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Apparel wash, dyeing & Finishing(Final) Azmir Latif, MSc.Engr. (Textile)
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Acid Washing
Q1. What do you mean by...
Apparel wash, dyeing & Finishing(Final) Azmir Latif, MSc.Engr. (Textile)
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VVI Q3.What do you mean by Acid Wash...
Apparel wash, dyeing & Finishing(Final) Azmir Latif, MSc.Engr. (Textile)
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allow is technique like, light garme...
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6. Dry the acid wash jeans in the dr...
Apparel wash, dyeing & Finishing(Final) Azmir Latif, MSc.Engr. (Textile)
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10. Water ..................... 100 ...
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Seventh Step:Dryer Machine.
 After ...
Apparel wash, dyeing & Finishing(Final) Azmir Latif, MSc.Engr. (Textile)
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Product waste: In a study carried on...
Apparel wash, dyeing & Finishing(Final) Azmir Latif, MSc.Engr. (Textile)
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Q4. State the technique of digital p...
Apparel wash, dyeing & Finishing(Final) Azmir Latif, MSc.Engr. (Textile)
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can print one t-shirt or 100 without...
Apparel wash, dyeing & Finishing(Final) Azmir Latif, MSc.Engr. (Textile)
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Q8. Write about flock/requirement o...
Apparel wash, dyeing & Finishing(Final) Azmir Latif, MSc.Engr. (Textile)
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5. Finishing process of flock print...
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Q12. Show the flow-process of High-...
Apparel wash, dyeing & Finishing(Final) Azmir Latif, MSc.Engr. (Textile)
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Sequence of foil printing
Fabric pr...
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microspheres in the Puff Additive e...
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Q21. State the principle of burn ou...
Apparel wash, dyeing & Finishing(Final) Azmir Latif, MSc.Engr. (Textile)
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VVI Q22. Write about Rubber Printin...
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Add crack paste/clear (Ecocrack Whi...
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Against these advantages may be set...
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VVI Q29. What is heat transfer prin...
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Adding reflective ink to your desig...
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VVI Q36. Write the limitation of ga...
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– Causes: Improper screen preparati...
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The combination of heat and pressur...
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Disadvantage of sublimation printin...
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revolved. Therefore fabric gets len...
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Q5. What are the Special considerat...
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Disadvantages of Garment Dyeing
 L...
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Dryer (for drying the garments)
Tie...
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Bull's Eye: Place fabric on a flat ...
Apparel wash, dyeing & Finishing(Final) Azmir Latif, MSc.Engr. (Textile)
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every garment unique, so garment sp...
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Q15. What is meant by Spray dyeing?...
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Curing for woven (130-150c for 30...
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Rinse (2 times)
Hydroextractor(remo...
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A. Horizontal Paddle Machine
B. Lat...
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Fixing -1gm/l (45c for 30 mins)
So...
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fibres in the yarn ―trap the light‖...
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Anti microbial Finishing
VVI Q1.Wha...
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VVI Q3. Write the Objectives of AM ...
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 triclosan
 biguanidine
 n-halam...
Apparel Washing, Dyeing and Finishing
Apparel Washing, Dyeing and Finishing
Apparel Washing, Dyeing and Finishing
Apparel Washing, Dyeing and Finishing
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Apparel Washing, Dyeing and Finishing

Washing is the process & technology which is used to modify the appearance, outlook comfort ability and fashion of the garments is called garment washing.

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Apparel Washing, Dyeing and Finishing

  1. 1. Apparel wash, dyeing & Finishing(Final) Azmir Latif, MSc.Engr. (Textile) Page 1 of 43 Acid Washing Q1. What do you mean by apparel washing? 'Washing' can also refer to the washing of clothing or other cloth items, like bed sheets, whether by hand or with a washing machine. Washing is the process & technology which is used to modify the appearance, outlook comfort ability and fashion of the garments is called garment washing. Industrial Garments Washing is one of the major important parts for Textile sector. By industrial garments washing we can remove dust, dirt and infections material. For improving special look on garments as per fashion requirement. Garment washing is normally done after stitching. According to fashion trend and customer demand buyers ask for garment washing. For the washing apparel buyers mention exactly what types of washing they need for the order. For example, Tom Tailor buyer asked for washes like – Vintage wash, Cloud wash, softener wash or Acid wash. Each wash has different types of appearance on the fabric surfaces. Wash types mainly depends on the product types. For denim product heavy enzyme is required where for knitted Tee light softener wash may be okay. Q2.Listed the different types of washing available for apparel washing respect to our industrial garment washing? There is some physical pretreatment related to industrial garments washing. These are Hand Scraping, Sand Blasting, Whiskering, Tagging, Crinkle Effect, Grinding, and Destroying. There is also some chemical pretreatment related to industrial garments washing. These are Potassium per Manganate spray, Color Spray. Color spray is also known as tinting. For garment dyeing and washing plant some machines and equipments are necessary. Types of wet and dry process •Normal wash / Garments wash/ Rinse wash. •Pigment wash. •Caustic wash. •Silicon wash. •Stone wash. •Enzyme wash. •Stone Enzyme wash. •Acid wash. •Bleach wash. •Tinting & over dyeing. •Sand Blasting. •Hands scraping. •Over all wrinkles. •Permanent wrinkle. •Grinding & Destroy. •Broken & Tagging. •P P Spray & P P (potassium perborate) Sponging etc.
  2. 2. Apparel wash, dyeing & Finishing(Final) Azmir Latif, MSc.Engr. (Textile) Page 2 of 43 VVI Q3.What do you mean by Acid Wash? Acid wash is again becoming popular on denim jeans and we are going to see more of acid washes in the coming seasons. Here, let‘s have a quick look at the acid washing process. An acid wash finish treatment creates significant contrasts in the color of the denim material. It can be done on Indigo & Sulphur base fabric garments. As the randomly faded, acid washed style came into vogue in 1980s, the process of treating denim in such a way began to become increasingly refined. Some tried to use a method similar to the stonewashing, yet the fading did not occur as dramatically or throughout the material. Acid-washed on apparel, (Phosphoric Acid is used in the process, acid would react with fabric surface and destroy the fabric), is washed with thermocol ball, pumic stones or until it is bleached almost white. During Acid wash, thermocol ball or pumic stones are used. By the action of thermocol ball or pumic stones, irregular fading affect is developed on the heavy garments like denims, thick canvas/twill, and sweater. The thermocol ball or pumic stones act a brushing action on the garment fabric surface. It Super-size your silhouette in this slouchy denim jacket in vintage acid wash.The area where more brushing action takes place there more dicolour or fadding affect is developed and the area where less brushing action takes place less brushing action and takes place less fadding affect will be developed. The multi-layer fabric areas like –collar, calf, pocket, placket, and side seam etc area will be brushed more than the single layer areas. As a result irregular fadding affect will be developed on the garments fabric surface. Thus in this way fading affect may be developed on the garment by acid wash technique. Q4.Write the Objects of Acid Wash? 1. To produce irregular fading effects or old looking effect. 2. For soft feeling to wear the garments i.e. to improve softness. 3. To achieve the buyer washing standard. 4. To increase rubbing fastness. 5.To get vintage look (that must be something new look) Q5.Which Technique to be applies for acid washing? During machine rubbing garments and stones rotate and the stones drop on the garment surface. Due to biting and brushing action of the stones, the garments become faded in spot pattern. By the action chemicals present in the stone discolors the garments. The thick seam areas like collar, pocket, cuff, side seam etc area are faded more than the remaining areas of the garments. During loading and unloading of the garments in the washing machine, counting of be done to avoid double treatment of a garment. If any garment is double treated, then the garment will be rejected. Before processing second batch in the same machine, fresh soaked stones to be added in the washing machine.  Degree of fading: Due to biting and brushing action of the stones, the garments become faded in spot pattern. The lot size of garments, machine drum diameter is considering parameter. Stone quantity depends on that. Some time need deep fading that time machine rpm is high time is high. Number of stone is higher when deep fading is needed. Soaking time is very important to good oxidation. The ratio of soaking chemicals {potassium permanganate (KMnO4): phosphoric acid (H3PO4)}[50:50].  Fabric type: Fabric type is very important in acid washing. All process ant technique time temperature directly depends on fabric. For acid washing denim fabric is suitable. But all fabric may
  3. 3. Apparel wash, dyeing & Finishing(Final) Azmir Latif, MSc.Engr. (Textile) Page 3 of 43 allow is technique like, light garments like denims, thick canvas/twill, and sweater. In Acid washing irregular fading effect is done by different fabric & fabric line. In a garment has different seam line. When a garment bend or fold some portion has more contact with other. In their surface contact is high so during washing friction is high so in a certain area fading high. In a same batch body to body are different with other. It is impossible to match body to body 100% precisely.  Fabric GSM: After subsequent washing process the garments become fully relaxed. This causes a decrease in GSM of fabric slightly. As the potassium Permanganate is color discharging oxidant the acid wash caused a color fading of denim garment with a frosty look due to irregular rubbing action of pumice stone. It was also evident from the experiment that acid wash is less significant in the EPI & PPI of the denim apparel. Due to washing the yarns become softer. As a result the count slightly increases both in the warp and weft way. The area where more brushing action takes place there more discolor or fading affect is developed and the area where less brushing action takes place less brushing action and takes place less fading affect will be developed. The multi-layer fabric areas like – collar, calf, pocket, placket, and side seam etc area will be brushed more than the single layer areas. As a result irregular fading affect will be developed on the garments fabric surface. Thus in this way fading affect may be developed on the garment by acid wash technique. VVI Q6.Write briefly Acid washing process sequence /procedure? Apparatus:  Denim Jeans  Rubber Gloves  Laundry Bleach  Spray Bottle  Pumice Stones – like you use for a pedicure  Sodium bisulfate (optional) 1. Soak the pumice stones in the bleach overnight. The bleach will be absorbed into the stone. Wear old clothes and rubber gloves while handling the bleach. Make sure you have a well-ventilated area to work in. 2. Mix two parts bleach with one part water in a spray bottle. Randomly spray the pants where you want the acid wash look to appear. Soaking the jeans completely will give you an overall faded look while just working on certain areas will give you the splotchy look. 3. Take the bleach soaked pumice stone and scrub on the area of the jeans that you choose. Try different effects. You may want to spray the jeans around the legs, but use the pumice stones on the rear end of the jeans to give them a worn aged look. Get creative and none of your acid wash jeans will look the same. 4. Allow the pants to sit for ten to fifteen minutes and watch the jeans begin to fade. The longer you let them sit, the lighter they will get. However, it is very important not to leave the bleach on for more than twenty minutes. The bleach will begin to eat away at the denim fabric and ruin your jeans. 5. Set the washer for a small load and fill with water. Add a tablespoon of sodium bisulfate. This will remove the extra bleach from the pants and allow you to wash them with other clothes. If you do not have sodium bisulfate, wash your jeans several times by themselves or only with other clothes you do not mind getting bleached.
