Permit Required Confined Spaces


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Permit Required Confined Spaces

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  2. 2. 29 CFR1910.146 CONFINED SPACE ENTRY
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  5. 5. Permit-Required Confined Space Entry 5
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  9. 9. What is a Confined Space? A space that:Is large enough and soconfigured that anemployee can enterbodily and perform work;Has limited or restrictedmeans of entry or exit;Is not designed forcontinuous humanoccupancy. 9
  10. 10. A space must meet all three of these criteria in order tobe classified as a confined space. 10
  11. 11. Examples of Confined Spaces:Tanks VaultsManholes PipesBoilers TrenchesFurnaces TunnelsSewers DuctsSilos BinsHoppers Pits 11
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  13. 13. Hoppers 13
  14. 14. Fuel Tanks 14
  15. 15. Process Tanks 15
  16. 16. Tanker trucks arealso confinedspaces 16
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  18. 18. Potential Hazards in Confined SpacesOxygen Toxic MaterialsDeficiency – Carbon Monoxide– <19.5% or – Hydrogen Sulfide >23.5% oxygen – Welding fumes concentration – CorrosivesCombustibles Electricity– Methane Mechanical– Hydrogen Hazards– Acetylene – Mixers– Propane – Crushers– Gasoline fumes 18
  19. 19. Hazards of Confined Spaces• Oxygen Deficient Atmospheres• Oxygen Enriched Atmospheres• Flammable Atmospheres• Toxic Atmospheres• Mechanical and Electrical Hazards• Temperature Extremes• Engulfment Hazards• Noise, Slick/Wet Surfaces, Falling Objects, rats and snakes. 19
  20. 20. Oxygen Deficient Atmospheres 19.5 % Minimum acceptable oxygen level. 15 - 19% Decreased ability to work strenuously.Impair coordination. Early symptoms. 12-14% Respiration increases. Poor judgment. 10-12% Respiration increases. Lips blue. 8-10% Mental failure. Fainting. Nausea Unconsciousness. Vomiting. 6-8% 8 minutes - fatal, 6 minutes – 50% fatal 4-5 minutes – possible recovery. 4-6% Coma in 40 seconds. 20 Death
  21. 21. Hazards of confined spacesOxygen Level23.5% Too much, oxygen enriched Safe Zone - Minimum for safe entry19.5% Impaired judgement &16% breathing Faulty judgement, rapid14% fatigue Difficult breathing, death in6% minutes 21 5b
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  24. 24. Oxygen Enriched Atmospheres•Oxygen level above 23.5%.•Causes flammable and combustible materials to burn violently when ignited.•Hair, clothing, materials, etc.•Oil soaked clothing and materials.•Never use pure oxygen to ventilate.•Never store or place compressed tanks in a confined space. 24
  25. 25. Flammable Atmospheres• 2 Critical Factors: – Oxygen content in the air. – Presence of a flammable gas, or vapor – Presence of dust (visibility of 5’ or less)• Proper air/gas mixture can lead to explosion• Typical Ignition Sources: – Sparking or electric tool. – Welding / cutting operations. – Smoking 25
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  27. 27. Flammable Atmospheres Non-flammable (Too “Rich”) Flammable Flammable RegionVAP Non-flammableO (Too “Lean”)R Temperature 27
  28. 28. Toxic Atmospheres• Product stored in a confined space: Gases released when cleaning. Materials absorbed into walls of confined space. Decomposition of materials in the confined space.• Work performed in a confined space: Welding, cutting, brazing, soldering. Painting, scraping, sanding, degreasing. Sealing, bonding, melting.• Areas adjacent to a confined space. 28
  29. 29. Hydrogen Sulfide• Decomposition of materials. Human waste.• Rotten egg odor at low concentrations.• Possibly no warning at high concentrations. PPM Effect Time 10 ppm Permissible Exposure Level 8 Hours 50 - 100 Mild Irritation - eyes, throat 1 Hour 200 - 300 Significant Irritation 1 Hour 500 -700 Unconsciousness, Death 1/2 - 1 Hour >1000 Unconsciousness, Death Minutes 29
  30. 30. Carbon Monoxide• Odorless, Colorless Gas.• Combustion By-Product.• Quickly collapse at high concentrations. PPM Effect Time 35 Permissible Exposure Level 8 Hours 200 Slight headache, discomfort 3 Hours 600 Headache, discomfort 1 Hour1000-2000 Confusion, nausea, headache 2 Hours1000-2000 Tendency to stagger 1 1/2 Hours1000-2000 Slight heart palpitation 30 Min.2000-2500 Unconsciousness 30 30 Min.
