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Confined space Detailed Training For Entrants.

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Confined Space Training Basic Module.
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Confined space Detailed Training For Entrants.

  1. 1. CONFINED SPACE ENTRY Rev-01 Date: 28.04.2011
  2. 2. CONFINED SPACE ENTRY COURSE OBJECTIVE • To Understand what is confined space • • • • Definition of confined spaces Assessment of the risk of confined spaces Operating procedures in a confined space Need for PTW and attachment of certificates. Rev-01 Date: 28.04.2011
  3. 3. CONFINED SPACE ENTRY What is a Confined Space? A Space that: • Is large enough to enter bodily and perform work; • Has limited or restricted means of entry or exit; • Is not designed for continuous human occupancy. Rev-01 Date: 28.04.2011
  4. 4. CONFINED SPACE ENTRY Examples of Confined Spaces Confined/Enclosed space may include: • Tanks • Manholes • Furnaces • Silos • Cellar Rev-01 Date: 28.04.2011
  5. 5. CONFINED SPACE ENTRY Confined Space Examples Continued • • • • • • • Vaults Pipes Trenches Tunnels Ducts Bins Pits Rev-01 Date: 28.04.2011
  6. 6. CONFINED SPACE ENTRY
  7. 7. CONFINED SPACE ENTRY Rev-01 Date: 28.04.2011
  8. 8. CONFINED SPACE ENTRY What are the Hazards in a Confined Space? • Explosive atmosphere • • • • • • • • Toxic atmosphere Engulfment Asphyxiation/Suffocation Slips and fall Chemical exposure Extreme temperature Thermal / Chemical burns Noise and vibration Rev-01 Date: 28.04.2011
  9. 9. CONFINED SPACE ENTRY Confined Space Hazards Continued: • Electricity/Mechanical hazards: Mixers Crushers Underground Electrical cables • Others: Scorpions Snakes etc. Rev-01 Date: 28.04.2011
  10. 10. CONFINED SPACE ENTRY Symptoms of Oxygen Deficient Atmosphere • The air we normally breathe contains 21% oxygen. Oxygen Deficient” atmosphere contains less than 19.5% oxygen. Here are warning symptoms to let you know you are in an oxygen deficient atmosphere: 19.5 % Minimum acceptable oxygen level. – 15 - 19% Decreased ability to work strenuously, impaired judgment and coordination – 12-14% Breathing difficulty. impaired judgment and coordination – 10-12% Respiration increases. Lips blue. – 8-10% Mental failure. Fainting. Nausea Unconsciousness. – 4-6% Coma in 40 seconds and fatal death. – Rev-01 Date: 28.04.2011
  11. 11. CONFINED SPACE ENTRY • • • • • Oxygen Enriched Atmosphere Oxygen level above 21%. Causes flammable and combustible materials to burn violently when ignited. Hair, clothing, materials, etc. Oil soaked clothing and materials. Never use pure oxygen to ventilate. Never store or place compressed tanks in a confined space. Rev-01 Date: 28.04.2011 23.5% Oxygen
  12. 12. CONFINED SPACE ENTRY Toxic Atmosphere • “A “Toxic” atmosphere is an atmosphere that has toxic gases present such as, Hydrogen Sulphide, Carbon Monoxide, Carbon Dioxide, Benzene, Lead or Chromate compounds, etc.. • An atmosphere that exceeds the Permissible Exposure Level (PEL) for any substance • presenting a threat of causing injury, acute illness or death due to the presence of flammable, toxic or otherwise injurious or incapacitating substances. Rev-01 Date: 28.04.2011
  13. 13. CONFINED SPACE ENTRY Flammable / Explosive Atmospheres • Critical Factors: – Petrol vapor between 1.4 % LEL to 7.6 % UEL with 92.4%- 98.6% air will result in explosion in the presence of an ignition source. – Between 5.o% LEL to 15.0% UEL of methane with 02 will result in an explosion in the presence of an ignition source Rev-01 Date: 28.04.2011
  14. 14. CONFINED SPACE ENTRY Flammable / Explosive Atmospheres Continued: – The Presence of explosive dust , gas vapor or flammable vapor will lead to fire Or explosion in the presence of the following : – electrical spark or – welding and cutting and grinding operations – Smoking Rev-01 Date: 28.04.2011
  15. 15. CONFINED SPACE ENTRY • • • • • • Temperature Extremes Extremely hot or cold temperatures. Steam cleaning of confined spaces. Humidity factors. Extremely cold liquids. Work processes inside the confined space can increase temperature extremes. Personal protective equipment. Rev-01 Date: 28.04.2011
  16. 16. CONFINED SPACE ENTRY Other Hazards • Noise • Amplified due to acoustics within the space. • Damaged hearing, affect communication. • Surfaces • Slick / Wet, Slips and falls. • Increased chance of electric shock. • Falling Objects • Topside opening exposes workers inside confined space to falling objects. Rev-01 Date: 28.04.2011