  4. 4. Apparel wash, dyeing & Finishing(Final) Azmir Latif, MSc.Engr. (Textile) Page 4 of 43 6. Dry the acid wash jeans in the dryer as normal. If you want them to shrink, leave them in the dryer until they are completely dry. If you do not want them to shrink, take them out while they are slightly damp and hang them to dry the rest of the way. Acid Wash Process: A processor Acid wash of 60 kg batch of Denim Trouser as mentioned below:-  Desizing  Stoning or/and Enzyming  Soap Rinsing  Acid Wash Process  Neutralization  Softener Application  Hydro Extractor Machine  Dryer Machine  Quality & Delivery In acid washing basic chemicals  potassium permanganate (KMnO4)  phosphoric acid (H3PO4) or Ortho-phosphoric acid H3PO4,  thermocoal ball, pumic stones or corksheet  Sodium meta-bisulphite (Meta, Na2 S2O3), First Step: Pretreatment/Desizing. 1. Add water @ L: R = 1: 10.............. 600 litres. 2. Start Machine. 3. Add desizing agent @ 1 gm/litre .................600 Gms. 4. Add detergent @ 1 gm/litre ........................ 600 Gms. 5. Temperature............................. 60°c. 6. Time........................... 20 mts. 7. Drop the liquor. 8. Rinse one for 3 minutes (cold). Second Step:Hot wash 1. Add water @ L: R = 1: 10.............. 600 litres. 2. Temperature............................. 60°c. 3. Time........................... 5 mts. 4. Drop the liquor. 5. Here hot wash is used to remove the adhering materials from the garment surface. 6. Unload the garments from the washing m/c in the trolley. 7. Load the pre treated garments in the dryer m/c. 8. Dry the garment completely & unload the garments. 9. The thermocal ball or pumic stones used for acid wash need to pre-treat in the following chemical solution:
  5. 5. Apparel wash, dyeing & Finishing(Final) Azmir Latif, MSc.Engr. (Textile) Page 5 of 43 10. Water ..................... 100 L 11. Potassium per manganate.............. 1000 Gms. 12. Phosphoric Acid............................... 250 Gms. 13. Stire the solution in a stainless steel tub with dry pumic stone. 14. Soak the stones with the chemical solution ......... 10 –15 minutes. 15. The stones will pick up the solution. Then the soaked stones are dried in the open air for.............. 2 to 3 hrs. 16. Then pre-treated garment 30 –40 kg per batch load in the dry washing machine. 17. Load the per-treated stones (about 50 kg) in washing machine. 18. Start machine running for each batch ........................ 7 to 10 mts. 19. Stop machine running. 20. Unload the treated garment separately. Pumic stones with P.P. solution hit on garment surface as a result fadding will be developed. 21. Then load the stones treated garment in another washing machine. Third Step:Wash for Cleaning 1. Batch wt................................ 70 kg. 2. Add water @ L: R = 1: 8.............. 560 litres. 3. Add detergent @ 1 gm/litre .............560 Gms. 4. Temperature............................. 40°c -50°c. 5. Time ..................................10 mts. 6. Drop the liquor. 7. Here detergent is used to remove the breaking stone dust and chemicals from the garment surface. Fourth Step:Whitening/Neutralization 1. Add water @ L: R = 1: 8.............. 560 litres. 2. Machine running. 3. Add Metabisulphite @ 5 gm/litre..... 2800 Gms. 4. Cold temperature. 5. Time 5 mts. 6. Drop the liquor. Fifth Step: Soft Wash 1. Add water @ L: R = 1: 7.............. 490 litres. 2. Machine running. 3. Add Acetic acid @ 0.6 gm/litre ..................... 294 Gms. 4. Add Softner @ 1 gm/litre ........................ 490 Gms. 5. Then unload the garments. Sixth Step:Hydro Extractor Machine  Hydro extractor machine to remove excess water from the garments.
  6. 6. Apparel wash, dyeing & Finishing(Final) Azmir Latif, MSc.Engr. (Textile) Page 6 of 43 Seventh Step:Dryer Machine.  After hydro extraction the garments are sent to drying m/c for complete drying. Eighth Step:Quality & Delivery.  After drying the garments go to quality checking & rectify washing fault and then good one delivery. Q7.What kind of Precaution need to be taken for acid washing?  Maintain the stock solution properly constant when comes socking the stone.  No water licks age in to the machine when treated pumic stone & garments in to the machine.  Not excess load the garments in the Acid wash processing.  Add some new stone after finishing on batch to maintain the volume for 2nd batch. It is a matter of experience.  Color Shade Variation & Solution  When fabrics come in to garment factory against any order from abroad / local fabric dyeing factory, it‘s found different colour shade roll in the same colour i.e. slide light, slide dark, slide tone different for this reason garment factory to control shade variation works as follows :-  8"×8" size fabric cut from every roll.  Marking roll number by permanent marking pen at back side of cutpes.  Every cutpes joint each other and make a blanket.  Then it washes into standard approval shade.  Garment factory now segregate same colour tone in one bundle and shade grading A.B.C.D.  First a shade roll cutting by pattern then B.C.D shade separately.  After garment making shade level attached on body.  Then go to washing plant for standard washing.  Washing plant shade level wise washing in respective wash.  After wash it any big shade variation found then again rewash to match with buyer approval standard. Final quality checking garment go to finishing section for thread cutting, button attached, iron &poly etc VVI Q8. Limitation of Acid washing Strength is loss: Friction between fabric surfaces with rotating drum, fabric strength is loss. Strength loss is depends on the processing time & types of wash required. In acid washing many chemical used like;Potassium per manganate, phosphoric acid (H3PO4) or Ortho-phosphoric acid H3PO4 and Sodium meta-bisulphite (Meta, Na2 S2O3) are used so strength is decrease. Weight loss: During washing size material may removed, fiber open, yarn open, fiber migrate from yarn so ultimate weight loss after washing. Change the dimensional stability of garments: During washing ordeal operation is needed. So dimensional stability of garment may shrinkage or extend. The original shape of garment may increase or decrease. Crease mark on the garments: Tiny crease observed on the fabric surface after acid washing. The overall appearance is changed by acid washing by using different chemical and process.
  7. 7. Apparel wash, dyeing & Finishing(Final) Azmir Latif, MSc.Engr. (Textile) Page 7 of 43 Product waste: In a study carried on acid washing more about 20% garment need to re process and 10% consider as wastage. There is a difficulty to match garment to garment and batch to batch. Advanced Garment Printing VVI Q1. Define the term of printing? Printing can also be defined as localized dyeing. Defined as the application of dye or pigment in a different pattern on the fabric and by subsequent after treatment of fixing the dye or pigment to get a particular design. Textile printing is the most versatile and important of the methods used for introducing color and design to textile fabrics. We may print as a fabric form or apparel form. Q2. Define the term of advanced garment printing? Advanced garment printing is modern printing technique. Now apparel printing is become very popular. Today‘s print is a very important thing for this textile sector. Print makes clothes attractive. We can‘t imagine a dress or clothes without print. Printing sector is also expanding and changing every day with the fashion trend. Print technology is growing up with the Clothes industry. 99% fashion clothes are now must have any print on it. Printing is the production of all active designs with well defined bound arises made by the artistic arrangement of a motif is one or more colors. Printing is a process for reproducing text and image, typically with ink on paper using a printing press. Advancement in technology has paved the way for a much better garment printing. The art of direct printing on garment is simplified by the technology every day. You can already choose and create your own design for t-shirts and other garments regardless of how complex the design is. By we may get advanced garment printing distinct and unlimited effect. VVI Q3. Name list of advanced printing used for garments?  Digital Printing  Flock Printing  Flex Printing  High Density Printing  Foil Printing  Puff Printing  Cavier Bead Print  Glitter Printing  Metallic Print:  Burn Out Printing  Reflective print  Plastisol Print  Rubber Printing  Crack Printing  Dye Sublimation Printing  Spray Printing  Transfer Printing  Heat transfer printing  Heat Transfer Vinyl Printing  Floral Print
  8. 8. Apparel wash, dyeing & Finishing(Final) Azmir Latif, MSc.Engr. (Textile) Page 8 of 43 Q4. State the technique of digital printing? Digital print directly transfer print onto the fabric by ink. In advanced technology develop no need a paper or film which is used previously to print digitally. New machine directly print fabric. Digital printing is the ideal printing technique for photos and colorful designs which have gradients. This printing technique does not last as long as flex and flock. The colors fade over time. In this form of printing micro-sized droplets of dye are placed onto the fabric through an inkjet print head. The print system software interprets the data supplied by academic Textile digital image file. The digital image file has the data to control the droplet output so that the image quality and color control may be achieved. This is the latest development in textile printing and is expanding very fast. Digital Direct Printing  Print with computer-operated digital print, ideally suited for large-scale prints.  Colors are sprayed on and made durable with a hardener. The fabrics can still be felt when touching the design.  Results in a relaxed ―vintage look‖. The design looks a bit faded, don‘t expect brash colors.  Digital direct is not available for all of our products. It is the more advanced type of digital printing. This includes:-  Jet spray printing  Electrostatic printing  Photo printing  Differential printing Effects and Presences of Digital Printing There has been no greater effect on the print industry over recent years than the introduction of digital printing. As technologies have gone from strength to strength, it is fast becoming the go to medium for businesses throughout the country. Ideal for short and long runs, on-demand printing and time sensitive campaign runs, the flexibility afforded by printing digitally is a huge benefit to many - both in initial investment and return on investment. In the best print companies, there are a number of techniques which can be used for digital printing. Methods include electro photography (using dry and liquid toner), laser imaging on photographic paper, thermal transfer (dye sublimation transfer and mass transfer) and most commonly, inkjet printing. Electro photography digital printing uses the application of liquid or dry toner onto photo receptive surfaces, upon which a charge is produced from a laser or similar light source. This transfers the toner either directly to paper or to paper through a blanket sheet, which is then used to create the intended image. Q5. What is meant by Direct to Garment Printing (DTG?) The concept of direct to garment printing process basically includes the use of a DTG printer to lay down a water based ink with chemical binders on the garment such as a T-shirt. The ink was then cured to the T-shirt using a textile conveyor dryer or a heat press. Generally, the machine utilizes a 4- color ink process that mixes magenta, black, cyan, and yellow to create the desired colors in the design. While screen printing technique is considered to be traditional and known by everybody, direct to garment printing is fairly new. Because it is new, the printer is also very expensive, but the quality of the printed t-shirts is excellent. With the direct to garment printers, the design is printed directly on t- shirt or on the desired product (mouse pad, caps etc.).The art process allows unlimited colors and shades to be printed, thing that could not be possible with the screen printing. It is the perfect option for photo t-shirts and very detailed images. Direct to garment printing is considered to be the only professional option for low run orders. That means you
  9. 9. Apparel wash, dyeing & Finishing(Final) Azmir Latif, MSc.Engr. (Textile) Page 9 of 43 can print one t-shirt or 100 without problems. The printing process in the case of DTG takes longer than in the case of screen printing and the big disadvantage is that the artwork can‘t be printed on dark t-shirts (with few exceptions). Also, that‘s the reason why the printer does not print the white color. The result is professional and designs are not felt on the garment. VVI Q6. What is meant by flock printing? Flocking is the process of depositing many small fiber particles (called flock) onto a surface. It can also refer to the texture produced by the process, or to any material used primarily for its flocked surface. Flocking of an article can be performed for the purpose of increasing its value in terms of the tactile sensation, aesthetics, color and appearance. It can also be performed for functional reasons including insulation, slip-or-grip friction, and low reflectivity. Besides the application of velvety coatings to surfaces and objects there exist various flocking techniques as a means of color and product design. They range from screen printing to modern digital printing in order to refine for instance fabric, clothes or books by multicolor patterns. Presently, the exploration of the flock phenomenon can be seen in the fine arts.These types of printing technique consist of the application of flock (very short fiber) to the surface of a fabric by means of an adhesive. The flock may be contained in the adhesive paste, may be dusted onto it, or applied electrostatically to hold it erect. This is used to print various small designs onto the fabric, such as dots and figures, especially on light- weight or sheer fabric. Flocking is defined as the application of fine particles to adhesive coated surfaces. Nowadays, this is usually done by the application of a high-voltage electric field. In a flocking machine the "flock" is given a negative charge whilst the substrate is earthed. Flock material flies vertically onto the substrate attaching to previously applied glue. A number of different substrates can be flocked including; textiles, fabric, woven fabric, paper, PVC, sponge, toys, automotive plastic. Q7. Describe the flocking process? The process of flocking is fairly simple and easy. First a suitable adhesive is applied to the surface to be flocked. The flock is then applied, penetrating the surface of the adhesive to create the desired velvet finish. Electrostatic flock applicators charge the flock particles which are then attracted to the grounded surface that is to be flocked. Unlike puffer or blown application methods which merely sprinkle a flock layer onto the surface, electrostatic application ensures that the fibres all end up standing at right angles to the surface resulting in a velvet finish. Electrostatic flocking is used extensibly in the automotive industry for coating window rubbers, glove boxes, coin boxes, door cards, consoles, and dashboards. Rally cars usually have their dashes flocked to reduce reflections and to provide an as new finished to a modified dash. Flocking is proving successful in a number of artistic ventures including the decoration of jewellery, ceramics and pottery. Using suitable adhesives flock can be applied to an endless range of materials including plastic, metal, wood, rubber and fiber glass.