  31. 31. Engulfment Hazards•Loose, granular materials stored in bins and hoppers - grain, sand, coal, etc.•Crusting and bridging below a worker.•Flooding of confined space.•Water or sewage flow. 31
  32. 32. EngulfmentExamples of flowable solidsthat may present anengulfment hazard includegrain, sand, sawdust, gravel,and plastic pellets. 32
  33. 33. Confined Space Entry - HazardsSudden releases offluid solids, such as When torrential forcesgranulated salt, sugar, are suddenly released,or sand, liquids, and people may be struckdense gases can cause by moving objects , orengulfment of persons be pushed helplesslyinside underground downstream.tanks, or pits. 33
  34. 34. Other Hazards•Noise Amplified due to acoustics within the space. Damaged hearing, affect communication.•Slick / Wet Surfaces Slips and falls. Increased chance of electric shock.•Falling Objects Topside openings expose workers inside confined space to falling objects. 34
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  36. 36. Testing The Atmosphere•Verify presence of safe work atmosphere.•Test all areas of a confined space. – Top, Middle, Bottom•Methane is lighter than air.•Carbon Monoxide is the same as air.•Hydrogen Sulfide is heavier than air.•Oxygen Deficiency. 36
  37. 37. Test the AtmosphereIn this order:Check for Oxygen Content:– At least 19.5% and less than 23.5%Check for Combustibles:– Less than 10% of the LELCheck for Toxic Gasses:– Most commonly carbon monoxide (PEL <35 ppm)– or any other hazardous materials as determined by the use of the space. 37
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  39. 39. Ventilation•First option to correct problems.•Must be aware of hazards you are trying to correct in the confined space.•Air intake in a safe location to draw fresh air only.•Continuous ventilation whenever possible.•Retest the confined space before entry. 39
  40. 40. Ventilate the SpaceUse mechanical ventilation– Fans– Air hornsVentilate at the rate of atleast twenty (20) volumesper hour– Larger spaces require more ventilationMake sure air supply is notcontaminated– Ventilation air supply must be from fresh air uncontaminated with flammables, toxins, etc. 40
  41. 41. LESSON 3VENTILATING THE SPACE Use mechanical ventilation - such as fans or forced air blowers Make sure air supply is not contaminated - ventilation air supply must be from fresh air uncontaminated with flammables, toxins, etc.
