to Back L/C  Revocable L/C  Irrevocable L/C  Confirmed L/C  Confirmed & irrevocable L/C  Transferrable of Divisible L/C  Red Clause L/C  Sight L/C  Usance L/C  Revolving L/C  Stand - By L/C
  47. 47. FABRIC CUTTING & SEWING  Cutting It is the second section of apparel manufacturing. In this section the following works are completed- a) Marker Making b) Fabric Spreading c) Fabric Cutting  Sewing : Garment’s cut parts are assembled here by-  Plain sewing: The making or mending of clothing or household linens  Fancy sewing: Also fancywork. Purely decorative techniques such as shirring, smoking, and embroidery  Heirloom sewing: The imitation of fine hand-sewing and fancywork using a sewing machine and purchased trimmings.
  48. 48. WASHING / PRESSING/ IRONING / FINALINSPECTION Washing It is most important factor in textile sector. In different stages of production, various spot we found in products that are needed to wash. Various spot we found in products that are given below: 1. Oil spot 2. Dirty spot 3. Print spot 4. Fabrics spot 5. Etc Pressing/ Ironing In iron section products are ironing for better finishing. Ironing product looks so nice and shines. For iron generally steam boiler is used. Steam boiler so much useful for iron. Sometimes iron shoes are used in iron for better iron. FinalInspection Invitation to third party like SGS to final inspection
  49. 49. Observed time: It is the time taken by the operator to operator complete his/her job as observed time by work-study officer. Basic time: It is the time taken by the operator to operator complete his/her job had she or he worked at 100% performance Allowance time: It is the time allowed to an operator for non-performing task such as going to laboratory/ toilet, rest, changing needle, taking instruction of supervisor etc. Relaxation allowance: It is the time allowed to an operator to attend to personal need. Contingency allowance: It is the time allowed to the operator when uncertain problem occur. Machine delay allowance: It is the allowed to an operator for delay due to machine maintenance. Standard time: It is the time required by operator to complete a job had she/he worked at 100% rating plus allowance time.
  50. 50. Bottleneck tome: It is the highest time taken by an operator compared to other operator’s time, generally it is the time beyond the U.C.L. Rating: Rating is a speed of a qualified worker. Organization efficiency: It is the efficiency of the production time. Basic work content: It is the time contents the work without any undue loss of time. Work count: It is the value required by operation. Ineffective time: It is the time means time loss due to different design fault, production fault, finishing fault etc . Upper control limit: Upper control limit is the time limit represents efficiency. Lower control limit: Lower control limit is the time limit representing 115% efficiency
  51. 51. PACKING & CARTOONING Packing: Primary Packages: Insertion a garment into a poly bag is considered as the primary package of garments.Full visibility makes the customer to identify the color, size and style etc. Secondary package: Secondary package of a garment could be another poly bag or inner carton. Inner Carton or master poly bag containing a number of garments, provide traditional quotation and make opportunities for sales promotion. This container facility of pack number of garment pertaining to packing instruction. A. Solid color B. Solid color, assorted size C. Assorted color assorted size Shipping Pack= this refers to packaging for necessary for storage identification or Transportation. Side Mark: Carton no. Carton Measurement. Net weight (Single product). Net weight (Six pcs product). Gross weight (Full carton). Main Mark: Buyer Name. Consignees add. Order no. Style no. Color/size/Breakdown. Destination. Etc. Cartooning Carton Measurement: 3 ply (inner). 5ply (how much pcs), 7ply
  52. 52. SHIPMENT Last final nod from his counter part (i.e. quality assurance man from the buying house) and he then requires packaging list and in-voice. Finally shipment on-  Sea (ship)  Air (plane)
  53. 53. FINDINGS & RCOMANDATION  FINDINGS  Lack of proper communication of different level of department  Supplier delivery dates some times exceeds and causes production delay.  Wastage of material is more due to lack of effective training.  Some times lack of proper monitoring of operators causes fabric wastage.  RECOMMENDATION  Every department should communicate their problem with other department of the company.  Air shipment.  A specific department for training and research, which will provide adequate training and research facilities for personnel for development.  So it is very much necessary to control the discipline of the operators
  54. 54. A B U L Primary sources Direct conversation with company managers. Observation of various organizational procedure.  Secondary source This data is collect from relevant papers, different books , publications and several reports of different departments.
  55. 55. CONCLUSION Today’s organization demands that the Merchandising management function deliver a valuable side of earning foreign currency and take part a vital role to communicate international business. The experienced merchandiser always demandable in every country. It may an honorable professional for educated persons. For developing garment sector merchandising management system will have to focuses on modern system

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