  10. 10. Apparel wash, dyeing & Finishing(Final) Azmir Latif, MSc.Engr. (Textile) Page 10 of 43 Q8. Write about flock/requirement of flock? Flock can be made from natural or synthetic materials such as cotton, rayon, nylon and polyester. There are two types of flock - milled and cut. Milled flock is produced from cotton or synthetic textile waste material. Because of the manufacturing process, milled flock is not uniform in length, and can vary from fine (0~ - 0.5 mm) to coarse (0.4 - 1.1 mm). Cut flock is produced only from monofilament synthetic materials. The cutting process produces a very uniform length of flock. Lengths can be obtained from 0.3 - 5.0 mm and 1.7-22 dtex in diameter. (One dtex is the measurement of a fibre that weigh; one gram per 10,000 meters of length.) The fineness of the flock, length of fibres and adhesive coating density determine the softness of the flocking. It should be noted however, that fine or short flock is difficult to work with, since it has a tendency to ball-up during processing. Milled cotton flock has the advantage of being the lowest in cost and the softest, but has the least abrasion and wear resistance. Rayon is a little bit better on wear resistance and nylon is the best. For cut flock, rayon is the least expensive with the least wear resistance. Cut nylon is the best grade of flock and produces a good feel, but is also the most expensive. Cut polyester is basically used for industrial applications such as automobile window seals, glove compartments, and roofing. Besides cutting or milling, flock manufacturing includes several other steps. After cutting, the flock is cleaned of oils that accumulated during processing. It is vat dyed to any number of colours, and then chemically treated to enable the fibres to accept an electrical charge. Since the fibres are all dielectric, a certain amount of conductivity must be present for electrostatic flocking process to occur. VVI Q9. Shortly discuss Flock Printing Process for garments printing? 1. Preparing the print screen and arrange the flock powder: After getting the artwork or design from a buyer need to prepare the screen for printing. And collect the flock powder as per buyer color requirement. Also we have purchased the flock based on buyer quality requirement. It can be cotton flock or polyester flock. 2. Making the Gum: After arranging the flock powder we have to make or purchase the gum. This gum must be high quality. At present most of the print factory buys the gum from chemical house. In this regards, this gum has a limited expiry period. Which is +/- 6 hours. After preparing the gum we can maximum use this gum for next 6 hours. If the printers use it after 6 hours then flock print can be waste out or come off from the fabric. 3. Lay the fabric and paste the gum: Now we have to lay the fabric on the table and paste the gum on it by using the print screen. This time screen man paste the gum on the fabric instead f color. Gum takes the place on the fabric as in design. 4. The flock prints: After pasting the Gum on fabric as per design by using the screen we put the fabric on an electric plate. Actually this technique is for polyester flock print. After putting the fabric on the plate we have to place the flock powder on it evenly by use of a net like tools. In this point the electric plate attracts the polyester fiber by electric powder. In this process gum attached the flock with fabric.
  11. 11. Apparel wash, dyeing & Finishing(Final) Azmir Latif, MSc.Engr. (Textile) Page 11 of 43 5. Finishing process of flock print: After placing the flock on fabric we have to dry fabric. Now dry the flock printed fabric by a belt curing machine at a specific temperature. 6. Quality checking and delivery: Then we have checked the quality and deliver the goods for sewing. Q10. Write short note about flock adhesive or flock binder? Adhesives A wide variety of flock adhesives are available, both single part and two-part catalysed systems. Adhesives are generally water or solvent based. Some are air drying, others temperature or catalyst curing. Adhesives are usually applied by brush, roller, spray or screen printing. Flock Binder Chemical: Acrylic Emulsion Appearance: Milky White liquid Requirement of good flock printing: High Quality flocking binder. An adhesive gives very soft and silky Feel. Flock Binders that are available in different shades and colors. It finds application in textile industry and used as an adhesive for the lamination of film to paper/fabric. Flock Binder is well known for its long lasting features and useful for variety of purposes. Q11. Shortly discuss High Density printing for garments printing? This is one of the recent developments in printing which gives thick prints on the surface of garments.Achieved by either giving more number of coats or by using thickener indirect films used for making the screens. This type of printing applies by screen. Rubber or plastic sold is used as a paste. Screen applies many times on a same design. If it may be thick around 5-6mm then apply high density sticker. High Density is a popular special effect that rises straight up off the shirt and has a hard rubbery feel with sharp edges. A High density print has slight glossy finish.  High- Density Printing the process of printing a specially formulated ink through a very thick stencil to achieve a raised, glossy smooth print with very sharp edges.  A high density ink allows you to achieve a three-dimensional effect with sharp, well defined outlines.  The process is very slow but the end product is unique.  This is one of the recent developments in printing which gives thick prints on the surface of garments.  Achieved by either giving more number of coats or by using thickener indirect films used for making the screens.  High Density is a popular special effect that rises straight up off the shirt and has a hard rubbery feel with sharp edges. A High density print has slight glossy finish.
  12. 12. Apparel wash, dyeing & Finishing(Final) Azmir Latif, MSc.Engr. (Textile) Page 12 of 43 Q12. Show the flow-process of High- Density Printing in respect of garment printing? Fabric/ Garments Pre-Treatment Prepare High-density paste (100%) Screen Table/ Machine preparation Fabric Plaited on the table High-density Paste apply by screen Curing at 160 °C (Belt speed 3 meter/min) Delivery Q13. Shortly discuss Foil printing for garments printing? Foil printing is to print some pattern with the foil on the fabric for shiny effect. There are two kind of foil printing method. This printing method is based on the use of metallic foil paper of aluminium or copper one. Foil is applied by adhesive. The print fixation method is similar to transfer printing. This print method is popular amongst youngsters. In the first method, the pattern is printed by a foil/transfer adhesive on the fabric, and then pressed with foil paper by hot steel roller. The pressure is generally 5-6 bars on printed portion and at 190 degree Celcius on fusing machine for 8-12 seconds. In the second method, printing is done on the foil paper first, and then foil is pressed on the fabric with hot steel roller or iron. Q14. Write short note about Foil? Foil is actually a heat press application, but can be applied on press for certain affects. Foil adheres to plastisol inks or a clear foil adhesive. Available in silver, gold, bronze, red, and blue. There are some awesome iridescent foils affects available too - just check with your sales rep.To get the gold /silver stamp, a foil layer is affixed to a certain material by a heating process. It isn‘t too complicated of a process and getting the files ready are quite similar to uv-spot printing. See my guide on preparing files for print as a reference and talk with your printer about how to supply the files. Foil printing normally requires vector images and/or outlined fonts of what you want to have stamped. VVI Q15. Show the flow-process of Foil printing with standard recipe in respect of garment printing? Recipe: It is a simple recipe; this recipe can be charged on the depth of the color and types of dyes use. Foil paste-90% Fixer-10%
  13. 13. Apparel wash, dyeing & Finishing(Final) Azmir Latif, MSc.Engr. (Textile) Page 13 of 43 Sequence of foil printing Fabric preparation Fabric plaited on the table Foil gun/ Foil paste apply by screen Dry slightly in air temp. /hand dryer Apply foil paper on the fabric Heat applies by heat press m/c (150c for 5 sec.) Cooling for 4 sec Foil paper removed by hand Delivery Q16. Write about puff print? Puff print is another common print in the fashion industry. Sometimes it called emboss print also. It is almost similar to the rubber print we can make this print in any color. In puff print rubber and puff chemical used combined. Mainly buyer asked this print on this print on knitted T-shirt. The printing process is same as other serene print. One of the original specialties affects in the world of screen printing. Puff ink is a plastisol that has been modified with the addition of a heat reactive foaming agent. The ink expands when exposed to high temperature heat as the garment is cured. An additive to Plastisol inks which raises the print off the garment, creating a 3D feel. In this method when the paste is printed and dries it look like normal printing garments but once it is cured the prints gets raised from the surface of fabric. VVI Q17. Shortly describe puff print process for garments printing? Printing process:  Like as other print we make the print screen at first.  We make rubber color as manual.  Mix an Emboss or Foaming paste with the following color.  Then print on the garments with following color mixer like as a normal rubber print. Then we dry the print area by using heat. This the turning point of the print. Because after getting the heat the print becomes puffed. Normally we dry the print area with dryer for small print. If the print area is larger than we heat press the print with curing machine. I advice all to use heat press machine instead of hand dryer. It will make the puffed evenly, before heat press please adjusts the temperature and pressure of curing machine to get the correct output. Less heat will give you a less puffed print. Puff Additive Jacquard Puff Additive is used to increase the relief of prints on paper, fabric and other surfaces. Simply mix a little of the additive into your Jacquard Screen Ink (up to 20%), print as usual and then apply heat to your print. The
  14. 14. Apparel wash, dyeing & Finishing(Final) Azmir Latif, MSc.Engr. (Textile) Page 14 of 43 microspheres in the Puff Additive expand with heat, giving you a raised print only after heating. Once puffed, the print is washfast and dry cleanable. Q18. What is meant by glitter print? Glitter is a unique, clear digital print and cut material for full-color printing that adds the bold look of sparkly glitter. Glitters add on the garment with paste and fixed by heat on a specific area. This is a clear material with flakes of glitter built in. Glitter is excellent for small designs and detailed logos and is compatible for use with Eco-Solvent, Solvent, Latex, and thermo resin. Glitter describes an assortment of small, flat, reflective particles. Glitter reflects light at different angles, causing the surface to sparkle or shimmer. Glitter is like confetti or sequins, only smaller. Since prehistoric times, glitter has been made and used as decoration, from many different materials including stones such as malachite, galena, mica, insects, and glass. Modern glitter is usually manufactured from plastic. VVI Q19. Shortly describe glitter print technique with standard recipe in respect of garment printing? Recipe: This is a simple printing recipe. It will be changed according to the shade of the delivery printed goods. Rubber paste-70% Fixer-2% Glitter-28% Sequence of Glitter printing process on Textile materials: By the following way glitter printing is done on the knitted or woven fabric. Fabric pre-treatment Table preparation Fabric plaited on the table Glitter paste apply by screen Hanging for 15 mins for dry Curing 160c (speed 3m/min) Delivery Q20. What is meant by Burn out Printing? Cotton and other cellulosic fibers are destroyed by strong mineral acids or their acid salts. This procedure is sometimes referred to as ―Burn Out‖. A cotton / polyester blended fabric can be printed with a print paste containing the burn out chemicals, and after fixation, the cotton portion is destroyed and only the polyester remains. This allows a patterned lacey design to be imparted to the fabric. It also is possible to incorporate a disperse dye in the burn out paste and dye the polyester during the burn out phase. This process is very corrosive and requires special screens and special care in handling.