  17. 17. CONFINED SPACE ENTRY Permit Entry Systems • Written permit signed by entry supervisor. • Verifies pre-entry precautions have been taken and the space is safe to enter. • Post at entry to confined space appropriate warning signs. • Specifies apparent hazards and corrective actions taken prior to entry. • Requires termination of permit when task is completed or when new conditions exist. Rev-01 Date: 28.04.2011
  18. 18. CONFINED SPACE ENTRY Entry Permit Requirements • Date, location, and name of confined space. • Purpose of entry and known hazards. • Duration of entry permit time. • Authorized entrants, attendants, supervisors. • Air testing results - signature of tester. Rev-01 Date: 28.04.2011
  19. 19. CONFINED SPACE ENTRY Entry Permit Requirements Continued: • Protective measures to be taken. • Ventilation, Isolation, Flushing • Lockout / Tag out, Purging • Rescue Emergency plan. Rev-01 Date: 28.04.2011
  20. 20. CONFINED SPACE ENTRY Two options for Entering Confined Space • Permit-required confined space entry – For hazardous or potentially hazardous confined space work Rev-01 Date: 28.04.2011 • Non-permit confined space entry – For nonhazardous confined space work
  21. 21. CONFINED SPACE ENTRY A Permit required Confined Space Has one or more of the following characteristics: • Contains or has the potential to contain hazardous/explosive atmospheres; • Contains materials that have the potential to engulf an entrant; • Has an internal configuration such that an entrant could become trapped or asphyxiated; or • Contains any other serious safety or health hazards. Rev-01 Date: 28.04.2011
  22. 22. CONFINED SPACE ENTRY A Non-Permit required Confined Space Does not contain hazardous atmospheres, or have the potential to contain any hazard capable of causing serious physical harm, injury or death such as: •Flammable / Explosive atmosphere • Toxic atmosphere • Oxygen deficient atmosphere • Oxygen enriched atmosphere • Mechanical or electrical hazards and others Rev-01 Date: 28.04.2011
  23. 23. CONFINED SPACE ENTRY A Permit confined space can be changed to a Non-permit confined space! Rev-01 Date: 28.04.2011
  24. 24. CONFINED SPACE ENTRY Permit Required Confined Space Entry Procedure • Isolate the space • Ventilate the space • Conduct Toolbox-Meeting • Complete permit • • Test the atmosphere • Post signs to alert employees Rev-01 Date: 28.04.2011
  25. 25. CONFINED SPACE ENTRY Permit Required Confined Space Entry Procedure Continued • Use barriers to keep unauthorized persons out of confined spaces. • Illuminate the space. • Establish communication • Enter the space Rev-01 Date: 28.04.2011
  26. 26. CONFINED SPACE ENTRY • • • • • • • Isolation Locking and tagging out electrical or mechanical sources. Shutting off a flow line Blanking and bleeding pneumatic and hydraulic lines. Disconnecting mechanical drives and shafts. Securing mechanical parts. Blanking sewer and water flow. Locking and tagging out shutoff valves. Rev-01 Date: 28.04.2011
  27. 27. CONFINED SPACE ENTRY Ventilate • Use mechanical ventilation if required such as: Fans and air horns for shallow confined spaces • Make sure air supply is not contaminated and Ventilation air supply is from fresh air uncontaminated with flammables, toxins, etc. • Use Artificial Respiratory Equipment for deep subsurface confined spaces Rev-01 Date: 28.04.2011
  28. 28. CONFINED SPACE ENTRY • • • • • • • Test The Atmosphere Verify presence of safe work atmosphere. Test all areas of a confined space. Top, Middle, Bottom Methane is lighter than air. Carbon Monoxide is the same as air. Hydrogen Sulfide is heavier than air. Oxygen Deficiency. GOOD Air Poor Air Deadly Air Rev-01 Date: 28.04.2011
  29. 29. CONFINED SPACE ENTRY Entry Supervisor • The employee responsible for coordinating the entry into the confined space. • This must be a Supervisor ( Team Leader) or foreman. Rev-01 Date: 28.04.2011
  30. 30. CONFINED SPACE ENTRY Responsible Person • The person directly responsible for the work being performed in the confined space. • This can be the Team Leader, Foreman, journeyman, or other person qualified by training and experience. Rev-01 Date: 28.04.2011