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  44. 44. Examples of Positive Ventilation 44
  45. 45. Positive Ventilation System 45
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  47. 47. Remember, ventilation mustbe continuous during entry! 47
  48. 48. Other Control Techniques Inerting (Note: Inerting with a gas such as nitrogen or carbon dioxide will result in an oxygen deficient atmosphere) Flushing 48
  49. 49. Isolate the Space from all hazardsClose Valves – Double block & bleed, or – Blank flangeEmpty the Space – Depressurize, vent & drainLockout/Tagout Equipment – Electrical sources – Rotating/reciprocating parts – Hazardous materialsClean residue from the space49
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  51. 51. Isolation Lockout/Tagout Blinding/Blanking Double Block and Bleed 51
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  54. 54. Conduct a Tailboard BriefingEntire crew must attend– Attendants, entrants, entry supervisorReview hazards of entry and workReview PPEReview procedure for contactingrescue– verify rescue availableComplete permit 54
  55. 55. Complete Entry Permit Form Permit must be correctly and completely filled out prior to entry. Permit must be activated by Entry Supervisor’s signature to be valid. No entry is allowed without a valid permit. Permits are valid for up to 12 hours. When work is completed, permit and tailboard form should be returned to safety. Cancelled permits must be kept on file for at least one year. 55
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  57. 57. Test the AtmosphereIn this order:Check for Oxygen Content:– At least 19.5% and less than 23.5%Check for Combustibles:– Less than 10% of the LELCheck for Toxic Gasses:– Most commonly carbon monoxide (PEL <35 ppm)– or any other hazardous materials as determined by the use of the space. 57
  58. 58. NOTICE:Any time a limit isexceeded, no matter whatthe reason, all personnelshall immediately exit thespace, and no others shallenter until atmosphericconditions are returned tosafe levels.THERE ARE NO EXCEPTIONS TO THIS! 58
  59. 59. Atmosphere Testing Shall Be Performed:Prior to every entry when thespace is vacant;After a 10 minute ventilationperiod (if ventilation isnecessary);At least hourly for permit-required confined spaces.More frequently, if conditions orsuspicions warrant. 59
  60. 60. Enter the Space and Proceed with work:An attendant shall be posted nearthe entrance for the duration of thework. He shall be in constantcommunication with the entrantswhile the job is in progress.All entrants shall sign the sign inlog when entering the space andsign out when exiting.The attendant shall maintain thepermit and sign in log for theduration of the work. 60
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  62. 62. When the Job is Done:Remove all personnel, tools,and debris from the space.Sign off the log.Close the space.Cancel the permit.Review the job with the hostemployer (hazards, problems,other employers, etc.) 62
  63. 63. Confined Space PersonnelAuthorized EntrantAttendantEntry SupervisorRescueService Member
  64. 64. Confined Space PersonnelAuthorizedEntrant
  65. 65. Confined Space PersonnelAttendant
  66. 66. Confined Space Personnel
  67. 67. Confined Space PersonnelRescueServiceMember
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  69. 69. Rescue and Emergency procedures 69
  70. 70. Training 70
  71. 71. Entrant ResponsibilitiesTo assure that the space has beenadequately ventilated, isolated,emptied, or otherwise made safe forentry.To immediately exit a space, withoutquestion, upon word of the attendant,no matter what the reason.To follow all safety rules andprocedures that apply to the job.To be familiar with the work to beperformed and the procedures thatapply to the job.To use the appropriate PPE whenevernecessary. 71
  72. 72. Attendant An individual stationed outside one or more permit spaces who monitors the authorized entrants and performs all attendant’s duties assigned in the employer’s permit space program 72
  73. 73. Duties of Attendants Knowledge of the hazards of the space Aware of possible behavioral effects of hazard exposure in authorized entrants Continuously maintains an accurate count of authorized entrants 73
  74. 74. Duties of AttendantsRemains outside the space during operations until relieved by another attendantCommunicates with authorized entrantsMonitors activities inside and outside the space 74
  75. 75. Duties of Attendants Summons rescue and other emergency services Performs non-entry rescues as specified by the employers rescue procedure Performs NO duties that might interfere with monitoring and protecting the entrants 75
  76. 76. Supervisor Responsibilities To assure adequate protection is provided to the entrants by verifying adequate lockout/tagout and that all hazards are securely isolated. To support the attendant’s authority in controlling access to a confined space. To verify that all personnel have exited prior to closing the space. To assure that all personnel involved are aware of the hazards associated with the space. To assure that rescue services are available prior to entry. 76
  77. 77. Rescue Operations 77
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  80. 80. Confined Space EntryMeans of emergency rescuemust be readily availableto the confined spaceentry attendant foremergencyextrication ofentrants. 80
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