  15. 15. Apparel wash, dyeing & Finishing(Final) Azmir Latif, MSc.Engr. (Textile) Page 15 of 43 Q21. State the principle of burn out printing for a particular batch by which we get a vintage look? • Scour the fabric by machine washing in HOT 140oF (60oC) water, or by hand in a pot on the stove with (2 gm) PRO Dye Activator and (2.5 ml) Synthrapol per pound of fabric (454 gm, or 3 to 4 yards cotton muslin, or 8 yards 8mm China Silk, or 3 Medium T-shirts, or 1 sweatshirt). Rinse thoroughly. This step does not add the dye fixative to the fabric; it prepares the fabric for dyeing by removing any dirt, oil or sizing. • Mix the thickener paste a few hours, or even the day before use it. In a large plastic or stainless steel bowl, measure 2 cups (500 ml) of room temperature 75o to 95oF (24o to 35oC) water. In a separate dry container measure a 1/3 cup (50 gm) of guar gum. Using a blender or hand mixer, starts blending just the water, then gradually add the guar gum. Continue blending until well mixed. Allow to stand several hours or overnight for a smooth paste. • Make the burn-out paste just before you are ready to use it. Measure cup plus 2 Tbl (220 ml) of 100oF (38oC) water and dissolve cup (200 gm) of sodium bisulfate in the water. Remember to always add the acid to the water, as a safety precaution. Once the sodium bisulfate is dissolved, add a cup (80 ml) of glycerin and the thickener paste made in step 2. Mix thoroughly using your blender or hand mixer. Discard the burn out paste after three days. • Prepare a padded surface to print on. If we do not have a padded print table, we can create a padded surface by laying down a terry cloth towel on your work table and taping it in place with masking tape. Cover the terry cloth towel with plastic or a canvas drop cloth. Then secure your fabric with masking tape on the plastic, or with T-pins on the canvas drop cloth. • Apply the burn-out paste to the fabric. Screen print, stencil, or apply the burn-out paste freehand, with foam or bristle brush. Make sure the burn-out paste penetrates through to the back of the fabric. The best paste penetration is achieved by screen printing, followed by stenciling, and then freehand applications. When working on silk/rayon velvet, it is best to print on the back side of the fabric rather than the pile. It is important to sample your method of application before working on large projects, to make sure the fabric will burn-out successfully. • Allow the fabric to air dry thoroughly. We can also speed up the drying by using a hair dryer. • Carefully remove the burned out (carbonized) areas of your fabric by one of the methods listed below. This part can be messy, so work outside if possible and always wear a cartridge respirator to avoid inhaling the small fibers.  Gently hands wash the fabric.  Gently brush off the burned out fiber by hand.  Use a small hand held vacuum. • Wash thoroughly with warm 110oF (44oC) water by hand or machine wash on gentle cycle with tsp (2.5ml) Synthrapol per pound (454 gm) of fabric. Rinse thoroughly and hang to dry. * Curing time and temperature are needed to be pre tested (Lab Trial), some time while using light blends, Polyester portion also get damaged. So, consequently no good print. One can choose one of these temperatures and times 1. 160C @ 5Min 2. 180C @ 2Min 3. 200C @ 1Min
  16. 16. Apparel wash, dyeing & Finishing(Final) Azmir Latif, MSc.Engr. (Textile) Page 16 of 43 VVI Q22. Write about Rubber Printing? The Rubber Printing System is the first ink jet printer in the world to successfully print with co-curable inks on uncured tire components and rubber products. This specialized printer fully automates the marking process, streamlining the production process and eliminating marking mistakes. VVI Q23. Show the flow-process of Rubber printing with standard recipe in respect of garment printing? Rubber printing is done of the important printing process. After apparel manufacturing printing is done on the surface of the fabric. Recipe: Rubber-60% Clear-38% Fixer-2% Process flow chart of rubber printing: Rubber printing is done as the flowing way in a printing unit. Table preparation Fabric plaited on the table Rubber printing paste apply with the help of screen Hanging the fabric for 15 min Curing at 150c(speed 5 m/min) Hanging the fabric for 30 min Curing at 150c(speed 5 m/min) Delivery Q24. Write about Crack Printing? Crack printing is a printing method to produce attractive design on the fabric surface. Here rubber is used as the printing paste. It is near similar as rubber printing process but additional crack paste is used before applying rubber printing paste by the screen printer on the cotton fabric. In crack print when pull the print, it seem like crack, but rubber print when pull it may seem crack effect. Q25. Show the flow-process of Crack printing with standard recipe in respect of garment printing? Printing recipe: Rubber-98% Fixer-2%
  17. 17. Apparel wash, dyeing & Finishing(Final) Azmir Latif, MSc.Engr. (Textile) Page 17 of 43 Add crack paste/clear (Ecocrack White & Clear. Suitable for crack effect silkscreen prints on polyester-cotton blend and cotton fabric, these are Eco-friendly water based that are soft auto-crack inks. Further, this white/clear provides an auto crack finish with elasticity, wash fastness, smoothness, excellent softness and hand feel.) Process flow chart of crack printing: Following sequence is the crack printing Table preparation Fabric plaited on the table Crack paste / clear apply with the help of screen Dry in air temp or hand dryer m/c(slight) Printing paste apply with the help of screen Curing at 190c( be it speed 2 m/min) Delivery Crack printing can be produced on the surface on T-shirt and other finished knit fabric and woven fabric. Water based ready paste giving effect with mud crack appearance on knitted/ stretchy fabric giving very soft hand feel & colour fastners towards world class standards & world class eco system. Q26. What is meant by Transfer Printing? Transfer printing is the term used to describe textile and related printing processes in which the design is first printed on to a flexible nontextile substrate and later transferred by a separate process to a textile. It may be asked why this devious route should be chosen instead of directly printing the fabric. VVI Q27. Write down the advantage and disadvantage of transfer printing? 1. Designs may be printed and stored on a relatively cheap and nonbulky substrate such as paper, and printed on to the more expensive textile with rapid response to sales demand. 2. The production of short-run repeat orders is much easier by transfer processes than it is by direct printing. 3. The design may be applied to the textile with relatively low skill input and low reject rates. 4. Stock volume and storage costs are lower when designs are held on paper rather than on printed textiles. 5. Certain designs and effects can be produced only by the use of transfers (particularly on garments or garment panels). 6. Many complex designs can be produced more easily and accurately on paper than on textiles. 7. Most transfer-printing processes enable textile printing to be carried out using simple, relatively inexpensive equipment with modest space requirements, without effluent production or any need for washing-off.
  18. 18. Apparel wash, dyeing & Finishing(Final) Azmir Latif, MSc.Engr. (Textile) Page 18 of 43 Against these advantages may be set the relative lack of flexibility inherent in transfer printing: no single transfer-printing method is universally applicable to a wide range of textile fibres. While a printer with a conventional rotary-screen printing set-up can proceed to print cotton, polyester, blends and so forth without doing a great deal beyond changing the printing ink used, the transfer printer hoping to have the same flexibility would need to have available a range of equipment suited to the variety of systems that have to be used for different dyes and substrates using transfer technology. Advantages 1. Operation is simple and no expensive m/c is required. 2. No after treatment of fabric required 3. Print on fabric is of excellent quality Disadvantages 1. Process applicable to synthetic fabric like polyester. 2. Color range is limited. 3. Cost of printed paper high. 4. Not economical for small orders. Q28. What are the types of Transfer Printing? There are four types of Transfer printing- 1. Sublimation or dry or vapor phase Transfer printing This method depends on the use of a volatile dye in the printed design. When the paper is heated the dye is preferentially adsorbed from the vapour phase by the textile material with which the heated paper is held in contact. This is commercially the most important of the transfer-printing methods. 2. Melt Transfer printing This method has been used since the 19th century to transfer embroidery designs to fabric. The design is printed on paper using a waxy ink, and a hot iron applied to its reverse face presses the paper against the fabric. The ink melts on to the fabric in contact with it. This was the basis of the first commercially successful transfer process, known as Star printing, developed in Italy in the late 1940s. It is used in the so-called ‗hot- split‘ transfer papers extensively used today in garment decoration. 3. Film Release Transfer printing This method is similar to melt transfer with the difference that the design is held in an ink layer which is transferred completely to the textile from a release paper using heat and pressure. Adhesion forces are developed between the film and the textile which are stronger than those between the film and the paper. The method has been developed for the printing of both continuous web and garment panel units, but is used almost exclusively for the latter purpose. In commercial importance it is comparable with sublimation transfer printing. 4. Wet or migration Transfer printing Water-soluble dyes are incorporated into a printing ink which is used to produce a design on paper. The design is transferred to a moistened textile using carefully regulated contact pressure. The dye transfers by diffusion through the aqueous medium. The method is not used to any significant extent at the present time.