  31. 31. CONFINED SPACE ENTRY Duties of Entry Supervisor • To assure adequate protection is provided to the entrants by verifying adequate lockout / tag out and that all hazards are securely isolated. • To support the attendant’s authority in controlling access of unauthorized persons to the confined space. • To verify that all personnel have exited prior to closing the space. • To assure that all personnel involved are aware of the hazards associated with the space. • To assure that rescue services are available prior to entry. Rev-01 Date: 28.04.2011
  32. 32. CONFINED SPACE ENTRY Duties of Safety Representative The safety representative tests the space for concentrations of known hazardous and harmful substances, such as: • hydrogen sulfide, • carbon monoxide, • flammable liquid or gas vapor is measured to determine it level Rev-01 Date: 28.04.2011
  33. 33. CONFINED SPACE ENTRY Entrant/Attendant Definitions • The entrant is the person who enters a confined space. • The attendant is the person who stays with the entrant outside the confined space, and is responsible for assisting the entrant in exiting the confined space, and calling for emergency assistance when required. Rev-01 Date: 28.04.2011
  34. 34. CONFINED SPACE ENTRY Attendant Responsibilities • To monitor entrants during the job and during entry & exit to help ensure their safety. • The attendant may not abandon his post for any reason while personnel are in the space unless relieved by another qualified attendant • To monitor atmospheric conditions in the space prior to and during entry. Rev-01 Date: 28.04.2011
  35. 35. CONFINED SPACE ENTRY Attendant Responsibilities • To control access to the confined space. • To summon emergency assistance as needed. • To assess hazards in and around the space, and take action on the same. • To keep records of confined space work, such as air test results, personnel entry/exit, etc. Rev-01 Date: 28.04.2011
  36. 36. CONFINED SPACE ENTRY Communication Methods • Sight • Verbal • Radio If the loss of communication occurs, personnel must exit the space immediately! Rev-01 Date: 28.04.2011
  37. 37. CONFINED SPACE ENTRY Personal Protective Equipment • • • • • Eye Fall Head Hearing Respiratory Rev-01 Date: 28.04.2011
  38. 38. CONFINED SPACE ENTRY Typical Example of PTW Rev-01 Date: 28.04.2011
  39. 39. CONFINED SPACE ENTRY Means Of Entry Rev-01 Date: 28.04.2011
  40. 40. CONFINED SPACE ENTRY Confined Space Means Of Entry • A means of entry must be provided for both safe normal entry or exit , and emergency extrication. • Tripods with hoist, lifeline, and full body harness are often used for emergency extrication. • • Ladders may be used for ordinary entry and exit. Rev-01 Date: 28.04.2011
  41. 41. CONFINED SPACE ENTRY Avoid these Common Confined Space Entry • Re-enter area after workMistakes is completed, without • • • • • • retesting air or wearing PPE. Workers thought they could hold their breath long enough Contaminated air supply to breathing device Air hoses longer than the maximum of 75 meters (250) feet Removing air mask inside the confined space because face piece fogged up Using cleaning solvent in areas without proper ventilation Disregarding call from the Attendant to leave the confined space. Rev-01 Date: 28.04.2011
  42. 42. CONFINED SPACE ENTRY Rescue & Resuscitation • Provision of suitable rescue and resuscitation equipment is necessary when Entrants are still working in the confined space. • Tripod – over 1.5m vertical dept with body safety harness. • Where such equipment are provided for use, training of rescuers in their correct operation is essential. Rev-01 Date: 28.04.2011
  43. 43. CONFINED SPACE ENTRY Rescuers should be capable of using any equipment provided, such as: • • • • • Breathing apparatus, Tripod / body safety harness Firefighting equipment. Rescuers also need to be protected against the cause of the emergency. It may be necessary to shut down adjacent plant before attempting emergency rescue. • First-aid procedures Trained first Aider need to be available to make proper use of any necessary first-aid equipment provided Rev-01 Date: 28.04.2011
  44. 44. CONFINED SPACE ENTRY When the Job is Done: • Remove all personnel, tools, and debris from the space. • Sign-off the log. • Close the space and/or make inaccessible. • Review the job done and cancel the permit Rev-01 Date: 28.04.2011
  45. 45. CONFINED SPACE ENTRY Don’t depend on luck! Test all confined spaces for hazards and complete all Permits before entry! It’s a matter of life and death! Rev-01 Date: 28.04.2011

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