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General Plan, Zoning And Entitlements

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General Plan, Zoning And Entitlements

  1. 1. Land Use Planning 101: Understanding the General Plan, Zoning and Entitlement Process Alexander P. Meyerhoff, AICP May 11, 2011 Department of Real Estate Development and Construction Management College of the Desert
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>General Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal basis of the General Plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandatory elements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Zoning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Permitted uses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time, place and manner </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Land Use Entitlements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Getting your project approved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensitivity to adjacent uses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highest and best use </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. General Plan <ul><li>Legal and historic basis </li></ul><ul><li>Official policy of jurisdiction governing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Policy of Board of Supervisors/City Council </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Governing physical development of jurisdiction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Outlines quality of life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishes the vision of a community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals and Objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aspirational document </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. General Plan <ul><li>Planning in antiquity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Map of Piraeus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Port of Athens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grid plan of city </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. General Plan <ul><li>Modern Planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Garden City concept </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ebenezer Howard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British Land Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>llustrates urban growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1902 </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>California’s Mandatory General Plan Elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Land Use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Circulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Housing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Noise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conservation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Optional Elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic Development, Design, Preservation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>www.opr.ca.gov </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. General Plans and Sustainability: Source: California Sustainability Alliance: http://sustainca.org/tools/green_general_plan_toolkit/ggp_introduction
  8. 9. Zoning: Legal basis <ul><li>A Standard City Planning Enabling Act (SCPEA), was released, and a final version was published in 1928. The SCPEA covered six subjects: </li></ul><ul><li>the organization and power of the planning commission, which was directed to prepare and adopt a &quot;master plan&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>the content of the master plan for the physical development of the territory </li></ul><ul><li>provision for adoption of a master street plan by the governing body </li></ul><ul><li>provision for approval of all public improvements by the planning commission </li></ul><ul><li>control of private subdivision of land </li></ul><ul><li>provision for the establishment of a regional planning commission and a regional plan </li></ul>
  9. 11. Zoning <ul><li>Regulates land use, time, place and manner </li></ul><ul><li>Establishes land use districts “zones”, including residential, commercial, industrial, opens space </li></ul><ul><li>Establishes development standards </li></ul><ul><li>Scale, density and intensity of land use </li></ul><ul><li>Performance zoning/Transect planning </li></ul>
  10. 12. Zoning <ul><li>Establishes land uses for each zone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Permitted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conditional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prohibited </li></ul></ul>
  11. 13. Zoning <ul><li>Regulates Land Uses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Residential: R1, R2, R3, R4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial: C1, C2, C3, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial: BP, M1, M2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public/Inst.: Hospitals, Schools, Libraries, Courts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conservation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed Use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other: Transportation, Airport, Highways </li></ul></ul>
  12. 14. Zoning <ul><li>Development Standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Setbacks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Density (Dwelling units per acre) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Floor Area Ratio (Building area to lot size) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building Height </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lot Coverage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationship to adjacent development </li></ul></ul>
  13. 15. Zoning <ul><li>Performance Zoning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulate form of development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less emphasis on land use </li></ul></ul>
  14. 16. Zoning <ul><li>Smart Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Transect Planning </li></ul>
  15. 17. Zoning: Illustration of Principals
  16. 18. Entitlements <ul><li>An entitlement broadly speaking is any kind of permission to use or develop land from a regulatory body or authority-grantor. </li></ul>
  17. 19. Entitlements <ul><li>Some projects require multiple approvals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subdivision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Architectural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Land Use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific Plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development Agreement </li></ul></ul>
  18. 20. Entitlements <ul><li>Subdivision </li></ul><ul><li>Two part approval process </li></ul><ul><li>Tentative and Final Map </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parcel Map </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Residential (<5 lots), Commercial, Industrial </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tract Map </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Residential (5 lots or more) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vesting Map </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Locks in approvals, increased improvements requirements </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 21. Entitlements <ul><li>Architectural Review: Aesthetic impacts of design </li></ul><ul><li>Often governed by Arch Review Board </li></ul><ul><li>Governs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Massing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building height </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suitability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Color and Materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relation to adjacent to development </li></ul></ul>
  20. 22. Entitlements <ul><li>Land Use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Permitted or Conditional Use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temporary Use Permit: Special event </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Land Use Permit: Outdoor dining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conditional Use Permit: Nightclubs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific Plan: Large Scale, Mixed Use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phasing Plan: Project occurs over time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development Agreement: </li></ul></ul>