  19. 19. Apparel wash, dyeing & Finishing(Final) Azmir Latif, MSc.Engr. (Textile) Page 19 of 43 VVI Q29. What is heat transfer printing? Heat printing, also known as heat transfer printing, is the process of applying heat-applied materials to various items (i.e., substrates) with a heat press. Heat-applied materials contain a heat-sensitive adhesive on one side; when heat is applied by a heat press to the material, the material adheres to the substrate to which it is being applied. Transfer papers require the artwork to be printed in reverse. Most heat transfer papers will be made for laser or ink jet printers and will fall under two categories regardless if they are professional grade or not. Three key components to consider when decorating with a heat press are: time, temperature, and pressure. Every heat transfer material has its own heat printing instructions.  Time: The amount of time, in seconds, that heat must be applied to the design/garment.  Temperature: The optimal degree at which the design will adhere to the garment.  Pressure: The amount of downward force needed when heat applying. Q30. Shortly discuss heat transfer printing Process for garments printing? The process of heat transfer printing begins with the printing of a design which can be as simple as a single color print or as complex as a full color image. The image is printed using a modified Oki color laser printer and the print medium used is a special range of transfer papers that are specifically designed for use with the Oki laser printer. Once the design has been printed, it is applied to the garment using one of our swing away heat transfer presses.  The first step of the process is to get the picture that you would like. We will put it in our computers and touch-up the image.  We then print this from our high quality printers on commercial heat transfer paper. Although this is similar to iron-on paper that you can get at a retail store, it is NOT. The commercial paper we use will last much longer, and will not peel, fade, or bleed.  Each image is hand cut. We commonly add a small border around an image to aid in durability.  The image is accurately positioned on the product using lasers to ensure straightness. Then it goes to the Heat Press. A Heat Press is like a really big iron that can evenly put down hundreds of pounds of pressure, while accurately controlling temperatures.  The commercial paper that the image is printed on melts into the fibers of the clothing, making it a part of the item without disturbing the image.  Using the Heat Transfer method we are able to print in as many colors as you would like and on any color fabric. The colors come out bright and bold. Q31. Shortly discuss Reflective printing Process for garments printing? In this printing highly reflective ink is used for printing, when exposed to light it reflect by Reflective Ink. Reflective ink is made up of a clear base combined with thousands of tiny aluminum coated glass beads.These beads are highly reflective when exposed to light. The ink has a muted grey color when printed and a bright silver/white color when reflecting. Because the ink color is so muted we recommend that all the reflective ink used in a design be either outlined or surrounded by other print colors to improve.
  20. 20. Apparel wash, dyeing & Finishing(Final) Azmir Latif, MSc.Engr. (Textile) Page 20 of 43 Adding reflective ink to your design is a relatively inexpensive way to make sure that your shirts will stand out from the crowd. Composition TiO2-BaO-SiO2 Refractive Index 1.93+-0.01nd Size range 20-105um(can be provided by request) Color siliver Q32. Define the technique of Spray Printing This is one kind of printing which give white effect on a specific area of garments. All type of textile & garments are suitable for spray printing. White pigment paste is used for this type of printing. This spray can be water based colours, metallic glitters like gold & silver. These are designed and developed using superior quality material giving very soft hand feel & colour fastness towards world class standards & world class ECO system. VVI Q33. Write the difference between Rubber print and crack print? In both print Rubbers is used as the printing paste. Crack printing is near similar as rubber printing process but additional crack paste is used before applying rubber printing paste by the screen printer on the fabric. In crack print when pull the print, it seem like crack, but rubber print only rubber and fixer are commonly used no use crack inks to produce crack effect. So when pull the rubber print, it seem like solid, smooth, plain and no crack effect. VVI Q34. Write the difference between High density print and puff print? High density screen printing at first glance seems to be some sort of high-quality puff print. Actually, the high density inks are not puff inks at all. In high density print Rubber or plastic sold is used as a paste. Screen applies many times on a same design. If it may be thick around 5-6mm then apply high density sticker. High Density is a popular special effect that rises straight up off the shirt and has a hard rubbery feel with sharp edges. A High density print has slight glossy finish. On the other side puff print rubber and puff chemical used combined. The puff ink expands when exposed to high temperature heat as the garment is cured. When the puff inks which raises the print off the garment, creating a 3D feel. In this method when the paste is printed and dries it look like normal printing garments but once it is cured the prints gets raised from the surface of fabric. Sometimes it called emboss print or foam print also. Q35. Write the difference between Glitter print and Metallic Print? • Gives metallic look. • Similar to glitter, but smaller particles suspended in the ink. • Smooth in texture when compared to glitter • Glitter reflects light at different angles, causing the surface to sparkle or shimmer but in metallic print overall print gives sparkle, shiny or shimmer look.
  21. 21. Apparel wash, dyeing & Finishing(Final) Azmir Latif, MSc.Engr. (Textile) Page 21 of 43 VVI Q36. Write the limitation of garment printing and how you overcome this? Printing Limitation • Improper alignment: – Causes: Improper setting of two different screens of different colour – Remedies: Need to setting two different screens of different colour • Colour spread: – Causes: Less viscosity of print paste. Base fabric not fixed properly. – Remedies: Must have appropriate viscosity. Need to proper curing. • Improper mixing of print paste: – Causes: As the name itself implies the print paste ingredients are not mixed properly leading to some yellowing or stain marks on print. – Remedies: Need proper mixing of the print paste ingredients. Use striker while you mixing the paste. • Scrimps: – Causes: The print is done on folded fabric. – Remedies: When fabric is plaited on the table or passed on the roller try to avoid any kind of folding. • Smear – Causes: Printing is done on seams which will be of different thickness leading in spreading and blurring. • Difference in texture – Causes: Improper fusing – Remedies: Always try to make same texture for a same pattern. • Improper colour matching – Causes: If printed colour is not matching with standard. – Remedies: Before applying the printing paste colour is need to matching with standard. • Stick in – Causes: Some dust and lint which get chock in screen holes leads in improper design. – Remedies: Clean regularly after printing a batch. • Doubling or blurring – Causes: Improper fixing of base fabric or screen. • Lint or thread marks – Causes: Any loose threads come in print area will lead to thread marks on print. – Remedies: Try to avoid loose threads come in print area • Colour stains – Causes: Improper handling of material. – Remedies: Properly handle all material. • Glue streak – Causes: The gum which used to stick garment and/or the gel which is printed on fabric (for foil, flock etc.) strikes out of fabric through back side. – Remedies: Suitable gum or the gel used to stick garment. • Low sharpness – Causes: Improper mesh selection, damaged screen. – Remedies: Mesh selection is very important especially high density, rubber and crack printing. Proper mesh and screen will be used. • Coloured/White spots
  22. 22. Apparel wash, dyeing & Finishing(Final) Azmir Latif, MSc.Engr. (Textile) Page 22 of 43 – Causes: Improper screen preparation. – Remedies: Most of the printing is done by screen so need proper screen preparation. • Distorted print – Causes: printing of second coat before drying 1st coat. In general 1-3% of defective pieces in bulk order are allowed, but since the defect occurrence is very less it‘s always less than the limit.  Washed off or peel off – Causes: in most of the advanced garment printing technique like Digital Printing, Flock Printing, Flex Printing, High Density Printing, Foil Printing, Puff Printing, Cavier Bead Print, Glitter Printing,Metallic Print,Burn Out Printing, Reflective print, Plastisol Print, Rubber Printing, Crack Printing use Adhesives, binder or fixer. So after washing print may washed off or peel off. – Remedies: Binder and Adhesives or fixer is very important for print durability. Only good quality fixer or binder can give good print durability. Q37.Shortly discuss dye sublimation print for garment printing Sublimation method depends on the use of a volatile dye in the printed design. When the paper is heated the dye is preferentially adsorbed from the vapor phase by the textile material with which the heated paper is held in contact. This is commercially the most important of the transfer-printing methods. The dye sublimation inks are a pigment suspended in a liquid solvent, like water. The images are initially printed on coated heat-resistant transfer paper as a reverse image of the final design, which is then transferred onto polyester fabric in a heat press operating at a temperature around 180 to 210 C (375 F). Under high temperature and pressure, the dye turns into a gas and permeates the fabric and then solidifies into its fibers. Q38. Discuss the dye sublimation print process for garment printing Sublimation sampling can be done on Digital printing machine. But digital is not production friendly due to more lead time and cost per meter is high. We can do production using Roller printing machine only for bigger run. Process-the required design is 1st printed on paper on a roller printing machine for bulk production and then this paper along with the fabric sandwich together and passed thru heated continues paper press to transfer the print from paper to fabric. Roller printing machine is a machine where copper rolls are used for printing and any design with multiple color merging, ombray effect can be achieved for bulk production, since the copper roll are very- very expensive so this printing machine is no longer used in Indian textile industry but frequently used in china and Korea to achieve excellent print result in heat transfer/sublimation print. Any print that digital printing machine produced and rotary can‘t do, can be achieved using roller printing machine thru sublimation process.
  23. 23. Apparel wash, dyeing & Finishing(Final) Azmir Latif, MSc.Engr. (Textile) Page 23 of 43 The combination of heat and pressure cause the sublimation ink to convert into a gas, which is received simultaneously by the substrate‘s opened polymers. (This is an over-simplified explanation of the process, but it works for our purposes.) After the heat application is completed (about a minute), the transfer paper is removed and discarded. When the product cools down, the sublimation dye is encapsulated within the surface (instead of on top). The result is a high-resolution, permanent coloration that won‘t peel or crack. And in the case of apparel, sublimation will not fade, even after multiple washings.  Normally, as matter is heated, it progresses through the stages of solid, liquid, then gas.  The process of sublimation involves taking matter directly from the solid state to the gaseous state, without becoming a liquid in the process.  With a dye sublimation printer, this process allows for ink to be dyed into fabric via heat, which makes the dye permanent and allows for photo-realistic images of fabrics. Dye sublimation process  Dye sublimation allows photo lab quality picture printing. During the dye sublimation printing process, an image is digitally printed in reverse with dye sublimation toners or inks on to media.  •That image is then placed on top of a fabric and subjected to high heat and pressure to form a heat press.  •The dye sublimation toners or inks sublimate–the inks go from a solid state to a gaseous state without becoming liquid in between and flow into the fabric, dyeing the threads.  •This creates a gentle gradation of color and does not distort or fade overtime.  By using the dye sublimation process, you save money as well as the environment because the images last just as long as the T-shirts, hats, and other materials the images are printed on. Benefit of Dye Sublimation  Any image can be printed all over the fabric  The result of heat transfer printing and digital printing using low sublimation disperse dyes would be the same.  Colors can be extraordinarily brilliant due to the bonding of the dye to the transparent fibers of the synthetic fabric.  Truly continuous tones can be achieved that are equivalent to photographs, without the use special techniques such as half-screen printing.  Dye Sublimation allows you to get high quality at an affordable price.
  24. 24. Apparel wash, dyeing & Finishing(Final) Azmir Latif, MSc.Engr. (Textile) Page 24 of 43 Disadvantage of sublimation printing • Back side of fabric always is white as it only prints the surface of the textile. • Sampling cost is high. • Cost and lead time will be high for smaller run. • Not success for light weight qualities like chiffon, ggt. • If we stretch the fabric 20% or more then you lose a whole stack of color depth when the white shows through the fabric/knit ribs (dark blue suddenly becomes light blue, black becomes grey). • Sublimation heat transfer is suitable for polyester fabric only. • The limitation of sublimation is that it only works on polymer-based surfaces. Latest/ Modern technique for Garment dyeing VVI Q1. Define the term of garment dyeing? Garment dyeing is the process of dyeing fully fashioned garments (such as pants, pullovers, t-shirts, jeans, sweaters, dresses, bathrobes, casual jackets, shirts, skirts, hosieries) subsequent to manufacturing, as opposed to the conventional method of manufacturing garments from pre-dyed fabrics. Garment dyeing may be defined as the ―application of color to fully fashioned apparel articles, may be in the form of garments cut and sewn either prepared or unprepared knitted fabrics and then dyed, garments and / or components knitted from either prepared or unprepared yarn and then dyed, garments manufactured from either prepared or unprepared woven fabric and then dyed and mixed fabric garments i.e. woven and knitted fabrics manufactured from prepared fabrics and then dyed‖. The benefits of processing good through garment dyeing procedure revolve around quick response and improved inventory control. Differentiation is made between garment dyeing and hosiery dyeing where socks and ladies stockings have been dyed in the prepared form .Garment dyeing is the obvious way to meet the needs i.e. quick response to fashion change, lead times have been reduced to 4 to 5 days from 2 to 3 weeks as minimum with other processing routes. Q2. Write the Difference between the Garments Dyeing and Fabric Dyeing? Garments Dyeing Fabric Dyeing 1. When garments are made from grey fabric and then the garments are dyed in required color and shade called garments dyeing. 1. Fabric dyeing is the method after weaving, knitting or non woven to make fabric. This is a very popular method of dyeing of the dyed fabrics will be processed further to garments industries very easily. 2. Less time is required. 2. More time is required. 3. Comparatively low cost of production. 3. Comparatively higher cost of production then garments dyeing process. 4. For direct dyeing M: L ratio maintained between 1: 10 4. For reactive dyeing M: L ratio maintained between 1: 8 5. Wales per centimeter is not increases after dyeing process. 5. Wales per centimeter increases after dyeing process. Because during dyeing fabric is continuously
  25. 25. Apparel wash, dyeing & Finishing(Final) Azmir Latif, MSc.Engr. (Textile) Page 25 of 43 revolved. Therefore fabric gets lengthwise tension & it causes increases of WPCM. 6. GSM is increase after dyeing. 6. GSM is also increase after dyeing. 7. Generally Belly machine is used for garments dyeing. 7. Generally Jet/Jigger/Pad/ Winch dyeing machine are used 8. Less production than Fabric Dyeing. 8. Higher production than Garments Dyeing. 9. Comparatively lower space is needed. 9. Comparatively higher space is needed. 10. No possibility of shade variation. 10. It has possibility of shade variation. 11. For direct dye pH is needed 4-7. For reactive dye pH is needed 9-11. 12. Sewing thread used for making the garments should be of same fiber like the garments fabric, otherwise color difference may occur between garments fabric and sewing thread. 12. No need of sewing thread. 13. After dyed garments no need processed further to garments industries. 13. After dyed fabrics must be processed further to garments industries. VVI Q3.Write the Latest/Modern Technique used for Garment dyeing There are various technique used for garment dyeing; recently some latest technology has developed for garment dyeing in our industry. 1. Tie dyeing 2. Dip dyeing 3. Spray dyeing 4. Over dyeing 5. Cold dyeing 6. High white dyeing 7. Washable dyeing 8. Reverse dyeing 9. Top dyeing Q4. Write the Reason for Garment dyeing Traditionally, garments are constructed from fabrics that are pre dyed (piece dyed) before the actual cutting and sewing.  The advantage of this process is the cost effectiveness of mass producing identical garments of particular colors.  Quick Response to the market (bar coding etc.,)  Ability to supply a wide range of colorations to the retailer, but only in the shades that are selling  Reduced discounted sales at inventory  Best way to achieved relaxed, casual look  Ability to create special effects such as tie dyed, pigment dyed and washed down in a single process etc.,  A major drawback with this approach is the risk associated with carrying a large inventory of a particular style or color in today's dynamic market.
  26. 26. Apparel wash, dyeing & Finishing(Final) Azmir Latif, MSc.Engr. (Textile) Page 26 of 43 Q5. What are the Special considerations to garment for garment dyeing?  Very good communications between all parties involved  Preparation - may be done on piece goods or on garments clean substrate for dyeing reduced shrinkage (preferably squared) for woven‘s should be less than 5% for knits should be less than 8%  Metal components should be non-ferrous pewter buttons are acceptable  Non-metal components that are not sensitive to dye chemistry or temperatures at a boil are acceptable  polyester zippers, buttons, etc. which are clear or predyed tie dyed splatter dyed  weathered pigment dye and wash down in a single process nickel plated brass zippers are acceptable  Velcro - clear or predyed  special polyamide buttons which are dyeable  Threads must be of same fiber as the fabric in the garment or "grinning" will occur.  Pre dyed threads may be used  Corespun threads with a strength or stretch yam in the core and the desired fiber on the outside  Covered threads may be used  "Tacking" of sleeves and pant legs to prevent tangling Q6.Write the Categories of Garment Dyeing? The dyeing of the garments requires more care than the dyeing of the fabric, though there is very little difference in the dyeing procedures. This is due to the fact that processing of garments involves value added goods. The entire garment dyeing activities may be broken down in to four categories: 1. Fully fashioned garment dyeing carried out by major dyers and finishers 2. Cut and sewn garment covering woven and knitted fabrics. 3. Dyeing of 100% cotton goods for boutique trade suitable for hand washing. and 4. Washing, desizing, bleaching denim goods, leading to stone wash, snow wash, over dyeing and highlighting effects. VVI Q7. Write down the advantage and disadvantage of garment dyeing? Advantages of Garment Dyeing  Flexibility towards fast changing market trends  Quick response and rapid turnaround  Flexibility towards dye shades and finishes  Flexibility of lot size  Flexibility of items to be dyed  Comparatively less rejection  Low inventory  Less capital investments  Fancy effects  Handling of smaller lots economically.  Enables various special effects to achieve. Distressed look can be effectively imparted. Unsold light shades can be converted into medium and deep shades. By the time the garment has been in a boiling dyebath and then tumble-dried, it will have adopted its lowest energy state and will not suffer further shrinkage under consumer washing conditions. Latest fashion trends can be effectively incorporated through garment wet processing by immediate feedback from the customer.
  27. 27. Apparel wash, dyeing & Finishing(Final) Azmir Latif, MSc.Engr. (Textile) Page 27 of 43 Disadvantages of Garment Dyeing  Labor intensive process and requires thorough checking of every piece  Higher ―seconds‖ rate  Poor appearance  Poor reproducibility of shades  Special care in the selection of fittings  More material handling  High cost of processing This is little complicated dyeing process. Garment accessories like zips, buttons, etc impose restrictions. The garments produced from woven fabrics create many problems and it has been found that the existing textile treatment styles as developed for piece dyed fabric cannot be just assembled for garment wet processing operation such as garment dyeing, unless they have been engineered from the original design stage for garment dyeing.  The factors governing processing of ready-made garments are • Sewing Thread • Metal Components. Shrink behavior • Accessories • Foreign substances • Interlining • Care labeling. VVI Q8. State the technique of Tie dyeing? Tie-dye is a process of dyeing textiles or clothing which is made from knit or woven fabric, usually cotton; typically using bright colors. Tie dye is a popular technique used to create colorful designs and patterns on clothing. Various techniques have been used to tie dye clothing for more than 6000 years. Today, tie dye is a great way to jazz up plain t- shirts and other garments using colorfast dyes and creative folding techniques. Tie-dying became fashionable in the late 1960s & early 1970s as part of hippie style. It was popularized in the U.S. by musicians such as John Sebastian and Janis Joplin. It is same as that of batik printing but here the dye is resisted by knots that are tied in the cloth before it is immersed in dye bath. The outside of the knotted portion is dyed, but inside is not penetrated if the knot is firmly tied. This gives a characteristic blurred or mottled effect. VVI Q9. Shortly discuss Process sequence of Tie dyeing technique for garments dyeing? Dyeing recipe Pigment dyes-% (depends on shade) Binder-1-1.5gm/l Flow chart of Tie dyeing Shorting garment Scouring (detergent-1-1.5% at 70c for 10 min) Hydro extractor (remove excess water)
  28. 28. Apparel wash, dyeing & Finishing(Final) Azmir Latif, MSc.Engr. (Textile) Page 28 of 43 Dryer (for drying the garments) Tie the garments (as per requirement) Dyeing (garment load onto the dye bath for 15-20 mins) Bath drain Rinse (2 times) Hydroextractor(remove excess water) Tie open Dryer (for drying the garments) Color fixing (1-2gm/l) *In tie dyeing process there is no way to re process or rematch VVVI Q10. Briefly describe tying technique and effect on garment? In tie dyeing always prewash the garment is used. Before applying dyes need ready to tie your garment. After tying you are now ready to dye. There are many techniques to tying. Knot Tying: This is another common tying technique. The key to an interesting design is just knot the garment .No need extra rope or string to tie the garment. Spirals: You need to produce a spiral and one tie dye of choice. You may demonstrate additional folds for you to choose from. You may want to have the center of the swirl off center, near the top, or near the bottom. Gather up loose edges and finally tie by rope or twine. Electric Bunching: Place the shirt out flat with the front side down. Clothes pin where you wish the center of the swirl to be. You may want to have the center of the swirl off center, near the top, or near the bottom. Gather up loose edges and finally tie by rope or twine. Rosettes: First two edge of garment take then attach at a same point finally tie together with a string as looks a rose bud. Stripes: scrunch fabric vertically. Wrap rubber bands around the laces you want stripes. You will need two rubber bands for each stripe. Circles: This is another tying technique. The key to an interesting design is garment make circle fold then tying by cotton rug warp.