  21. 23. Entitlements <ul><li>Temporary Use Permit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Special events: Greek Festival </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulate hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Music, dancing and allowable noise levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food and alcohol </li></ul></ul>
  22. 24. Entitlements <ul><li>Land Use Permit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outdoor dining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structures within public right of way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time, Place and manner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Duration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fencing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Number of seats for outdoor dining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include remedies for solving disputes </li></ul></ul>
  23. 25. Entitlements <ul><li>Conditional Use Permit </li></ul><ul><li>A mechanism that allows the local government the ability to permit specific uses otherwise not allowed, as long as the land owner or business owner meets certain conditions. </li></ul>
  24. 26. Entitlements <ul><li>Specific Plan (Govt. Code 65450) </li></ul><ul><li>Development standards for a certain area </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure and tools for implementation </li></ul><ul><li>A tool for flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiated or contract zoning </li></ul><ul><li>Master Planned Developments </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple Owner properties </li></ul><ul><li>Problem Areas </li></ul>
  25. 27. Entitlements <ul><li>Development Agreement </li></ul><ul><li>Contract between agency and geveloper, which may specify regulations, conditions, terms and restrictions pertaining to all aspects of a development. </li></ul><ul><li>Includes role of each </li></ul><ul><li>Developer responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>City responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits/Improvements </li></ul><ul><li>Allowed uses </li></ul><ul><li>May lock in development fees/permit fees </li></ul><ul><li>Duration </li></ul>
  26. 28. Entitlement <ul><li>California Environmental Quality Act: </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental review process </li></ul><ul><li>Likelihood of a project to impact the env </li></ul>
  27. 29. Entitlement <ul><li>CEQA </li></ul>
  28. 30. Transparent Decision Making
  29. 31. Entitlement Process
  30. 33. Other Resources <ul><li>California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Review the time limitations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand the various exemptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In-fill, Small project, Existing development, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Subdivision Map Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time limits for processing applications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Permit Streamlining Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Permit Streamlining Act (§65920 et. seq) requires public agencies (including charter cities per §65921) to follow standardized time limits and procedures for specified types of land use decisions. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 34. California Environmental Quality Act <ul><li>CEQA </li></ul><ul><li>Most hotly debated topic in planning law </li></ul><ul><li>Single issue law: environmental protection </li></ul><ul><li>Treats each property uniquely </li></ul><ul><li>Pubic confusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Between impacts and project merits </li></ul></ul>
  32. 35. CEQA <ul><li>Role of CEQA </li></ul><ul><li>Inform decision makers </li></ul><ul><li>Identify was damage can be avoided </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent avoidable environmental damage </li></ul><ul><li>Public disclosure of approval process </li></ul>
  33. 36. CEQA <ul><li>Three Step Process </li></ul><ul><li>Step I: Is the action a “Project”? </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2: The Initial Study </li></ul><ul><li>Step 3: The Environmental Impact Report </li></ul>
  34. 37. <ul><li>Step 1: Is the action a “Project”? </li></ul><ul><li>A discretionary action involving the physical environment is a “Project” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grading permits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ministerial Action are Exempt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Building Permit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>List of Exemptions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small buildings, infill development, </li></ul></ul>
  35. 38. CEQA <ul><li>Step 2: Initial Study </li></ul><ul><li>Sixteen areas of study </li></ul><ul><li>Thresholds of significance </li></ul><ul><li>California has not established thresholds </li></ul><ul><li>Determination is left to local governments </li></ul>
  36. 39. CEQA <ul><li>Topical areas </li></ul><ul><li>Land use and General plan </li></ul><ul><li>Air Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Circulation </li></ul><ul><li>Aesthetic impacts </li></ul><ul><li>Biological resources and habitat </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural, archeological resources </li></ul><ul><li>Displace human populations </li></ul><ul><li>Noise </li></ul>
  37. 40. CEQA <ul><li>Negative Declaration: No significant impacts </li></ul><ul><li>Mitigated Negative Declaration: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential impacts can be mitigated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To a level of less than significant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environmental Impact Report </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Project may have a significant impact </li></ul></ul>
  38. 41. CEQA <ul><li>Environmental Impact Report </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Project EIR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General Plan EIRs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Program EIR and tiering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Series of related actions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tiering large project over a long period of time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provides more information earlier in the process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Additions, supplements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Project evolves, corrections </li></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 42. CEQA <ul><li>EIR Contents </li></ul><ul><li>Table of Contents </li></ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul><ul><li>Significant environmental effects </li></ul><ul><li>Unavoidable effects </li></ul><ul><li>Significant irreversible environmental change </li></ul><ul><li>Alternatives to the project </li></ul><ul><li>Cumulative impacts in combinations with other </li></ul><ul><li>Growth including impacts </li></ul><ul><li>Mitigation measures </li></ul><ul><li>Statement of overriding considerations </li></ul>
  40. 43. CEQA (1)
  41. 45. Permit Streamlining Act (§65950) <ul><li>An agency has 30 calendar days to notify the applicant, in writing, of whether or not the project application is complete enough for processing. </li></ul><ul><li>The resubmittal of the application begins a new 30 - day review period. If the agency fails to notify the applicant of completeness within either of the 30-day periods, the application is deemed to be complete (§65943; Orsi v. City Council (1990) 219 Cal. App. 3d 1576). </li></ul><ul><li>If rejected as incomplete a second time, the applicant may appeal the decision to jurisdiction's hearing body who must make a final written determination within 60 calendar days . Again, failure to meet this time period constitutes acceptance of the application as complete. </li></ul>
  42. 46. CEQA and the Permit Streamlining Act <ul><li>When an EIR is certified for a project, the public agency shall approve or deny the project within 180 days from the date of certification. </li></ul><ul><li>When a project is found to be exempt from CEQA or a negative declaration is adopted for a project, the public agency shall approve or deny the project within 60 days from the date of the determination or adoption (§65950 and Public Resources Code §21151.5). </li></ul><ul><li>If no action is taken within the allotted time, the project may be deemed approved by action of the Act. </li></ul>
  43. 47. Questions? Alex Meyerhoff, AICP Director of Development Services Escalante Architects and Planners 121 S. Palm Canyon Drive Suite 222 Palm Springs, Ca 92262 [email_address]

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