  29. 29. Apparel wash, dyeing & Finishing(Final) Azmir Latif, MSc.Engr. (Textile) Page 29 of 43 Bull's Eye: Place fabric on a flat surface. Pinch and lift the center of your bull’s eye. Place rubber bands along the section you lifted. The number of rubber bands you use depends on how many sections you want in your bull's eye. ORIGAMI: This is another tying technique. The key to an interesting design is precise geometric folding and tight resist. Shibori: Shibori is the Japanese term (from the word ‘to squeeze or wring’).It is a bit like tie dye, but more precise and geometric.It is usually done with a single indigo (blue) dyebath. It uses a variety of resist techniques which prevent the dye from reaching certain parts of the fabric. The original fabric colour remains in resist areas.  Tying  Pleating  Clamping  Sewing These fabrics have been sewn and tied. Sewing technique: We may get tie dyeing effect by sewing. There is different kind of sewing technique it’s depend on what types of design we need. Folding: We can fold the garment and then apply dyes we may get folding effect. Pleating: Pleating is also same as folding technique. First pleat the garment then it clamp by something finally dyes apply. VVI Q11. Write down the advantage and disadvantage of Tie dyeing? Advantage of Tie dyeing • Interesting design created on fabric • No m/c cost is there Disadvantage of Tie dyeing • Costly • Laborious • Time taking • Skilled labor required VVI Q12. Shortly discuss Dip dyeing technique for garments dyeing? Dip dye''' (also known as "tip dyeing") is a coloring style that involves dipping the ends of the cloth. In this process colored dye or a bright colored dye is used - which is generally a more popular choice now days it‘s used in garment. If somebody wants to dip dye of a garments need a dip dyeing machine. Tie dyeing makes
  30. 30. Apparel wash, dyeing & Finishing(Final) Azmir Latif, MSc.Engr. (Textile) Page 30 of 43 every garment unique, so garment specialist gives the steps to make any piece of clothing special with the proper way of dip dyeing. It's best to dye the sleeves and bottom separately: Roll up the part you're not dyeing into a plastic bag to protect it, and secure with a rubber band. Dye, rinse, and let dry between the two dips. When the garment dry slightly it will lighter. The top of the dyed band is gradually lighter than the bottom part. In dip dyeing face and back side of garment dyed but in spray dyeing only one side is dyed. VVVI Q13. Show the flow-process of Dip dyeing with standard recipe in respect of garment dyeing? Readymade solution Basically in industrial process pigment and reactive dyes is mainly used. Recipe: Pigment black dyes = 0.9 % Pigment red dyes = 1.6 % Pigment yellow dyes = 0.08 % Binder 1-1.5gm/l Catanizer 2-2.5 gm/l Flow chart of Dip dyeing Shorting garment Scouring (detergent-1-1.5% at 70c for 10 min) Hydroextractor(remove excess water) Dryer (for drying the garments) Garment may be wet/ dry state Apply binder 1-1.5gm/l (Catanizer 2-2.5 gm/l if any) Dip a sample into the dye bath (as per shade) Keep garment in dyebath and shake until it turns the desired color Shaking 15-20 times for 10-15 min Hanging the garment on the dye bath (5-6 hours) Curing (80-90c for 30-40 mins) VVI Q14.Write the disadvantage of dip dyeing  Not suitable for all fiber especially synthetic fiber because synthetic fiber has no direct affinity to dyes.  It takes more time to Hanging the garment on the dye bath (5-6 hours).  When the garment dry slightly it will lighter.  Not suitable for all dyes.
  31. 31. Apparel wash, dyeing & Finishing(Final) Azmir Latif, MSc.Engr. (Textile) Page 31 of 43 Q15. What is meant by Spray dyeing? This is one kind of dyeing which give white effect on a specific area of garments. All type of textile & garments are suitable for spray dyeing. It is also called pigment spray. Color pigment paste is used for this type of dyeing. This spray can be water based colours. These are designed and developed using superior quality material giving very soft hand feel, vintage look & colour fastness towards world class standards & world class ECO system. Bring a new look to home décor, clothing and accessories with Simply Spray fabric or garment paints – the only non-toxic, non flammable, virtually odorless aerosol paint for fabrics or garments. Bring a new look to home décor, clothing and accessories with Simply Spray fabric paints — the only non-toxic, non- flammable, virtually odorless aerosol paint for fabrics. By spray dyeing we create a totally unique look, Soft Fabric Paint, Stencil Spray, Upholstery Fabric Paint, Leather Cote, Vinyl Cote, Project Paint, Paint It Black, Spray Blood, Glow In the Dark and Puff Paint offer unique uses and tools. This eco-friendly, water-based paints will not harm the environment when discarded and are safe to use indoors and with kids. Q16. Show the flow-process of spray dyeing by pigment dyes with standard recipe in respect of garment dyeing? In spray dyeing first need select the garment. Mainly ready for dyeing (RFD) is used. In spray dyeing only one side is dyed it may face or back depend on what I want. We may get same effect by dip dyeing but not for all design. We may spray back side of the garment. Dyeing recipe :( for a standard shade for 15 pieces body) Black-PABN-20gm Oxal(fixing agent)-25gm Pin well (wax/silicone)-15 gm Nk binder (for pigment)-50gm Water----------------------890ml Total -1000gm(for 15 pieces) Flow chart of Spray dyeing: Shorting garment (RFD) Enzyme the garment (.5gm/l at 55c for 50 mins) Dryer (for drying the garments at 70-80c) Garment wear on dummy Spray the solution onto the garment Curing for knit (120c for 30-40 mins)
  32. 32. Apparel wash, dyeing & Finishing(Final) Azmir Latif, MSc.Engr. (Textile) Page 32 of 43 Curing for woven (130-150c for 30-35 mins) Binder for color fixing Softener/Silicone *In spray dyeing the color effect is visible only the face side of a garment. In side of the garment is not colored. Pigment dyes are suitable for spray dyeing. Q17. Write the Difference between the Spray Dyeing and Dip Dyeing? In spray dyeing the color effect is visible only one side it may be the face side or back of a garment depend on what I want. In side of the garment is not colored. Pigment dyes are suitable for spray dyeing. We may get same effect by dip dyeing but not for all design. We may spray back side of the garment. But in dip dyeing garment is dip into the dye solution so the color effect is visible both side the face side and back of a garment. When the garment dry slightly it will lighter. The top of the dyed band is gradually lighter than the bottom part. In garment dip dyeing, dip dyeing machine is used but in spray dyeing spray gun is used. Q18. What do you mean by cold dyeing? Cold garment dyeing is also called oil dyeing. By spray dyeing we get uneven look. Face and back we get different look. *In cold garment dyeing we get uneven look. For remove excess color we may used close binder (deep to light).If the garment light over to required shade we may tint by direct dyes to meet required shade. For softening the garment mainly cationic softener is used. Q19. Shortly describe cold dyeing process with standard recipe for garments dyeing? Dyeing recipe :( for a standard shade) Black-DBBN-20gm Blue DBA--30gm Yellow-25 gm Black BSF -300gm Flow chart of Cold dyeing Shorting garment (Ready for dyeing garment) Scouring (detergent-1-1.5% at 80c for 10 min) Rinse-1 Acid wash Rinse-2 Wet body Sample load into the dye bath (as per shade at room temp. for 15 mins) Bath drain
  33. 33. Apparel wash, dyeing & Finishing(Final) Azmir Latif, MSc.Engr. (Textile) Page 33 of 43 Rinse (2 times) Hydroextractor(remove excess water) Dryer (for drying the garments) Curing (80-90c for 30-40 mins) Softener-1-2gm/l and silicone-1-2gm/l Hydroextractor(remove excess water) Dryer (for drying the garments) VVI Q20.What is meant by Over dyeing? (Over Dyeing) is to dye for a second or third time with a different color Over dyeing is such a rewarding way of rescuing an ugly or unsatisfactory colored cloth. It gives uneven look. Over dyeing doesn‘t mean all-time dyeing the garment which is previously dyed. Mainly over dyeing is normal dyeing or piece dyeing process. But in over dyeing process sometimes printed garment is dyeing, basically pigment printed. This method is the best process of the dyeing of garments. However, the penetration of the dye solution may not be completely passed to the fibers such as between the seams, buttons, zippers etc. Normally, it is used for lingerie, socks, sweater dyeing etc. In over dyeing process reactive, direct and pigment dyes are commonly used.  Two times garments dyeing are called over dyeing.  First garment is dyed by pigment dyes then direct dyes this is also called over dyeing.  Tinting by any kind of toner is also called over dyeing.  Ready for dyeing (RFD) is dyed by any color is called over dyeing.  Fabric is dyed in any color then make garment without accessories finally after making garment again dyed by same dyes is also called over dyeing  Ready for dyeing (RFD) is printed by suitable technique then dyed by reactive or direct or pigment dyes is called over dyeing. Q21.Write the process flow diagram of over dyeing with standard recipe for garments dyeing? Over dyeing process for a dyed garment For over dyeing of a dyed garment select the dye which is previously used for dyeing the fabric that form the garment. In the below I shown a standard recipe and flow chart which is previously dyed with reactive dye during fabric form. Now over dyeing is done by reactive dyes. It gives uneven look. When buyer said it will over dyeing we try to dyeing light during fabric dyeing. We may use extra toner to give effective tone. In market different types of toner is available. Garment Dyeing Machines for over dyeing There are two types of equipment regularly used for garment dyeing. In our local industry Belly (cylinder drum) and front rolling (digital machine) type‘s machine are used. 1. Paddle machines:
  34. 34. Apparel wash, dyeing & Finishing(Final) Azmir Latif, MSc.Engr. (Textile) Page 34 of 43 A. Horizontal Paddle Machine B. Lateral / oval paddle C. HT Paddle Machines 2. Rotary drums A. Rotary Drum Dyeing Machine B. Tumbler Dyeing Machine 3. Toroid Dyeing Machine 4. Modified Pegg Toroid Whiteley garment dyeing machine 5. The Gyrobox 1. Paddle machines A high liquor ratio is required for paddle machines, which is less economical and may limit shade reproducibility. 2. Rotary drums Rotary drum machines are sometimes preferred for garments, which require gentler handling, such as sweaters. Many machinery companies have developed sophisticated rotary dyeing machines, which incorporate state-of-the-art technology. Dyeing recipe: (for a standard shade) Reactive black dyes = 0.08 % Reactive red dyes = .01 % Reactive yellow dyes = 0.05 % Salt = 30 g/l Soda = 10 g/l Flow chart of over dyeing for dyed garment with reactive dyes Process sequence Load dyed Garment Anticreasing-.5%+A.Acid-.6%+Leveling-1.5% Load dyed garment into the dye bath(60c) Run for 5 min Salt = 30 g/l Run for 5 min Soda = 10 g/l Run for 35 min Shade Check Bath Drain (BD) Rinse-1 Rinse-2
  35. 35. Apparel wash, dyeing & Finishing(Final) Azmir Latif, MSc.Engr. (Textile) Page 35 of 43 Fixing -1gm/l (45c for 30 mins) Softener-1-2gm/l and silicone-1-2gm/l Hydroextractor(remove excess water) Dryer (for drying the garments) VVVIQ22. Write the limitation of garment dyeing and how you overcome this? Though garment dyeing has attracted many processors to look forward, the process is attached with many stringent requirements related to seams, elasticated areas, waist band, cuffs and problems often occur due to shrink behaviour, chafe marks / creases, accessories, sewing threads, foreign substances, interlining and care labeling. Processing problems related to the garment size control and appearance normally result from variations in yarn size / twist, ends per inch, picks per inch or courses per inch in the knitted fabrics. Preparation is an area of textiles in which the least attention is paid to correct procedures. Most of all dyeing problems can be traced to improperly prepared cloth. Natural impurities in the cotton vary among the various locations across the world. Shade non-uniformity and the related appearance problems arise due to the differences in fabric preparation processes like, desizing, scouring and bleaching. Retention of shade, in the case of rayon fabrics, is unstable than that of cotton fabrics. All these problems are further aggravated, if there is any inconsistency in the garment assembly. Though garment dyeing has been reviewed by many authors, the problems arising in the garment dyeing are discussed in detail. Some of the problems that are difficult to correct after dyeing include: poor fabric preparation, improper tension of the sewing threads that may lead to seam puckering, garments prepared with panels taken from differently or inconsistently prepared fabrics and discoloration of button and closures caused by dyes and chemicals used in the process. Consistent shade replication depends on material to liquor ratio, salt concentration, heating rate, alkali concentration, fixation time and temperature. Chlorine emitted from bleaching or ice wash can lead to white specks. Also, the residual hydrogen peroxide in the bleached materials can interfere with dyes and spoil the colours. Different machines used in the fabric preparation can result in differences due to the time and temperature differences. While sewing, it is necessary to keep sewing tensions minimum on lock stitch and chain stitch operations. About 90 – 95% of the garments that the dyer receives are cut and sewn from previously prepared cloth. Oils, softeners used in knitting needs to be removed. The various problems observed in the dyed garments include variation in shade / depth within the garment panels, between garments occurs due to mixing of panels cut from differently treated fabrics, white undyed / light seams happens mainly due to tight stitching, which further gets tighter due to the shrinkage during a higher temperature of dyeing, and prevents dye penetration on seams and underneath the stitches, variation in the shade and brightness differences within the garment panels happens due mixing fabrics treated with OBA and without OBA, finish, resin and etc has been added to the garments. Dimensionally stable thread with low elongation will help prevent seam puckering after dyeing. The dimensional stability of the stitching thread should be tested prior to stitching and thread with low elongation can prevent seam puckering after dyeing. Core spun thread also give excellent results. In the case of knitted fabrics, pre relaxation is employed to avoid the problems of seam pucker and garment distortion and such fabrics can also be used along with woven fabrics as fabric cut and sewn garment designs. Size of the filaments also affects the depth of the shade, due to the fact that coarser filaments absorb more light than finer filaments. As the cross section of fibres becomes more and more non-circular, the fibres light scattering power increases. Trilobal fibres need about 50% extra dye than circular fibres for same depth. However, bulked multi-lobal
  36. 36. Apparel wash, dyeing & Finishing(Final) Azmir Latif, MSc.Engr. (Textile) Page 36 of 43 fibres in the yarn ―trap the light‖ within the body of the textile and increases the depth of the colour. Therefore, light scattering or light trapping can alter the depth as decided by cross section. The randomness of orientation of the dyed fibres in a textile material strongly influences the depth of the colour. The apparent colour of yarns made from filaments tends to be highly dependent on the angle of viewing, whereas such sensitivity is not obvious in the case of staple fibre yarns. In the fabrics containing raised surfaces like velour, velvet, corduroy, difference in the side and end arise mainly due to the optical origin, which is traceable to the path length traversed by the light in the longitudinal and transverse directions in fibres. More light is absorbed in the longitudinal direction than in the cross sectional direction. Side and end effects can give rise to non-uniform colour appearance in the garments. Significant darkening of the fabrics occurs after subjecting it to calendaring because of the increased optical contact and reduced light scattering power. Similarly oil or water present in the fabrics also brings significant darkening effects in the fabrics. Elasticated areas, waist bands and cuffs must be fairly slack and seams should not be too much bulky or tightly. Shrinkage behaviour becomes more important where knitted and woven fabrics are mixed. Pre-relaxed knitted fabrics, pretreated woven fabrics should be fully preshrunk through suitable process. The various patterns present in the garments must be adjusted to compensate for shrinkage during dyeing process. It has been suggested many times to make sample garments before initiating large scale production to determine the adjustments required in the patterns. Establishing dyeing procedures for each garments style, dye system and set- controls can help to address the variations in load, water volume, and temperature and cycle time. Garment to garment shade differences can be minimized with machine loads containing garments made from the same lot of fabric. Chafe marks / creases are, particularly, related to drum dyeing machines and in many circumstances, garments are turned inside out and dyed with non-foaming lubricants. Tendency to entangle can be reduced by tacking and eliminated by bagging the articles which in turn reduces the abrasion, wear and tear of interior metallic surface. Once formed, a crease may then remain throughout the finishing processes. They lead to unlevel treatment and dyeing effect and of irreparable surface damages to the goods from. Swollen cellulosic fibres are especially sensitive to mechanical friction, while thermoplastic synthetic fibres tend to form permanent creases. Fibre type (natural / thermoplastic) fabric construction (tightly woven crease prone), loading (higher loading-higher creases), addition of lubricant (special lubricants reduces friction) are some of the parameters that influence chafe marks. The majority of the problems in dyeing of garments are attributed to pretreatment of garment prior to dyeing, quality and type of materials used in the making of garments viz fabric construction, sewing thread, buttons, zippers, pocket lining etc., dyeing process and the machine used for dyeing. Problems related to electrolysis of ionic processing solutions resulting from galvanic action of bimetallic garment accessories have been discussed in the past. Anionic organic inhibitors are used to protect metal accessories such as button, zippers made of non-ferrous, white metals (non-aluminium) from oxidation and tarnishing. The relative merits and demerits of the garment processes have been well discussed in the past and include the following aspects.
  37. 37. Apparel wash, dyeing & Finishing(Final) Azmir Latif, MSc.Engr. (Textile) Page 37 of 43 Anti microbial Finishing VVI Q1.What is Anti microbial Finishing? AM means preventing or inhibits the growth of microorganisms or microbes. Antimicrobial finishing preventing or inhibits the growth of microorganisms or microbes of garment. Antimicrobials control, destroy or suppress the growth of microorganisms and their negative effects of odour, staining and deterioration. Antimicrobials do not all work the same. The vast majority of antimicrobials work by leaching or moving from the surface on which they are applied. This is the mechanism used by leaching antimicrobials to poison a microorganism. Such chemicals have been used for decades in agricultural applications with mixed results. Besides affecting durability and useful life, leaching technologies have the potential to cause a variety of other problems when used in garments. These include their negative effects because; they can contact the skin and potentially affect the normal skin bacteria, cross the skin barrier, and/or have the potential to cause rashes and other skin irritations. The consumers are now increasingly aware of the hygienic life style and there is a necessity and expectation for a wide range of textile products finished with antimicrobial properties. This kind of value adding finishes is the need of the hour. VVVI Q2. What is a microbe? A variety of micro organisms like bacteria, fungi, algae and viruses are available in our environment. Microbes are the tiniest creatures not seen by the naked eye. Bacteria are unicellular organisms, which grow very rapidly under warmth and moisture. Sub divisions in the bacteria family are Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus), Gram negative (E-Coli), spore bearing or non-spore bearing type. Some specific types of bacteria are pathogenic and cause cross infection. Microbes cause cross infection by microorganism and development odour where the apparel is worn next to skin. In addition, the staining and loss of the performance properties of textile substrates are the results of microbial attack. Different types of microbes: Fungi, molds or mildew are complex organisms with slow growth rate. They stain the apparel fabric and deteriorate the performance properties of the apparel fabrics. Algae are typical micro organisms, which are either fungal or bacterial. Algae require continuous sources of water and sunlight to grow and develop darker stains on the fabrics. Dust mites are eight legged creatures and occupy the household textiles such as blankets bed, pillows, mattresses and carpets. The dust mites feed on human skin cells and liberated waste products can cause allergic reactions and respiratory disorders. Sources of microbes In the air we breathe In the soil In our skin, bodies & everywhere
  38. 38. Apparel wash, dyeing & Finishing(Final) Azmir Latif, MSc.Engr. (Textile) Page 38 of 43 VVI Q3. Write the Objectives of AM Finishing? 1. Preventing cross infection by microorganism 2. Reducing the formation of odour by protecting metabolism of microbes 3. For safeguard of apparel and textile products from staining, discoloration and quality deterioration 4. Protecting performance of apparels 5. To control microorganisms 6.To reduce odour from perspiration, stains and other soil on textile material. 7. To reduce the risk of cross infection being carried by feet from ward to ward in hospital. 6. To control spread of disease and danger of infection following injury. 7. To control the deterioration of apparel particularly fabrics made from natural fibre caused by mildew. VVVI Q4. Listed some Antimicrobial Agents which is commonly used Anti microbial Finishing? Antimicrobials are protective agents that, being bacteriostatic, bactericidal, fungistatic and fungicidal, also offer special protection against the various forms of textile rotting. Here it is focused on some of important antibacterial agents that are used in textile finishing. Any chemical which kills microbial with the multiplication, growth or activity of Microbial is called Antimicrobial agent. There are many antimicrobial agents available in our market. Ciba markets Tinosan AM 110 as a durable antimicrobial agent for textiles made of polyester and polyamide fibres and their blends with cotton, wool or other fibres. Tinosan contains an active antimicrobial (2, 4, 4'-Trichloro-2' - hydroxyl-dipenylether) which behaves like a colorless disperse dye and can be exhausted at a very high exhaustion rate on to polyester and polyamide fibres when added to the dye bath. Clariant markets the Sanitised range of Sanitized AG, Switzerland for the hygienic finish of both natural and synthetic fibres. The branded Sanitised range function as a highly effective bacteriostatic and fungistatic finishes and can be applied to textile materials such as ladies hosiery and tights. Various chemistries are available, including, in no particular order:-  chitosan  silicone quats  copper  silver metal, nano, salts  zinc  titanium dioxide (nano)
  39. 39. Apparel wash, dyeing & Finishing(Final) Azmir Latif, MSc.Engr. (Textile) Page 39 of 43  triclosan  biguanidine  n-halamines( chlorine) VVI Q5.Write briefly Anti microbial Finishing Technique/ Method? The antimicrobial agents can be applied to the apparel and textile substrates by- 1. Exhaust 2. Pad-dry-cure 3. Coating 4. Spray and 5. Foam techniques The substances can also be applied by directly adding into the fibre spinning dope or can be applied during the dyeing and finishing operations. Method: Exhaust This is very common method. In this method the garment immerse into the bath. After applying the finishing agent exhaust the bath solution. This is batch process even then exhaustion of the chemical is low. Batch method is call Exhaust method. Because all of dyes & chemical in bath are drain & exhaust after dyeing so it is called exhaust method. Method: Padding-Drying-Curing The padding was carried out on the fabric with the following process variables:  Methods of treatment- Padding, Coating  Temperature- 100°c, 120°c,140°c,160°c  Concentrations of core material- 5%, 10%, 20% Applying Techniques of AM Finishes (1) Treating with resin coating on apparel surface, or (2) Cross-linking on apparel surface, or (3) Use of graft polymers, or co-polymerization (4) Chemical modification of the apparel fabric (5) Micro encapsulation of the antimicrobial agents with the fibre matrix. A variety of chemical finishes have been used to produce textiles with demonstrable antimicrobial properties. These products can be divided into two types based on the mode of attack on microbes.  One type consists of chemicals that can be considered to operate by a controlled- release mechanism.  The second type of antimicrobial finish consists of molecules that are chemically bound to fibre surfaces.

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